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International Journal of Innovation and Applied Studies
ISSN: 2028-9324     CODEN: IJIABO     OCLC Number: 828807274     ZDB-ID: 2703985-7
 
 
Saturday 25 May 2019

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Fingernails are the Best Indicator Sample for Biomonitoring


Volume 5, Issue 2, February 2014, Pages 94–101

 Fingernails are the Best Indicator Sample for Biomonitoring

G. Nagaraj Nagaraj1, A. Sukumar2, and K. S. Lokesh3

1 Zoology Section, Regional Institute of Education, National Council of Educational Research and Training, Mysore- 570 006, Karnataka, India
2 Zoology Section, Regional Institute of Education, National Council of Educational Research and Training, Mysore- 570 006, Karnataka, India
3 Department of Environmental Engineering, Sri Jayachamarajendra College of Engineering, Mysore- 570 006, Karnataka, India

Original language: English

Received 9 October 2013

Copyright © 2014 ISSR Journals. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract


To find out the best indicator sample for biomonitoring, whole-blood, urine, scalp hair, fingernail and tooth samples were collected randomly from volunteers of Mysore city and surrounding villages. These subjects (rural or urban) were grouped into two subgroups depending upon their personal/lifestyle factors namely, sex, occupation, food habit, drinking water source, alcohol consumption, betel and nut chewing, sugar level, blood, insulin treatment, economic status and cooking utensils used. The concentrations of Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn in whole blood, urine, scalp hair and fingernail were determined with the use of ICP-AES and levels of Cr, Cu, Fe, Ni, Pb and Zn were measured in tooth samples with AAS. Mean element concentration for each subgroup in each sample was calculated and the difference in mean value between subgroups was tested for its significance. Significantly differing element levels in each sample shows the influence of personal factors; in other words each sample indicate the effect of various lifestyle factor. Overall comparison was made for suitability of samples for biomonitoring and it is concluded that the sum total number of varied elements in all the influencing factors were higher in fingernails and it reveals that the fingernails are ideal, suitable and recommended indicator sample for biological monitoring of element status among general, occupationally exposed and ill-health subjects.

Author Keywords: Element concentration, lifestyle factors, subgroups, influence, comparison.


How to Cite this Article


G. Nagaraj Nagaraj, A. Sukumar, and K. S. Lokesh, “Fingernails are the Best Indicator Sample for Biomonitoring,” International Journal of Innovation and Applied Studies, vol. 5, no. 2, pp. 94–101, February 2014.