International Journal of Innovation and Applied Studies
ISSN: 2028-9324     CODEN: IJIABO     OCLC Number: 828807274     ZDB-ID: 2703985-7
Thursday 22 August 2019






Custom Search


Connect with IJIAS

  Now IJIAS is indexed in EBSCO, ResearchGate, ProQuest, Chemical Abstracts Service, Index Copernicus, IET Inspec Direct, Ulrichs Web, Google Scholar, CAS Abstracts, J-Gate, UDL Library, CiteSeerX, WorldCat, Scirus, Research Bible and getCited, etc.  

Why many children are still out of school?

Volume 16, Issue 3, June 2016, Pages 635–645

 Why many children are still out of school?

Janet Presnilla-Espada1

1 Professional Education Unit, Leyte Normal University, P. Paterno St. Tacloban City 6500, Philippines

Original language: English

Received 16 May 2016

Copyright © 2016 ISSR Journals. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


The main purpose of this paper was to present a causal mechanism that would explain the phenomenon behind dropout among primary students. Using a Time Series design, the study analysed a nine-year series of multivariate data using advanced methodological methods such as factorial analysis, regression analysis, anomalous detection and path analysis the study specifically tried to identify relationships among and the variables and determine which factors are directly or indirectly linked to dropout. Results of the analyses showed that child labor was the strongest determinant of dropout while indirect factors were primary completion, enrolment, employment and government expenditure. Although GDP was not found to be a strong factor it appeared to have a direct impact on the other variables that influenced dropout. This may therefore imply that low economy could be the unseen phantom behind dropout radiating to an array of other factors. Child labor may just be an outward manifestation of a serious economic problem which, if not resolved could lead more children to the periphery; joining the ranks of child labor instead of learning inside the classroom.

Author Keywords: Dropout, Child Labor, Unemployment, Primary Completion, Government, Expenditure, Enrolment, Multivariate Data Analysis.

How to Cite this Article

Janet Presnilla-Espada, “Why many children are still out of school?,” International Journal of Innovation and Applied Studies, vol. 16, no. 3, pp. 635–645, June 2016.