The purpose of the community service organizations such as banks is providing appropriate and consent services for the customer. Since the organizations, providing financial services and especially banks work in the environment with the non-discriminative products, the quality of service is known as the first competitive weapon. The aim of this study was done to identify affecting factors on the acidity of the Pasargad Bank TC Electronic Banking Services. In this context, a questionnaire based on SERVQUAL model (servqual) and in 6 sections and 24 questions was designed and the service quality gap was measured. Then, by using the Kano model and merge it with the SERVQUAL model more significant indicators of customer satisfaction were identified. The study population sample was constituted of the Pasargadae bank customers and volumes are selected. Obtained results from a sample of 184 people of this study indicate that the seven characteristics as the main reasons for the satisfaction of customers are involved.
Companies have been found to report positive information more quickly than they report negative information (i.e., good news early, bad news late). This research investigates the impact of audit opinion change on the timeliness of financial disclosures; with improvements in audit opinion considered to be good news and deteriorations in audit opinion is considered to be bad news. Both the direction and the magnitude of audit opinion change is considered, with magnitude measuring how far the opinion is from an unqualified opinion (i.e., an unqualified opinion with emphasis of matter paragraph is closer to an unqualified opinion than a qualified opinion is). Data of 103 firms listed in Tehran Stock Exchange from 2003 to 2013 were used. Findings reveal that firms experiencing an improvement in their audit opinions disclose their financial results earlier, while those with audit opinion deteriorations report their financial results later, and it is also found that the magnitude of audit opinion deterioration is related to delay but there is not significant relationship between the magnitude of audit opinion improvement and timeliness of disclosure.
The importance of considering the corporate social responsibility in today's global conditions and new business environments makes it necessary for the leaders and managers of large organizations and companies in the global market to establish a balance among social, economic, and environmental sectors of their business. The aim of this research is to evaluate the commitment of the top companies listed on TSE to corporate governance and social responsibility. In this regard, the performance of 92 companies listed on TSE during the years of 2002 through 2011 were measured, categorized by 10 industries, in three steps of optimization by meta-heuristic algorithms (AMH), social responsibility pattern by DEA method, and ranking corporate governance via G-Score approach. Then, top companies in each criterion were evaluated with their reassigned codes by mean comparison test in SPSS. The results indicate the significant relationship among the companies with the top rank in each index.
The social responsibility tends to something beyond the primary tasks of enterprise and in fact upgrading the corporate behavior level to a situation that is consistent and coordinated with benefits of environment and community where in light of this factor on the one hand it causes coordination in economic interests with environment and on the other hand it leads to growth and stability of businesses of enterprises. The present investigation is intended to examine making effort for social responsibility in political and non- political companies. The period of researching studies is related to career (2002-2011) with statistical sample including 92 enterprises. This research has been carried out at three phases: (1- Measurement of social responsibility with DEA model; 2- Measurement of political and non- political companies by means of TOPSIS technique; and 3- Implementation of statistical tests). The given results have signified the difference among political and non- political enterprises in playing role of social responsibility.
In addition to being responsible for their owners, economic enterprises are required to fulfill their social responsibilities for public health as well. Social responsibility, on the one hand, leads to the consistency of economic benefits with environment and on the other hand, leads to the growth and sustainability of the company's business. The purpose of this study is to investigate the impact of social responsibility on corporate performance. The sample of the study consists of (92) companies that are active in the Stock Exchange during the period of (2002-2011). Designing a new pattern of social responsibility is done using DEA method and corporate performance measures include (return on assets, return on equity, real stock returns, Q-Tobin ratio, the market value of equity, economic value added, and cost of common stock). Models were tested using linear regression method in Eviews software. Results showed a significant relationship between social responsibility and corporate performance.
By giving priority to the customer interests and desires, the interests and goals of organization are considered and based on the customers, the long-term benefits of organization are provided. Based on the importance of the role of human resources, increasing empowerment of employees in organizations has received much attention. The present study considered both mechanic and organic approaches of empowerment and also evaluated their impact on customer-oriented behavior of great importance for current organizations namely service organizations. The present study is applied in terms of purpose and descriptive and correlation in terms of method. The study population is including 124 employees of educational services units of Medical Sciences University of Isfahan. Three questionnaires applied in the previous valid researches are distributed among 80 people. This study tested the reliability and validity by Cronbach's alpha coefficient and confirmatory factor analysis and in second order factor analysis, the model fitness was supported. The data were analyzed by descriptive and inference statistics techniques. The study hypotheses are investigated by regression and the impact of demographic variables on study variables was investigated by variance analysis test. The results showed the impact of organizational empowerment on customer-oriented behavior of employees and the lack of impact of psychological empowerment on customer-oriented behavior of employees. It was found that demographic factors had no significant impact on the views of respondents.
Investment in gold is one of the interesting ways of earning money in Iran. Therefore, access to gold price is a main factor for investors. In recent years, easy access to gold price has faced withsome restrictions because of its high volatility. There are numerous means of gold price prediction. Recently, artificial intelligence and Neural Network have attracted much attention among scientific communities due to their high accuracy in price prediction. In this paper, prices of Iranian Bahar-e-Azadi gold coin have been extracted in a period of one year.After identifying the effective factors, influence of each factor has been acquired. Afterwards,theprice of gold coin has been predicted with the Neural Network method and finally, the accuracy of this procedure has been obtained.
The relationship between revenue and government expenditure is an important subject in public economics especially for Iran country, which is suffering from persistent budget deficits. From point of view of theoretical studies, there are essentially four schools of thought on the direction of causation between government expenditure and revenue. The main purpose of this study is to investigate the Long and short Run relationship between government revenue and government expenditure in Iran Country covering data 1978- 2012 with using An Auto Regressive Distributive Lag (ARDL) Approach. The Iranian economy has been subject to a multitude of structural changes and regime shifts during the sample period. First, time series properties of the data are first analysed by Augmented Dickey-Fuller (ADF), Zivot-Andrews and Lee
Today, career orientation is an important factor in employees' career development. Identifying career orientation and individuals' propensity to select their careers are considered as necessary initiatives in planning job career. As a cognitive factor, self-efficacy can help employees and pave the ground for their success. Present research studies the impact of career orientation on employees' self-efficacy at Qom Governor-General Office. Research method is a survey-descriptive one. Factor analysis test and LISREL software are used to test research hypotheses. Statistical population consists of all 279 managers and staff of Qom Governor
The purpose of this paper is to investigate the relationship between Board composition and financial leverage of a company in which there is political connection. In this way, multilateral model of Topsis method and weighted multi-criteria model entropy index method is used to measure their political connection. In order to examine the research hypotheses, Regressions model and to estimate the models, Eviews software is applied. In this research, generally 109 companies are considered as samples about which all information is gained through analysis of stock data of Tehran's negotiable instruments organization during an eleven-year period (2001-2012). Findings of this research reveal there is no relationship between Board composition and financial leverage in companies with a great deal of political connection. In addition, there is no relationship between Board composition and financial leverage about companies in which there is little political connection. In fact, the results display that being political does not influence on the relationship between Board composition and financial leverage.
This research work targets to scrutinize the effect of using monetary policy related tools on the return of private banks stocks admitted in stock exchange with stress on the volume of liquidity, the rate of interest, and the amount of partnership bonds. The objective is to investigate the simultaneous effects of independent and control variables on dependent variables. Using panel data, testing the research hypotheses has been carried out through an analysis of multiple-regression. Generally, the results shown that there was a weak significant correlation between volume of liquidity and the amount of published partnership bonds and the return of the stocks of private banks admitted in stock market; meanwhile, the interest rate at an assurance level of 95% had a negative and significant correlation with the return of the stocks of private banks admitted in stock exchange.
Evidence suggests that mining projects include risk and this kind of business is complex and includes unpredictable costs and also in many cases, such as exploration evaluation, uncertainty of the mining engineering and economic uncertainty are affective. In this paper we use two scenarios for economic evaluation of project. First scenario investigates certainty of prices and operating costs and second scenario uncertainty of prices and costs. It is concluded that the mine evaluation suggests greater net present value when uncertainty is considered for both price and operating costs. The purpose of this study is investigated decision making in certain and uncertain situations. For investigate this subject binominal tree by DiverGen software and for calculating of present value of the project Excel software were used .results show that binominal tree is better device for decision making in uncertain situations.
considering the importance of financial markets and especially the stock market in financing support of companies, and the role and importance of volatility in the stock market, also the occurrence of numerous financial crises in the world economic environment and the probable impact of crises in the stock market, this research take the volatility modeling and its prediction, also the impact of financial crisis as the main issue on the stock market. So the research seeks to answer these questions to either return volatility Tehran Stock Exchange price index structure has been broken? And whether the prediction power of the GARCH models increase with regard to the structural? Therefore, using daily data of 05.01.2008 to 31.03.2014 and the ICSS algorithm First the days that the volatility pattern of structural failure have been round were identified. Then, to estimate the amount of the likely impact of the identified failure of the volatility pattern, on the number of virtual variable failure D 10
Since the political power ring is not clearly separable from the economic power ring, and the government's political support affects the economic role-making of companies, this study seeks to explore the effect of the political support of the government on the company's cash holding level. In addition, the intervening effect of the agency cost was examined. Political support means extensive relationship with companies and government. Maintaining extensive relationship with government over time leads to satisfaction and political support of the government. The time period of the research is during the years 2003-2012 .The sample consists of 98 companies. The research method is correlational. The "Least squares method" was used in order to test the hypotheses. The results suggest that there is a negative and significant relationship between political support and cash holding level .Furthermore, the effect of political support on the cash holding increases with the rise in agency cost and the negative relationship between political support for companies and cash holding is affected by high agency cost.
A necessity that is plays an important role in today's turbulent environment is e-commerce. E-commerce, despite being young has tremendous progress and especially recently, there has been more tendency in Iran. But on the other hand, since e-commerce is not tangible as traditional trade, one important requirement in the buying in e-commerce area is the concept of trust. Hence, this paper tries to investigate the relationship between trust and e-commerce that sometimes considered as a missing link in the e-commerce issues. This paper first discusses the concept of e-commerce and with a glance, explains the beginning of this type of e-commerce in Iran and examines the types and dimensions of trust. Then, the strategy of building customer trust and the importance of confidence in e-commerce was discusses. Building business to business trust and business to customer in e-commerce, the relationship based on mutual trust can be established and facilitate and expedite the process of e-commerce and its growth.
purpose of this research is to investigate the relationship between firms growth opportunities and firm size on changes ratio in retained earnings of listed companies in Tehran Stock Exchange. This study is a literature study and analysis - scientific, and is based on the analysis of panel data (panel data). In this study, the financial data of 101 companies listed in Tehran Stock Exchange during the period 2006 to 2011, has been reviewed (606 companies - the Year). To analyze the results of research, software Spss20, Eviews7, Minitab16 are used. in connection with the first hypothesis of research, we find that there is an inverse and significant relationship between company's growth opportunities and changes ratio in retained earnings ratio of companies. Finally, results of research in connection with the second hypotheses confirmation suggest that is a direct and significant relationship between firm size and with changes ratio in retained earnings of companies.
One of the most important and determinant factors in economic growth and glory is capital account and investment inside of economy and in its pursuant, there is the financial markets and its importance impress in economy efficiency and effectiveness. In sight of economists, capital account and investment are acting the main role inside economy, so attention and investigating to this importance could be very big step on growth and glory of economy. The financial market`s affects are appreciated in a time that, the capitals need to be managed and conducted, and in its pursuant they need to have economic efficiency. In permanent economic growth and economic development, we are dealing with several principles in the areas of financial markets that playing an important role in economic development by financial markets and being financial markets served up in industry, are known as the most important principles. By these describes, the financial market as itself is detected as the most influential factor in economy`s mature. The purpose of this essay is that, after providing useful information in plain language to the readers about financial markets, assess the relevance and impact of financial markets on how to grow and mature in economy.
This research is considering the relationship between internet service quality and using internet banking in branches of Sepah bank in Guilanprovince. Statisticalsociety of this research is customers of branches of Sepah bank in Guilan province that is unlimited. Statistical sample of this research was 384 people regarding Morgan table and unlimited society and sampling method of the research was simple random. Current research based on goal is applied and regarding method of data collection it is descriptive and correlation type. For determining validity of research variable content method and for reliability cronbach alpha correlation has been used. For data analysis firstly by using kolmogrov-smirnov test normality of data were considered. For testing hypothesis Pearson correlation has been used. The result of research showed that there is relationship between internet service quality and using internet banking. Also there is relationship between accessibility, certainty of implementation, responsibility, attraction of website with using internet banking.
The present research is seeking for finding the answer to these questions that is there a negative, significant dynamic conditional correlation between stock price return of the petrochemical companies registered in Tehran Stock Exchange and West Texas Intermediate crude oil price return? Is there a positive, significant dynamic conditional correlation between stock price return of the petrochemical companies registered in Tehran Stock Exchange and West Texas Intermediate crude oil price return? The correlation between West Texas Intermediate crude oil price with stock price of the petrochemical companies registered in Stock Exchange including Abadan Petrochemical Co, Arak Petrochemical, Isfahan Petrochemical, Khark Petrochemical, Farabi Petrochemical, Tabriz Oil Refining, Bandar E Abbas Oil refining and Isfahan Oil refining were studied, following the above mentioned questions were replied , through DCC method. According to research results, the petrochemical companies, in general, have negative, significant conditioned correlation with the crude oil price meaning the overflowing of crude oil price over petrochemical companies' stock price. Of the petrochemical companies' stock prices only Isfahan Petrochemical Co stock price was positively correlated with the crude oil global price; however, this positive estimated effect is not statistically significant. Thus, the first hypothesis of the conditioned negative correlation varying over time between stock prices of petrochemical companies registered in the stock exchange and the crude oil global price cannot be rejected. On the other hand, it is on the contrary to the refining companies registered in Tehran Stock Exchange such that the stock prices of all three refining companies are positively correlated with the crude oil global price. Its significance indicates the correlation variability overtime. It means that correlation is some days positive and some days negative; therefore, the median impact will be positive. However, the stock price of Tabriz refinery with the overflow symbol lacks any significant correlation; whereas, this correlation was positively estimated, too. Finally, according to research findings, research second hypothesis that there is a positive, significant relation between the refineries' stock prices and the crude oil global price cannot be rejected.
Real exchange rate is one of the factors as its deviation from the equilibrium values ,affect the performance of macro economical variables .In this paper the effect of real exchange rate misalignment on account of the balance of payments during the period 1976 to 2010 are examined. The model which was introduced in this article in order to estimate the misalignment of real exchange rate is the basic model of Edwards. The considered variables in this paper in order to determine the real exchange rate are; Oil incomes, government costs in the services department and buying the non-exchangeable goods, import tariffs, term of trade rate and index of depending on the degree of economic. The period in this study is from 1976 to 2010. Experimental results show that, among the variables affecting Misalignment, variable costs, the most significant impact on the real exchange rate and this variable can impact substantially on the deviation of the real exchange rate from its equilibrium value. The estimation results of Iran's balance of payments account model by the index of real exchange rate misalignment shows that this index had the negative effect on the balance of payments account and results into a deficient in this account.
Based on the facts, we compared models to reach a comprehensive theatrical background to analyze effectiveness of HR actions. Our results confirmed that constructs such as empowerment, competency developing, and information sharing and procedural justice impact directly and indirectly on HR actions. Finding showed that when HR actions are performed effectively, commitment of employees increases, leading to productivity level.
This paper investigates the short term and long term relation between Co2 emissions, electricity consumption and industrialization in case of Iran over the period 1980-2011. To estimate this relationship The Granger Causality Test, Johansen cointegration test and Vector Error Correction Model are applied. Granger Causality analysis indicates that in short-run there is a bilateral causal relationship between Co2 emissions and electricity consumption, and a bilateral causal relationship between Co2 emissions and industry value added. But Granger Causality analysis didn't show any causal relationship between the industry value added and electricity consumption variables. The effects of the electricity consumption and industrialization on Co2 emissions is positive in long-term.
Pars Special Economic Energy Zone in Bushehr province in general and Pars Energy In particular are important areas in Iran having a young population and desirable labor force. Accessing Open Waters and being adjacent to the Persian Gulf countries, Bushehr has strategically unique and special circumstances. In fact, inability to predict future and work culture creates a structural problem in the oil and gas field of our country. The importance of the current study is to prioritize these limitations. This study aims to identify and prioritize the barriers of investments in Pars Special Economic Energy Zone, lead and attract local and foreign investment in order to enhance economic development, and eliminate inequalities while conducting regional and national social justice. Therefore, the investment barriers were identified based on literature review. Also, the viewpoints of 25 top managers in Pars Special Energy Zone were prioritized using Fuzzy Hierarchy Analysis. The results indicate that among identified factors, political factor is of the first and foremost importance. Among the indicators proposed in the conceptual model research, sub
This research has studied effect of compulsory rotation of auditing institutes on quality of financial reporting in the companies listed in Tehran Stock Exchange. Main goal of the research was to answer this question that if there was significant relationship between compulsory rotation of auditing institutes and quality of financial reporting. To study quality of financial reporting, variables of distinction between declared and diagnostic tax, accounting estimations, deviation from laws, accounting mistakes and accounting procedures have been used as dependent variables. Statistical population including two sample groups with 50 companies as test group and 50 companies as control group was studied for 4 years during 2009-2012. The required data of the research includes difference discovery acceptance ratio before and after compulsory rotation of auditing institutes. Results of our research showed that rotation of auditing institutes had significant relationship with declared and diagnostic tax distinction and accounting mistakes and increased differences discovery acceptance ratio. But such relationship was not found between rotation of auditing institutes and accounting estimates discovery, deviation from laws and accounting procedures.
Monitoring and control over budgeting is inevitable in the management process of the country. An efficient control system, especially an intra-organization system can remarkably contribute to the implementation of social justice and economic development of the country. On the other hand, since budget is the vital channel and center of planning for every government and because all activities will not be carried out without financial resources, monitoring how the resources are spent and adjusting the costs with regulations are major factors in this control system. The Supreme Audit Court has taken an important measure in the development of the monitoring system and immediate audit of the state's financial information by launching an Electronic Monitoring System (EMC). This information system provides such conditions as creating unified procedures, using the capabilities of computer technology, increasing speed and accuracy, immediate access to comprehensive data, providing smart counseling, reducing the bulk of documents and appendixes, etc. in six domains of infrastructure, software databases, information security, formulation of working regulations, training and culture building, and provides the auditors with the ability to collect and analyze the required key data for strategic and operational decisions. This electronic monitoring system creates less ambiguity in the input data and can play an active role in continuous monitoring.
In spite of the strengthening regulation of ethical conduct and numerous studies in relation with auditors, some factors can affect them in ethical dilemma situation. This study attempted to find the most important terms in dealing with auditor's judgment. The researches on the past studies documented that the most scandals on auditing irregularities was happened because of auditors' unethical behaviors. In addition, previous studies are showed that the understanding of ethical code of conduct and also audit standards is related to make decision by auditors. Consequently, ethics was founded as one important significant factor in process of auditor's judgment on financial statements. The main objective of this research is to investigate the effects of ethics and the code of conduct on auditor's judgments on material misstatements into financial statements. Data are collected from 321 mangers, partners and authoritative auditors among Iranian audit firms. The results of SEM indicate amazing ranking of ethics and code of conduct among Iranian auditors and they significantly affect judgment of these respondents.
Economic growth along with inflation and unemployment are the main topics discussed in macroeconomics. Achieving a suitable economic growth rate and permanent development are among the most important duties and goals of managers, economists, policy makers and etc. Observing that banks are capable of attracting people's small or great savings which are generally still by absorbing types of deposit also, are capable of using these aggregated resources in productive economic sections and accelerating economic growth process therefore, investigating the relation of banks' endowed credits with economic growth has a particular importance. The present study investigates and evaluates the effect of endowed credits of specialized banks and economic growth in Iran using the data of time series, work force mass, endowed credit mass of specialized banks and, real gross domestic product (GDP) mass during 1997 to 2012. Specification model used for analyzing data in this study is Auto Regressive Distributed Lag (ARDL) method as GDP is a function of endowed credit mass of banks as the substitute of capital and work force in Iran. Results of this study show that endowed credits of specialized banks in Iran has the potential of affecting economic growth in long term and short term but its relation with economic growth in long term is more effective and strong. Results of experimental tests show that these variables satisfy the economic prerequisite also; all of the variables in long term and short term are statistically meaningful and the considered pattern for investigating the relationship between the variables is also constant and convergent.
The purpose of this study is to empirically examine the role of intellectual capital in creating investment opportunity set (IOS) in an advanced technology setting using a sample of 138 Malaysian listed manufacturing companies during the 2006-2011 period. Value Added Intellectual ?Coefficient (VAIC
This paper aims to study and investigate the relationship of earnings management detection through changes in the profit margin and asset turnover ratio. It is applied based on the objective and its statistical population includes the investment companies listed on the Stock Exchange during 2007 until the end of financial year 2012. According to the main result of this study, there is a significant inverse relationship between the dependent variable (aggregate accruals) and changes in profit margins. In other words, by increasing the aggregate accruals, the changes in profit margins will decline, and vice versa. The dependent variable (aggregate accruals) has a direct and significant relationship with the changes in the asset turnover ratio. This means that as the result of the increase in the aggregate accruals, the changes in profit margins will raise, and vice versa. Calculations indicate a one unit increase in the amount of profit margin variable reduces the aggregate accruals to -1.09E+10. Furthermore, a one unit increase in the asset turnover variable leads to the enhanced aggregate accruals to 8331.777.
The aim of the study is to explore the effect of firm size and quality of disclosure on the cost of common stock. The cost of common stock as dependent variable, quality of disclosure and firm size as independent variables, financial leverage and book value to market value, and systematic risk as control variables have been reviewed. The time span of the study was a ten year course starting from 2003 to 2012, and selected sample consisted of 1090 year-firm. The research method is a correlational descriptive method, and a multivariate regression method was used to test hypothesis. Results indicated that there is a significant negative relationship between firm size and cost of common stock as well as between quality of disclosure and cost of common stock.