In order to describe the epidemiological profile of trauma victims of road traffic accidents and to determine the risk factors associated with severity of road accidents, a descriptive cross-sectional study was carried out in the pediatric surgical emergencies department of Children's hospital in Rabat, Morocco. During 2010, the clinical and epidemiological data of 163 patients was gathered from the admission records and then analyzed. The males represented the 67% of all the victims. The days in which recorded the maximum of cases were the working days (645%). Eighty eight percent of the cases occurred within the urban perimeter and the majority (78%) of the victims belonged to that perimeter. The head injuries were the most frequent injury (51.5%), followed by lesions of the lower limbs (47.2%). As for the degree of severity, the children mainly presented moderate lesions (26.8%). The transportation of the victims to the hospital was provided by the families themselves in 43.6% of the times; 28.8% by the public ambulance and 11% of the times by Civil Protection Department. The delay of reaching the pediatric surgical emergencies department of Children's Hospital in Rabat remained under the mark of one hour for 34.1% of the patients. The outcome was favorable in 92% for cases without sequel and 8% for cases with sequel.
This study describes a lab in which students engaged in inquiry in classical genetics in order to develop a better understanding of the concepts and reasoning skills necessary to support knowledge claims about genetics. The simulation program called Drosofly can be used to foster about the conceptual knowledge used by university students when investigating the genetic's determinism of traits in drosophila. An analysis of the procedural knowledge for experimenting with the computer model is provided. The results of this case study provide a model of how Drosofly can be used to engage students in a complex problem-solving experience that encourages their meta-cognitive reflection and understanding about laws of the genetics. Implications for teaching are provided and ways to improve student learning and problem solving in classical genetics are suggested.
In developing countries, the situation of the management and disposal of solid waste is critical and tends sometimes to deteriorate in a context of growing urbanization. In the absence of adequate resources, the valorisation of waste is scarcely implemented. Waste treatment remains problematic and results in the proliferation of illegal dumping subject to either an uncontrolled landfill or open burning. Throughout the Comoros and especially in large cities, despite a clear desire of national authorities, the household waste management remains a major problem and led the country to an unhealthy situation of extreme gravity. It was revealed that a series of failures related to the lack of financial resources and adequate budget, materials and techniques, waste management skills and awareness of the populations and the institutional and legal obstacles, largely explain the inefficiency of the system currently implemented in the Comoros. The study proposed in this paper is part of a contribution to improve the management of household waste in the Comoros, and has as objective, to perform an inventory of the management of solid household waste in Comoros and improve the current management system. Starting from a review of the literature and based on experiences and international models on the subject, this study provides institutional, legal, regulatory, technical and financial approaches to achieve effective and sustainable management of household waste solid Comoros.
This study attempts to add to the small body of existing literature relating Chief executive officer characteristics to earnings management. Our research was carried out on 153 French listed companies during 2008. Using discretionary accruals as a proxy for earnings management, we found a significant positive relationship between CEO characteristics and earnings management. This suggests that since reputed CEOs are well compensated, they are more afraid to lose thier compensation level, and their incentive to manipulate their firm's earnings therefore increases. Findings also indicate that the dual CEO-chair relationship encourages CEOs to manage earnings, particularly when CEO-chairs hold the major proportion of equity in the firm. This finding suggests that CEO-chairs use their managerial power and the freedom from control to extract private yields. Finally, we present new on the relationship between CEO expertise and earnings management, showing that expertise positively affects CEO's behavior leading to their using agressive earnings management.
The present study was initiated to evaluate the factors influencing the profitability of the crop of okra in soil and climatic conditions and socio-economic Lubumbashi. The culture was installed in the actual conditions at the farm Kasapa the University of Lubumbashi on an area of one hectare. The observed agronomic parameters include the rate of emergence and survival, height of the plans, the number of harvests and yield. Then the flow of products (fruits) was carried out in the different markets of the city of Lubumbashi. The results revealed that the average survival rate is 91%, a decrease of 4% compared to the emergence rate originally recorded. The yield obtained (3.3 tonnes / ha) would be explained by several factors, the most limiting would phytosanitary restrictions, transportation costs and low producer prices. In the soil and climate and socio-economic context of Lubumbashi, these factors significantly limit the financial profitability (9% is a profit of $ 9 for $ 100 invested over a period of four months) culture okra. Thus, improved profitability of this culture would pass through minimizing transportation costs and reducing the gap between market prices and those for the production and control of the technical route.
Introduction: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of a physical activity program for 4 months on aerobic capacity and on rating of perceived exertion exercise test in obese children according to their gender. Method: fourteen children (8 boys vs. 6girls) who participated in an exercise program for 4 months at 4 sessions per week with an intensity of 70 to 85% of maximum heart rate observed in the initial exercise test. Results: For the boys group the Waist circumference loss was 2cm (P < 0.001), the percentage of Fat Body Mass (% FM) was decreased 2,6% (P < 0.001) and total Fat Free Mass (FFM) has increased 3,3kg (P < 0.001). For the girls group (GF), (WC) loss was 1cm (P < 0.05), the (% FM) was decreased 1.7% (P < 0.01) and total (FFM) has increased 2,7kg (P < 0.001). When we compared the variation of aerobic parameters between (GF) and (GG) , there were differences in maximal Metabolic Equivalent of Task (10,8% vs 4%, P = 0.2), in maximal workload (15% vs 3,3% P < 0.001) and in maximum Heart Rate (0,9% vs 3,5%; p=0.04). The scores of rating of perceived exertion at baseline and at the end were respectively for GG and GF (7,22
A study of "equality of the parties in Congolese law; If the high instance of Bukavu court "; has allowed us to discover how the Congolese judicial bodies in this case the High Court applies the principle of Bukavu for a fair judicial and mechanisms established by law for such a guarantee. However; it is clear that the principle is violated at several levels of the proceedings in the sense that the Congolese judicial practice has so far been in line with legal texts guaranteeing equal parts yet guaranteed by the Constitution of the DRC (Article 48 of the DR constitution. 18 feb 2006 Congo). Moreover; we found that the characteristics of a fair trial that define (or determine) the civilized nations (democratic) are not observed or better monitored by the courts or judges for a free justice Congolese suspicion and corruption and that we allows to assert vehemently that standards guaranteeing human rights are respected in DR Congo; a considerable effort must be made by the authorities because the development of the country also depends.
Spatial accuracy is important information in the mapping of wetland habitats, hence the recourse to the use of data with very high spatial resolution such as the IKONOS satellite images. However, the mediocrity of these spectral images; the presence of mixed pixels or spectral confusion between different objects in the image, make the process of discrimination of wetlands habitats difficult. This difficulty is amplified because these areas are home to diversified habitats, and in most times have spectral similarities between them. Taking into consideration the problems mentioned above, this work proposes a hybrid classification approach to better discriminate the habitats from an IKONOS data covering the Wetland of Merja Zerga (Moroccan Wetland of International Importance). This approach combines a supervised classification (per pixel) and an object-oriented classification (unsupervised) using DBSCAN algorithm. This classification approach allows discriminating all wetland habitats of the Merja Zerga and produces a map with an accuracy of 0.86 according to the index Kappa. The results suggest that this classification approach may also provide better results by applying it on images having similar characteristics to the IKONOS image.
In control system design it is difficult to ascertain the appropriate value of controller gain. Generally a high gain value causes an excessively oscillatory response with the possibility of instability, while a low gain value produces a slow system response. The desired optimal response is a value of gain that produces a quick system response with minimal steady state error and oscillation; this paper investigates various steps to get this system response. The main objective of this proceeding is to achieve unit step response curve of the designed system which exhibits a maximum overshoot of no more than 15%. To check the system response for reducing maximum overshoot, the system has been controlled via a PID Controller with Variable Plant Transfer Function. The proposed controller is mathematically designed and modeled with MATLAB, and the results are presented to confirm the PID controller effectiveness. Furthermore, the proposed approach is fairly simple for implementation in real time.
Bangladesh is a developing country. In our country there are many kinds of undesirable customs. Dowry is one of them. Because of this evil practice the brides have to give huge amount of money, furniture, ornament and many other things to the bridegroom which is against our Islamic law and public interest. That's why it has drawn my attention, though many researchers have done huge works in this regard. The purpose of my research work is to find out consequences of dowry, the process of removing the dowry and establish equal rights of men and women. In doing so I have found that many women think that they are giving dowry so that they can lead a happy conjugal life. Besides they think that if they cannot give dowry at the time of marriage their marriage will not be solemnized .Though solemnized marriage will be dissolved for want of dowry. It is a matter of regret that in spite of remarkable development of women in different sectors they cannot exercise their rights properly because of this evil practice to some extent. After concluding my work within 47 interviewers (university students) representing their families I have found that 30% of that can't think marriage without payment of dowry, 4% think dowry is being used as a means of enriching themselves, Dowry is a condition precedent of the marriage seems about 26% . 2% of my study mentioned that dowry is increasing because of lack of Islamic knowledge. Surprisingly 38% comments that marriage dissolved due to nonpayment of dowry. Giving and taking dowry is prevailing in our society for want of well bred or well education, lack of Islamic knowledge and laws regarding their right .Lastly I want to say because of patriarchy society it is increasing. So I recommend that attitude, mentality, thinking, views of men should be changed. Everybody should grow up with this mentality that women have same the right as men in all spheres of life. They cannot be deprived. Morality and ethics should be strong. Family education is needed alongside institutional education in order to change the mentality of our patriarchy society.
This work aims to test the polygons' method of Thiessen, initially used to evaluate the average rainfall for assessing a groundwater recharge. The study concerns the groundwater of Terminal Continental, the main source of water alimentation of Abidjan population. The database is constituted by rainfall (three stations) and piezometric data (ten piezometers). This method has been tested on both cases: in surface for calculating the total recharge and in saturated zone for assessing the true recharge. The results showed that the ground water of Abidjan total recharge is estimated to 252 mm.year-1; the one estimated in saturated zone is equivalent to 158 mm.year-1 in 2006, that is to say 12 pc of the total infiltration. The taking account of "land use" factor in the approach underlined the fact that the quick ongoing urbanization of Abidjan city is reducing the infiltration zones.
Introduction: The combined degeneration of the cord is a rare cause of myelopathy, it is linked to a deficiency in vitamin BI2 which is the most common cause pernicious anemia. Rapid diagnosis is necessary because the recovery is more complete than replacement therapy with vitamin B12 is administered early. Pregnancy by increasing needs of the mother's body can be a vitamin deficiency. However, we have little data in the literature that describe the impact of this disease on the course of pregnancy. Observation: We report the case of a 24-year-old primigravida in the third trimester of pregnancy presented a radiculo-cordonal syndrome later in connection with a hypovitaminosis B12. The course of pregnancy was unremarkable, with a marked improvement in his neurological symptomatology in vitamin supplementation. Discussion and conclusion: combined degeneration of the cord is the main secondary to neurological hypovitaminosis B12. MRI can guide the diagnosis, favorable after adequate vitamin supplementation is a therapeutic test to retain the diagnosis. There is no particular impact of the disease on pregnancy or pregnancy on the disease. However, some cases of IUGR, preeclampsia and pseudo Hellp syndrome were described. In terms of obstetrical prognosis is marked by an expansion of instrumental delivery instructions and those depending on the severity of neurological involvement. Epidural and spinal anesthesia should be avoided. General anesthesia should not use nitrous oxide.
Logistic is creating added value and a key factor for economic development. And improvement of the Moroccan logistics, it's a capital, it could boost the Moroccan economy by promoting cost control of Moroccan companies, which have to ensure effective control and management for the quality management and the management control are trends background of the issues at the heart of business logistics and transportation for effective performance management. The objective of this article is, firstly, to show that user satisfaction about the quality management and management control is a predictor of business performance, and secondly to determine the levers that quality managers and controllers can behave to maximize satisfaction. From a survey distributed to quality managers and the management controllers of logistics companies, the results open, thereby promising avenues for research. In terms of results, 93% of selected companies affirm their awareness that the most important benefit of quality management is to ensure the improvement of the quality of customer service for satisfied customers. But just 44 % of companies say that the application of ISO 9001: 2008 allowed to change management practices and implement corporate activity steering reliable tools for the performance. Also, 86% of the targeted transportation and logistics companies just use general and cost accounting as a management control tools so for most companies other tools are not in place that considers constraints that block the effectiveness of transport companies management control and logistics in Morocco. Finally, the conception of an organizational tool that combines the management of quality and management control still an essential tool to favour the organizational performance management, the ultimate goal, of transport companies and logistics in Morocco.
The use of vegetable oils as fuel for diesel engines has known many approaches since the implementation of this type of engine. Existing engines had a loss of power and some cold ignition problems, when it was tested with only crude oil. Consequently, it was immediately realized that we had to make special motors or to produce biofuels whose characteristics are similar to diesel. Thus, the present study focused on comparing the methanolysis and ethanolysis in alkaline-catalysed by studying the relationship between the density, viscosity of biodiesel with their molecular structure. It appeared from this study that biodiesel derived from the methanolysis is closer to conventional diesel than biodiesel derived from the ethanolysis. Furthermore, analysis of the molecular structures of these fluids explained the difference of the density and kinematic viscosity of the biodiesels. However, it has been shown through the study that these two biodiesels are Newtonians.
In this paper, it is attempted to approach a fast efficient algorithm for solving the famous Hallen's and Pocklington's integral equations, regarding the current distribution on a finite-length linear thin wire antenna. Here, the conventional moment method in conjunction with wavelet basis functions was used to obtain the current distribution of the antenna. The aim of this work is first to introduce the application of wavelet in electromagnetic scattering, secondly a comparison of the two method of analysis the thin wire antenna. By using the wavelet expansion, wavelets as basis and testing functions, a sparse matrix is generated from the previous moment method dense matrix. A sparsely filled matrix is easier to store and invert. The result extracted from Pocklington's integral equation gives better convergence at the feeding point, though it takes more time to be computed because of the complexity in Pocklington's equation. Results are compared to the previous work done and published, excellent results are obtained.
The processes involved in the development of a performance culture are influenced not only by genetic factors but also by the intervention of environmental factors. Soil salinity is a permanent threat to the survival of plants. The choice of a salt tolerant species would be a solution to this constraint. This study aims to assess the impact of salt stress during the vegetative stage of okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L.).Plants were stressed with different concentrations of NaCl from 0, 50, 100, 150 to 200 mM NaCl for one week. The results obtained show that the application of stress results in a moderate decrease in the relative water content. Chlorophyll a, b, and total carot
This work investigates carbon monoxide content of smoke emitted by various local and imported cigarette brands sold in Pakistani markets. Flue gas analyzer IMR 2800-p was used to analyze the smoke by using the bottle method. Nox, Sox and lower explosion limits of smoke was also obtained. The results showed clear distinction between local and imported brands as far as CO content was concerned. Almost all of the local brands exceeded the allowable limit of 20 ppm by a large margin. Cigar was also analyzed and its CO content also exceeded the allowable limit. There is a dire need to investigate these local brands by highly efficient and precise instruments to protect the masses from their harmful effects. Because Pakistan is a poor country, consumers of local brands far outnumber those of imported brands. Cigarette smoking is in itself very harmful but smoking these local brands which don't comply with International Organization for Standardization (ISO) standards for tobacco and tobacco products and regulations can only hasten the journey towards disaster.
Zio River catchment drains many cities that it receives waste, domestic and industrial effluents and its waters used to supply drinking water from downstream to upstream. Some schools use it in school canteens without treatment. Meanwhile, no study on tools of water resources management is done in this basin and whole of Togo. To fill this gap, the environmental variables and benthic macroinvertebrates assemblages were investigated to assess ecological integrity of the Zio River and its tributaries that varied in disturbance from upstream to downstream. Macroinvertebrates were sampled during four campaigns from 42 sites selected to correspond with different human activities in the catchment. The AFNOR methods were used for physicochemical analysis. Multivariate analyses (PCA) were applied to characterize sites typology and FCA for similarity between sites or taxa. The result showed that physicochemical variables of downstream sites, with the lower level of dissolved oxygen (0.6mgO2/L) and high contents of ion NH4 (5.6mg/L), KMn (30.7mgO2/L) and high Conductivity (10670
Tomato and pepper under greenhouse are the agricultural base in the Biskra Oasis. These crops threatened by insect pests, such as green peach aphid. The bio-ecology of Myzus persicae is the subject of a study conducted at five stations, Cha
The relationship between the western private international law and the institutions of the Islamic law constitutes a marked out course of tensions and more than one half-century of jurisprudence did not succeed in alleviating them. The study of the relations of the private international law deprived between the Muslim legal systems and the Quebec legal system illustrates the difficulties between the systems when the involved civilizations appear very different. Consequently, the great difference between the Muslim civilization and the Quebec civilization invite to seek a better coordination between these legal systems in order to achieve the objectives of private international law. In this research, one can only deplore the existence of two designs which are opposed today in the relations of the Muslim legal system: that of the laic right and that of the religious right. It is indeed the main obstacle to the reception of the Muslim personal status in Quebec. By analyzing this last point of the reception of the institutions of the Islamic right in Quebec it proved that the Quebec law enjoys a supremacy compared to the foreign law as regards personal status of the Muslims established in Quebec. This is explained by the desire to protect the cohesion of the national legal system. However, can this concern go until blaming the international harmony of the solutions? In Muslim countries, the private international law situation is not better than that of Quebec. Despite the creation of states in the modern sense of the term and the adoption of the Nationality factor, the private international law of Muslim countries remains always a system of privileges. The practice reveals that the solutions adopted today are still captive of the privilege of religion and the privilege of nationality. However, we are persuaded that the reasoning adopted by the two legal orders can only aggravate the problems of the private international law raised by the presence of a Muslim community in Quebec and in no case reconcile the goals of the private international law. Such a statement has prompted us to look for other solutions that can replace the classical method. Several solutions have been proposed including autonomy of the will.
The present study has been designed to explore the causes and effects of Youth Bulge in Pakistan. However, youth bulge is a part of population segment which create problem for the whole society. The youth bulge is a common phenomenon in many developing countries due to a stage of development where a country achieves success in reducing infant mortality but mothers still have a high fertility rate. The present research was conducted in the metropolitan entities of Punjab, Pakistan. This research probe the Information regarding demography, household, locality and other socio-cultural variables related to causes and effects of youth bulge in the state. Qualitative information was gather through focus group interviews that was randomly conducted from three selected metropolitan entities (Faisalabad, Lahore and Rawalpindi) of Punjab Province of Pakistan. On the basis of findings it was concluded that large unproductive youth cohorts in Pakistan creates problems for the society in the form of crime, militancy, lawlessness, unemployment and creation of sub cultural youth wings.
Modern martensitic 9-12% Cr steels are alloys with excellent mechanical properties even at elevated temperatures. The high temperature strength of these materials is inevitably related to their complex microstructure. Due to diffusional processes however, this microstructure changes during high temperature service, which leads to a decrease in strength. This work was aimed at modeling the 9-12% Cr steels with tailor-made microstructures for applications such as fossil fuel fired power plants, internal combustion engines etc. The investigations concentrated in the design and characterization of heat resistant steels for applications in high oxidizing atmospheres. A microstructure-property link is formulated with focus on the precipitate and solid solution hardening effect. For different heat treatments, the numerical results are compared with other samples. The numerical simulation showed excellent agreement in the case when all operative strengthening mechanisms are duly considered. The experimental results can be reproduced in a comprehensive and consistent manner by the numerical simulations using the software as MatCalc and ThermoCalc. From the result of the simulation, the observed phases after creep (M23C6 carbides, V-MX and Nb-MX particles and Laves phase) are in good agreement with the MatCalc and ThermoCalc calculations except for the Z-phase phase. The volume fraction of precipitated M23C6 carbides is directly related to the carbon content of the alloys.
The study of the Blue Cibacron (BC) treatment process through an statistical mathematical methods (SMM) allows us to determine a relation between nutritional variables, which are nitrogen source concentration (N), phosphorus source concentration (P) and vitamin mixture concentration (Vit.) on the decrease of coloration by bio-treatment. A complete factorial design (23) was made in order to determine the factors and their interactions which have a statistically significant influence on the studied response. Nitrogen source and vitamin mixture have a significant effect on the reduction of coloration; by contrast, Phosphorus source concentration does not have a significant effect. On the other hand, the interactions between the three factors have significant effects on the decrease of coloration. The discoloration activity is correlated with laccase activity.