The glaciers of the Hindukush-Karakoram-Himalayan (HKH) region consist of a huge amount of perpetual snow and ice. These glaciers are retreating in the face of accelerating global warming. Assessment of glacial hazard is carried out in this research using Satellite and Topographic data. About 5,218 large and small glaciers cover a glaciated area of 15,040 km2 and ice reserves of 2,738 km3. The Shayok, Hunza and Shigar basins contain the major part (83%) of ice reserves. This research presents the glacial hazard computations of largest glaciers of Pakistan. The results computed through study are compared with mathematical model of ice reserves and ice thickness which has supplemented their validity. The correlation of glacial hazard of these glaciers with average temperature rise of northern areas is confirmed. The location of a site, snow cover/ melting behavior of the glacier, slope/ aspect of glacier, geo-morphology of the rocks and glacier dynamics are taken as indicators of disasters in the form of avalanches, snow/ land slide and glacier breakdown in the form of debris along with rock material. The percentage degree of risk of glacial hazard is computed, which indicates that three out of world's seven largest glaciers have experienced degradation / volume loss over the years subjected to host of factors including anthropogenic activities. For analysis, various methods of image classification in visible and thermal bands are used. The DEM is incorporated to detect the indicators of hazard as slope, orientation and glacier mass balance of the glaciers overlooking the settlements. The results show that settlements are found threatened by disastrous events of glacial activity which is further reconfirmed during the field visits.
The city of Meknes is rich of various cultural heritages built between the XVIth and the XIXth centuries and notably it's most important ramparts (more than 40 km length). It was protected in 1995 by UNESCO as World Heritage. These earthen walls are between 1.20 to 3 m wide and 7 to 12 m high. The ramparts have been constructed in rammed earth according to a traditional Moroccan method. A detailed observation of the ramparts of the city revealed that they suffer from many different damages and they are in very bad state, some of them are disappeared. We noted that they show some alterations like fissures and more important detachment. The study of the origins of the alterations shows that they mainly depend on the environment, like the water impact, the building techniques and the nature of the bedrock. In order to point out the importance of capillary rising of water in the degradation of walls built of rammed earth, we took the example of Sidi Baba rampart. The analysis of the degradation of Sidi Baba rampart shows that he mostly suffered from a disorder related to a wet pathology. Thus, the solutions circulations, highlighted by the test water levels and changes in petrophysical parameters and the mobility of chemical elements along this profile are responsible for the phenomena of dissolution and crystallization. Alteration and loss of construction material, on the first meters from the ground, are attributed to capillary rising.
The flysch formations, due to their lithology, are rarely characterized, as hydrogeological prospecting target. However they are full of significant water resources in the study area located in the west of the city of Tetouan in northern Morocco. These water resources were evaluated relaying on the limits determining and exploring of different aquifers included called "Limited aquifer systems". These aquifers three in number (Numidian system of Zinat, the Melloussa-Tisiren system and Quaternary-Tangier unit system), are characterized by a lithostratigraphic and structural context promoting storage of water. They were identified from: the inventory of water points, effectuation of lithologic and structural maps and geological cross-sections. This was complemented by measurement of groundwater levels and flow releases. So, it could reveal the impact of stratigraphic and structural context of the area on the establishment aquifer systems as well as their limitations.
Pseudotolithus elongatus of the family of Sciaenidae lives in Ebrie lagoon, where it is regularly met in the unloadings of artisanal fishing. The diet was studied according to the seasons and of the size of the various specimens (immature and mature). About 437 individuals of measuring between 14,5 and 42,7 cm total length were examined during July 2013 to February 2015. On the 437 examined stomachs, 182 were empty, which gives a rate of vacuity of 41,64%. A feeding index (IRI: index of relative importance of food item) by combining three methods (frequency occurrence, numerical method and weight method) was used. The identification of the items found the stomach contents revealed that the principals food items were the Crustacean (%IRI = 89,26) and the fish (%IRI = 10,54). Annelids (%IRI = 0,1) and the vegetable detritus (%IRI = 0,1) are accidental food. This feed does not varied seasonally and among the size of fish.
Globally, intimate partner violence is experienced in various cultures and affects people across societies irrespective of their economic status. This is also the case in Sub- Saharan Africa. Kenya is reported to show an increasing trend as reported by Medical and Human Rights groups. The influence of intimate partner violence on women's productive work in the informal sector is a subject of interest since women play an active role in the sector. The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of intimate partner violence (IPV) on women's productive work in the informal sector in Nakuru Municipality. The study was carried out in five rescue institutions handling intimate partner violence victims. The study employed ex-post facto research design while simple random sampling was used to select 176 participants who were victims of intimate partner violence and had registered the violence in the five rescue institutions. Data was collected by use of researcher administered questionnaire and focus group discussions. A pre-test was conducted among 25 randomly selected women in Lanet Deanery Centre to determine the instrument's reliability which was found through Cronbachs alpha to be 0.8. Data was analyzed using descriptive statistics for qualitative data while inferential statistics based on Chi square test and T-test were used to analyze quantitative data. The findings of the study showed that IPV significantly (p < 05) resulted into loss of hours of productive work, and reduced personal earnings. The findings therefore indicate that IPV has an influence on productive work of women. It has been recommended that policy makers and stakeholders should include measures to reduce IPV. The same should also be considered for further research so that feasible coping mechanisms can be developed.
An urgent demand for the existing landfill Tangier to host household and industrial waste in the city until 2016 Expected opening of future landfill dates. This application requires to study at the exploitation and especially the compaction mode to estimate the remaining life of the landfill and to propose improvements to withstand up to 2016. This article presents an overview of the physical characteristics of household and similar waste of the Tangier landfill, especially composition, granulometry and moisture. The aim of this work is to know whether the mode of compaction used is valid for the landfill persists until 2016 if not what are the appropriate solutions improvements in this case.
This work is a contribution to the knowledge of the geotechnical characteristics of soils of Baraka and especially at port Mushimbakye. We present the results of tests of permeability in situ, of compaction, of granulometric analysis, of Atterberg limits and of direct shear tests. All these have helped to classify the soil of Baraka silty loam, moderately plastic and hard, bad qualities but good for compaction and construction. These soils are stable and of high permeabilities. Here permeability In situ varies according to the texture and soil moisture. We also present the studies of foundation at the port of Mushimbakye and MWAMBANGU. To these sites, allowable stresses are large and the insoles squares are the only that can withstand large loads. A Mushimbakye and Mwambangu the allowable stresses are respectively for square footings 218.1KN / m
The diet of 233 specimens of Heterotis niloticus (Cuvier, 1829) coming from artisanal fishing on the Agneby river was studied during one year according to the hydrological seasons and the size of fish. The stomach contents were analysed by using the methods of frequency of occurrence, numerical frequency and specific abundance. The results obtained reveal that this fish is omnivorous because its diet contains insects, microcrustacea, rotifer, nematodes, Arachnida, molluscs, seeds, phytoplankton, detritus and sand. It mainly fed on microcrustacea in particularly ostracoda. However, there is not variation in the diet according to the hydrological seasons and size of the individuals.
In Benin, cultures are submitted to animals attacks and harmful plants. Such situations cause defoliation and destruction of the plants, thus causing huge losses to farmers. To reach the end of such situations, herbicides, insecticides and fertilizers are now being used in higher quantities than past. Even if the use of pesticides to fight weeds and parasites has increased the food crops, it also bads to their contamination. The purpose of this work is to evaluate the level of cassava tubers contamination by the use of pesticides in the township of Djidja (Benin). Nine (09) cassava samples were collected in nine (09) cotton fields in three (03) villages (Zakan Kossossa, Fonkpodji, Aklinm
This study was conducted to know the growth and meat production performances of chickens produced by four different crosses of Male line white (MLW), Female line white (FLW), Male line colored (MLC), Female line colored (FLC). A total number of 193 day old chicks were hatched out through the four different crosses of MLW (?)
The Rich aquifer is considered as the biggest alluvial aquifer of the high Ziz basin. However, it faces major natural and anthropogenic pressures include the aridity of the region and development of irrigated areas resulting in the rupture of the hydrodynamic balance sheet and accusing the sustainability of socio-economic fabric by the destocking groundwater reserves. The piezometry of this aquifer shows that the water flow is converging towards the center at the confluence of the Ziz and Sidi Hamza rivers and in the southern part with some local changing of the flow direction between the observed piezometric states 1980 and 2012. The development of a 3D finite difference mathematical model, in steady state for 1980, lets us to understand the spatial distribution of permeability, recharge and the hydrodynamic behavior of the aquifer. This model that confirms the hydrogeological functioning of Rich aquifer system was used to calculate the terms of the water balance which is very balanced.
The Sahel low agricultural yields are gone due to poor soils, drought and rainfall variability. Knowledge and understanding of the interactive effects of drought and nitrogen fertilization on growth of millet appear important. For this purpose the SOUNA3 millet was used as an experimental split-plot with two factors and four replications during the dry season in 2002. The water regime factor was used at two levels (watered and water-stressed) and the nitrogen fertilization factor also at two levels (without nitrogen, F0 and with a nitrogen supply of 68.5 kg ha-1, F1). The water-stressed was applied during the vegetative stage and the grain formation and filling phases. The values of water consumption, the plant water status and the leaf area index were measure during the plant growth. The above dry matter was calculated at each development stage. Yield was calculated at the end of cycle. The results of the water consumption of plants and leaf water potential showed that water stress has reduced the values of these parameters and no difference was showed between nitrogen fertilization treatments whatever the level considered water regime. As for the values of leaf area index and the above dry biomass production, they were higher in fertilized plants for a given water regime. The nitrogen increased the values of these parameters at the irrigated plants. The water deficit has reduced the yield of 52.79 % in stressed plants. The water deficit cancels the beneficial effect of nitrogen fertilization on millet growth and yield.
The mobile cloud computing (MCC) has permit a huge facility to get information from internet, a simple user now can connect anywhere and any when for receive the desirable information. But despite that, the mobile cloud are not yet capable to resolve same problems, like the mobile energy consumption. The batteries lifetime of mobile devices presents a major concern for customers, because of the variety applications available in the cloud, customers are often connected to the internet what their cause a massive energy consumption. This consumption is made also by the presence of heavy applications hosted in the cloud that require interesting resources. This paper proposes an implementation of a software layer that allows an intelligent scheduling of equipment in the mobile Cloud and permits also a fast processing of customer requests that will lead to a considerable conservation of energy and therefore a powerful and ecological system.
This recent years, the security of cloud computing has become a major challenge for all organizations because any attack can cause serious problems such as stealing customer and government information, control of systems by others entities (hackers) to perform any operation for their needs, etc. The last decade, the cyber-attacks have become increasingly complex, sophisticated, multiple and the majority of traditional security systems are unable to detect them. The goal of this article is present a secure layer installed in the cloud providers that allows a high security performance in the cloud environment. This is achieved by controlling all the services executed by customers on their virtual machines and block or quarantine the unknown of them until the provider decision is made.
Morocco has undertaken, with the support of the World Health Organization, in a process of development of a national hospital accreditation system and in 2009 the program was launched. In this context a review of the implementation of the accreditation process at a regional hospital was made in November 2011. This work aims exposure of the added value of the hospital improvement plan in place following recommendations of Auditors, Try to activate and understand the desired change in the preparation for accreditation. The information was collected through interviews with health personnel, through direct observation and a questionnaire based on the criteria and sub criteria with points of improvement. The results obtained per unit, hospital services or activities are: - Biological Laboratory (LAB): 2 conformities, 1 Not compliance and 6 critical points. - Occupational Safety and Health (OSH): 5 conformities, 4 non-conformities and 3 critical points. - Hygiene, cleaning and disinfection of premises (HYG): 1 compliances, 2 non-conformities and 1 critical point. - Security, fire and management of emergency situations (INC): 0 compliances, 8 non conformities and 4 critical points. - Management system and quality assurance (QMS): 0 compliance, 1No compliance and 2 critical points. - Management of medical and pharmaceutical waste (DEC): 2 conformities, 2 non-conformities and 3 critical points. Overall, the results of the study which I have managed have demonstrated that the quality process in the hospital EL IDRISSI had a positive impact because it has raised the motivation of a number of staff and Federated them around objectives common, but you cannot deny that there is much work to do since 23% of discrepancies were corrected while 77% remain uncorrected.
The genus of Chlorella is widely used in environmental research, especially in wastewater treatment. The aim of the present work is to study the growth of the microalgae Chlorella sp isolated from clean lagoon, and to investigate its capacity to treat Jbel Chakir landfill leachate. The growth rate of Chlorella sp. and its ability to remove organic carbon (Chemical Oxygen Demand: COD) and ammoniacal nitrogen (NH4+-N) were determined in a serial dilution of leachate. The results showed that the development rate of this microalgae at 10% of leachate (2.7) is similar to the one registered for the reference growth Bold's medium (2.6). When leachate rate exceeds 30%, a good growth of Chlorella sp. was observed after a pre-adaptation of 14 days. This growth is comparable to the one recorded for the Bold's medium. A removal rate of COD (60%) and NH4+-N (100%) were achieved by Chlorella sp. with a positive correlation between growth and nutrient intake constantly recorded. Chlorella sp. could resist and grow up in the raw leachate of Jbel Chakir landfill that results a decrease of mineral and organic contents.
The objective of this paper is to show the constraints of the Moroccan tax system in a context marked by the suffering of public finances. Indeed, following the effects of the international financial crisis generating a decline in economic growth as the social movements that took place later in 2011 as part of what has been called the "Arab Spring", the public spending has increased dramatically especially following the weight of payroll and the load of the compensation system. In parallel, this increase in public spending has been accompanied by a reduction of public resources. The public receipts that come mainly from taxes are condemned by a lame tax system, unfair and derogatory. He is a lame tax system because he apprehends, at every opportunity, the concept of reform, to a reduction in rate, he is unfair because it is concentrated on a few categories of taxpayers and he is derogatory because it provides tax incentives sometimes unjustified for many sectors. Faced with this situation, budgetary balance cannot be achieved. The recourse to public borrowing remains a 'normal' solution chosen by the government. In fact, public debt weighs heavily on the general state budget. The burden of debt service which is up sharply continuous, has contributed to the deterioration of the budgetary balance. With the aim to reduce this structural budget deficit as opposed at cyclical deficit, it is important to proceed in real reforms concerning taxation, public subsidies system and the good governance of public finances.
A study was conducted in three localities in the southwest of RD Congo to clarify the ecology of Dracaena acutissima Hua: an endemic Asparagaceae of Congo Basin. Ecosystem characteristics (vegetation types, soil types and microclimates strata), phenological, chorological and ethnobotanical were determined. The results show that D. acutissima is a semi-sun-loving species that typically grows in the sandy soil of the undergrowth Kalahari type of riparian forest or forest or sloping plateau. It was seen with flowers and fruits during the dry season between May and July. The ethnobotanical survey showed that young leaves of this plant are used to treat childhood ear infections and stems are used for making small animal traps while its fruits are eaten by warthogs. Although, the species has not yet been confronted with the IUCN criteria; its distribution and human pressure area experienced by ecosystems that are its habitat to push the authors to classify it as a vulnerable species.
Kenya is a signatory to International and Regional Conventions and Declarations which protect the child from brutality, cruelty and inhuman treatments. To institutionalize child rights, Kenya enacted legislation and a Legal Notice, which banned the use of corporal punishment in all learning institutions. Upon its implementation there was observed increase in students' unrest in public secondary schools. This became a concern to Ministry of Education, school managers, teachers, students and other key stakeholders, prompting the need to investigate the impact of its ban on students' discipline. The author presents findings of a study that adopted an ex-post research design. The target population was 1486 form four students, head teachers, deputy head teachers and teacher counsellors from 18 secondary schools in Bahati Division of Nakuru District. A sample of 120 students, head teachers, deputy head teachers and teacher counsellors was systematically sampled from the 12 schools. The study established that schools in Kenya experience student unrests before and after the ban of corporal punishment. After the ban schools witnessed increased indiscipline, challenges in classroom management, poor academic performance and relationship between teachers and students. Alternative disciplinary measures are not very effective in dealing with indiscipline problems. Corporal punishment contributes to disruptive and violet behaviours. Teachers have a negative attitude towards the ban unlike students who portrayed a positive perception. Guidance and counselling is critical in addressing problems experienced at adolescence stage. Sustained policy focus and institutionalization of guidance and counselling is crucial in dealing with issues that affect students in schools.
The management of leachate flow is a challenge for the operation of landfills in Morocco. This Essaouira which started in 2001, received in 2014, 72 tons of waste as daily average. This buried tonnage generates between 6 and 8 m3/d leachate The objective of this study is to follow the evolution of the physico-chemical composition of leachate stored and therefore assess the purification performance of the adopted treatment system. To do this, leachate samples were collected and analyzed during the period from 2012 up to 2015. The analysis results show that despite the long stay in the leachate storage basin, the pollution organic and inorganic filler, is significant and almost stable over time. The organic pollutant load is expressed as COD varying between 6106 and 13939 mgO2/L with a mean of 10361mgO2/L. It also resulted in BOD5 which is between 207 and 851 mgO2/L, with an average of 631 mgO2/L. Therefore the ratio of BOD5/COD is between 0.03 and 0.08 with an average of 0.06. This shows that the leachate studied are old and characterized by complex organic load and nonbiodegradable. Mineral pollution is also present and marked by a high electrical conductivity which reached an average value of 39983?s/cm. The values of this organic and inorganic pollution, far beyond the limits of direct discharge into the receiving environment. The metal composition of leachate is typical of landfills for household dominant. In fact the values obtained during this monitoring does not exceed the thresholds set by the Moroccan standard rejection besides chromium (avg=1720 mg/l) which has a much higher concentration than other discharges and which exceeds Moroccan standards rejection (avg=200?g/l).
The main objective of this research was to establish the effect of store branding on the brands sales performance of consumer goods in the retail stores in Nakuru Town, Kenya. The study adopted a descriptive case study research design. The target population for this study was the 60 top managers working in the retail shops in Nakuru Town which included; Nakumartt, Taskys, Woolmatt, Ukwala, Naivas, Stage Matt, Quick Matt, Revanas, Ereto and Uchumi. The study adopted structured questionnaire as the main data collection instrument with the following major attributes; elements of market mavens, functional risks, value conscious, smart shopping reinforcement and sales performance. Data was analyzed using descriptive statistics more especially central tendencies; mean and standard deviation. The study used Pearson Correlation to establish the relationship between the independent variables and dependent variables. In order to establish the independent variables that affected the sales performance most, Regression Analysis was used. The study found out that market mavens and the brands reinforcement of smart shopping to the customers had positive effect on the brands sales performance.