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International Journal of Innovation and Applied Studies
ISSN: 2028-9324     CODEN: IJIABO     OCLC Number: 828807274     ZDB-ID: 2703985-7
 
 
Sunday 18 November 2018

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Physio-chemical and Microbial Characteristics of Treated Sewage Effluent Used for Crop Irrigation in the Kingdom of Bahrain


Volume 15, Issue 1, March 2016, Pages 210–218

 Physio-chemical and Microbial Characteristics of Treated Sewage Effluent Used for Crop Irrigation in the Kingdom of Bahrain

Salwa Al-Thawadi1, Farha Jaffar2, and Ebtisam Al-Butti3

1 Department of Biology, University of Bahrain, Sakhir, Kingdom of Bahrain
2 Department of Biology, University of Bahrain, Sakhir, Kingdom of Bahrain
3 Department of Biology, University of Bahrain, Sakhir, Kingdom of Bahrain

Original language: English

Received 18 April 2015

Copyright © 2016 ISSR Journals. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract


Treated sewage effluent (TSE) is used in the Kingdom of Bahrain (KoB) heavily in irrigating lots of vegetables and fruits gardens due to the shortage in water resources. The aim of this study is to examine the waste water quality regarding pathogenic bacteria and parasites, trace metals (Fe, Cu, Zn, Pb, Ni, Cd and Ag) and physio-chemical properties (E-conductivity, pH, NH3, NO2, NO3, BOD, COD and TSS). TSE is supplied from Tubli wastewater treatment plant (Tubli-WTP) in KoB as a tertiary stage effluent (TSE). The supplied TSE was free of pathogenic bacteria as no bacterium was grown on selective media (EMB, MC, DCA and XLD). TSE as well was free of pathogenic parasites when examined according to the American Standard for the Examination of Water and Waste Water (APHA). In addition, the chemical properties and heavy metals of TSE were within APHA standard. However, some pathogens were found in an irrigation storage reservoir used to collect TSE which was supplied from Tubli-WTP to a local farm (Farm-TSE). From this reservoir, eleven pathogens were identified (Escherichia coli, Citrobacter freundii, Enterobacter cloacae, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Aeromonas hydrophyla, Pseudomonas Paucimobilis, Klebsiella Oxytoca, Salmonella sp., Acinetobacter lwoffii, Serratia sp. and Pseudomonas Paucimobilis) by using API 20E system. The possible contamination source of Farm-TSE was the storage condition of the reservoir and/or the supply process from Tubli-WTP to the local farm.

Author Keywords: Irrigation, Pathogen, Trace metals, Treated sewage effluent.


How to Cite this Article


Salwa Al-Thawadi, Farha Jaffar, and Ebtisam Al-Butti, “Physio-chemical and Microbial Characteristics of Treated Sewage Effluent Used for Crop Irrigation in the Kingdom of Bahrain,” International Journal of Innovation and Applied Studies, vol. 15, no. 1, pp. 210–218, March 2016.