Prunus Africana (P.A.) is an essence of mountainous areas whose bark is sought after in the international market for the treatment of benign prostate hypertrophy. This product is found particularly in the surroundings of Mount Cameroon, where women's groups play a crucial role in the marketing channel of some Non Timber Forest Products (NTFP). However, this specie's exploitation is strictly framed by the standards of the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Flora and Fauna, making it an extremely vulnerable resource that is threatened by the effects of climate change. This contribution has as purpose to question the implication of rural women of the Mount Cameroon region in the value chain of PA, a Non Timber Forest Product that is a resource of important value in the forestry product trade; also, to appreciate the relationship between the resource profitability and inequity in access.
Since hunger remains a big problem for families, increasing food security through improved agricultural production families remains a challenge for the public authorities. Thus, the object of this paper is to evaluate the effects of pooling of agricultural policies on food security in the CEMAC zone. In other hands, what is the influence of the `sharing of agricultural policies on food security in CEMAC countries? To answer this question, we made use of an existing literature review followed by a statistical analysis of data related to the availability and accessibility of food because of the free trade agreement signed between the Member States in the context of strengthening sub-regional economic integration. Following this analysis, we reached the following results: - domestic prices are negatively related to food; - domestic prices are positively influenced by agricultural investment and customs duties. In conclusion, the pooling of agricultural policies positively influences food security in CEMAC. For the relief of conditions related to market access in the area, a factor of trade facilitation. Thus, the adoption of a common strategy for food production is a strategy for agricultural development in the area. This strategy reinforces the population, the opportunity to acquire in any place and at any time all the nutritious food they need.
History of environmental engineering science, visionary tools and their applications are moving towards a newer visionary scientific generation of science and technology. Zero discharge norms, environmental sustainability and the immense progress of engineering has brought human civilization from the brink of an immediate and imminent environmental disaster. These disasters are due to the tremendous industrialization of human civilization. Thus in such an encompassing disaster and a critical juncture of history and time , importance of environmental engineering science has predominant importance. The domain of environmental engineering is moving towards a new generation of scientific determination and scientific steadfastness. The challenges which lie before in the path of endeavour are crucial to scientific advancement. Environmental regulations and rigid restrictions stands today as an important issue in the path towards scientific progress and scientific pursuit. Here stands today the contribution of cutting edge technology and the vision to excel. Wastewater treatment and wastewater degradation stands today as a primordial issue in the history of mankind in the present day civilization. Cutting edge technologies such as application of bubble column reactor for wastewater treatment has an unquestioned hope and unquestioned vision. Bubble column reactors has become an effective tool in giving the environmental engineer and environmental scientist the standards and the basis of better wastewater degradation. Scientific advancement has immense answers and in such a crucial juncture of universal environmental sustainability, the world of unknown opens up new vistas and new doors of innovation in the path towards progress. This treatise emboldens the answers to immense questions of wastewater treatment, advanced oxidation processes and application of bubble column reactor.
An attempt was made to design a low cost floating house suitable for people in low lying areas such as Bangladesh. The prototype house considered for the present study has the carrying capacity of 1850 kg loads with sufficient freeboard of 30% excluding the self weights of the supporting ten airtight empty steel drums in water and having a floor area of 120 ft2. These steel drums that are locally available and provide an atmosphere to live in without the fear of losing possession during flood. The value of metacentric height (10.22 ft) of the designed house was found to be positive indicating its stability at floating condition. The angular displacement of the house due to wind action was also calculated and this floating structure would be stable up to the wind speed of about 160 km/hr. To provide sanitation a floating toilet can be hinged with the structure. It would definitely give an eco-friendly out look to the structure. For variable fencing, flooring, roofing and floating elements costs were estimated to determine the most economic feasibility. The most economic house was supposed to be made of locally available materials such as chhon and golpata. But from the engineering point of view the most stable and durable house was found to be CI- sheet and angle bar. Above all, the house made of Bamboo could be used on the basis of availability and durability. This house could be used all the round year as a permanent address for landless people and gypsies.
The principal objective for our study was to evaluate the efficacy of Carica papaya seeds against Entamoeba histolytica infection compared with metronidazole by using mice models. A single oral dose of Caricapapaya seeds water extracts of up to (0.1ml ?mice?day) reduced parasite appearance in feces and disappear completely atthe 8th day compared with metronidazole the cysts parasite continued till 10th day. The histomorphological study findings showed in the group which was given Carica papaya seeds the majority of tissue intestine return to normalshape. These finding indicated that Carica papaya seeds may be effective in treating Entamoeba histolytica.
Like many African cities affected by urban schistosomiasis, Maroua in the Far North Region of Cameroon has a moderate level of schistosomiasis transmission, as indicated by human infections. This study was designed to identify and map some potential transmission sites of schistosomiasis in Maroua. Water ponds were surveyed for snail intermediate host of schistosome and mapped using a handheld Global Positioning Systems (GPS). Snail status was assessed via cercaria shedding procedure. The vegetation cover, human water contact activities and some physico-chemical characteristics of the water including pH, temperature, salinity, total dissolve solute (TDS) were measured and documented. Twenty two water ponds were surveyed and 21 of them were found to have at least one of the two identified schistosome snail host species. A total of 658 specimens of snails were collected: 57.45% B. senegalensis and 42.55% B. globosus. Eleven water ponds were found to have both snail host and the 10 other have single species (8 with B. senegalensis and 2 with B. globosus). Ten (1.56%) of the 642 snails were found to shed Schistosoma cercariae: 2.21% in B. senegalensis and 0.71% in B. globosus and they were not significantly different (?2 = 1.431, p= 0.232). The presence of B. senegalensis and B. globosus (two known intermediate snail host of S. haematobium) snail and their infections with Schistosoma suggest possible local transmission of human schistosomiasis in Maroua. Exposure to these water environments may pose infection risk to general population, in particular children who seem to have greater water contact.
The aim of this study was to measure the level of heavy metals in edible vegetables (tomato, onion and green pepper) collected from Bahir Dar market, garden of Bahir Dar town and Adet Agricultural Research center (near Reb River). Levels of Pb, Cd, Cu and Zn were determined using flame atomic absorption spectrometry after dry ashing process. The average concentrations of Pb, Cd, Cu and Zn were in the range of; 0.244 - 0.987, 0.115 - 0.536, 0.962 -3.430 and 2.344 - 4.136 mg/kg in tomato, 0.241- 0.43, 0.12- 0.441, 0.879-3.428 and 2.197- 3.259 mg/kg in onion and 0.28- 0.392, 0.128- 0.573, 1.229-2.991 and 3.081-4.242 mg/kg in green pepper respectively. The levels of those metals in all vegetables collected from the market site was higher than Adet Agricultural Research center but lower than garden in Bahir Dar town. The highest concentration of Zn in all vegetables of the analyzed metals was probably because it is considered as essential micronutrients for plants growth and can easily be taken up by plants or may be obtained from the water. The concentration of zinc and copper were within WHO guideline in all analyzed samples, while samples collected from the market and gardens of Bahir Dar town showed high increment in concentration of lead and cadmium from the permissible level set by FAO/WHO for consumption.
Educational system in British India was in fact, a plan of control. British government wanted to facilitate Hindus therefore this system was destroying Muslim identity and recognition. Although, one of its prime objectives was to promote Christianity and western culture in Indo-Pak Subcontinent but its other features were covering interests of Hindus. Therefore, Muslims had been forced to give up getting education. This article highlights all the seven educational plans which are called seven terms of British educational system in India, introduced by the British Government according to the need of time. Impacts of every term are also presented here while characteristics of British educational system are covering the whole tenure of British educational policies in Indo-Pak Subcontinent from 1813 to 1947. The socio-political consequences of this system after the formation of Pakistan are also discussed here.
Human milk is the most natural and superior food for infants, providing a range of benefits for growth, immunity and development a significant decreasing risk for several acute and chronic diseases. However, breast milk is not pure. Pollutants have been intentionally or inadvertently produced and introduced into the environment. Due to long half-lives and fat solubility, chemicals tend to bio accumulate in long-lived species at the top of the food-chain, including in human milk. Through breastfeeding, a mother may transfer potentially toxic chemicals to the suckling infant, exercising systemic and harmful effects on the health of children. Although scientific evidence indicates that the advantages of breast-feeding outweigh any risks from contaminants, it is important to identify communities with major sources of human exposure, limit the presence of pollutants in the food supply and modify their critical short-and long-term action in children. Furthermore, by controlling the use of these toxic products safe breastfeeding could be ensured and encouraged. This review summarizes what is known about the relationship between environmental pollutants and contamination of human milk.
The definition of borderline ovarian tumors is pathological. It is based on the combination of several histological criteria established by Hart and Norris and reviewed by Scully et al. : pluristratification and epithelial budding, increased mitotic activity which can be very variable, cytonuclear atypia (differential diagnosis with benign tumors), absence of stromal invasion (differential diagnosis of malignant tumors). Serous tumors represent approximately 55% of borderline tumors. They are bilateral in 28-50% of cases. This histological type is, however, more often associated with extra-ovarian locations, as found in 30% of cases on average peritoneal implants whose detection is fundamental because the class tumor stage III. These can be invasive or non-invasive, the prognostic value of invasiveness is controversial. Pre and intraoperative diagnosis of borderline ovarian tumors is difficult and requires a multidisciplinary approach, involving surgeons, pathologists, radiologists and medical oncologists trained as much as possible with this type of lesion border. Staging should be as complete as possible and should be as far as possible during the initial surgical resection. A restaging should be made when the initial staging is incomplete. Restaging does not affect patient survival but used to evaluate the prognosis of the initial tumor. Its indication still remains controversial: it is recommended for early-stage tumors, for which the treatment is now well codified. The authors discuss the issue of keeping the ovaries during hysterectomy for benign lesions throught the case of a patient of 50 years who benefited 9 years ago a subtotal hysterectomy for polymyomatous uterus and presented a bilateral serous tumor borderline on remaining ovary.
Introduction: Cystic lymphangioma of the ovary is a rare benign vascular tumor. Its histogenesis is still hypothetical and its preoperative diagnosis difficult to establish. We report a case of cystic lymphangioma of the ovary that was a problem with differential malignant ovarian tumor diagnosis, with a recent review of the literature. Observation: Patient 35 years primigravida primipara without significant pelvic pain consults history dating back more than three months without increased abdominal volume or urinary or digestive signs associated. A pelvic ultrasound done complemented by magnetic resonance imaging have objectified aspect for a right ovarian cyst formation by 8 cm to confront the histological data. The patient underwent a right oophorectomy returned for mature cystic teratoma of a cystic hygroma associated. The postoperative course was uneventful and no recurrence was noted. Results: Cystic lymphangioma of the ovary is rare benign tumor formation. There are no specific symptoms. Radiology despite progress remains inconclusive in the diagnosis of this tumor type. Histological study is the only way to confirm the diagnosis. The outcome was favorable, no cases of malignant transformation have been reported. Conclusion: Cystic lymphangioma of the ovary is a rare benign tumor of the malformation. The diagnosis rarely made preoperatively should be considered in any cystic ovarian mass. Only complete surgical resection of the tumor is associated with prolonged survival and a favorable prognosis.
100 urine specimens were cumulated for microbial urinalysis and antibiotic susceptibility appraisal, further infection boutade survey concerning gender and age was executed. From the microbial urinalysis it was exonerated that stereotyped urinary micro-organisms were Escherichia coli, Enterococci, Klebsiella pneumonia, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococci species, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Candida albicans which were isolated from 28 affirmative specimens. Escherichia coli (54%) and Klebsiella pneumonia (25%) were imperious bacterial species having same resistivity impressions as Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Enterococcus was exceptionally resistant bacterial specie while Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococci species were profoundly sensitive in sentiment to the exquisite antibiotics. Gender and age based survey adjured that fecunds and individuals beyond age of 50s are crucially supine to intermittent urinary infections, thus demands legitimate sanitation regime of privy lots.
A fast development of urban agriculture has recently taken place in many areas of the Republic of Benin. This study was conducted from January to December 2013 in southern and northern Benin in three major vegetable farms. It aimed to assess the genesis and the rapid expansion of urban agriculture especially, its contribution to the improvement of living conditions to urban populations. The protocol was based on the collection of sociological data by interviewing vegetable farmers regarding on the history of vegetable farming in Benin, the various agricultural practices, the types of pesticides used, the typology of vegetable farms, the advantages and disadvantages of this agriculture. Results from this study showed that: (1) The creation of the first vegetable farmer was the work of the Christian missionaries and this in the context of their dietary requirements, but nowadays, the rapid development of urban agriculture is mainly due to unemployment observed in major cities, rural exodus and the search for a balanced diet by urban populations and increases the farmers' household income and their living standard; (2) Vegetable farming activity is still devotes to young people (21-40 years old) where 75% among them are permanents gardeners, against 10% working part time and 15% on a temporary basis. (3) Farmers used various types of pesticides, which in many cases were not recommended for this activity. This study confirmed an increase activity of the vegetable farming in urban areas of Benin. It has led to the use of insecticide in an improper manner to control vegetable pests, thus causing the emergence of insecticide resistance in malaria vectors.
This study was conducted at the Research Laboratory / Animal House Animal / College of Science / Mustansirhiya University to evaluate the efficiency of the growth regulator Dimilin chitin synthesis inhibitor by three different concentrations of 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5 ppm and efficiency of bacteria Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis concentrations 6.25
Six types of broken rice were chosen such as KSK-133, Basmati-86, Basmati Super, Kaynaat, IRRI-6, KS-282 then after the market survey, got its prices and also got its initial compositions of starch then one type of broken rice KSK-133 was selected due to economical point of view because its initial composition of starch was 70.3% and its price was 34 rupees per kilogram. The low quality rice processed to produce the rice starch. The production process of the rice starch from low quality rice KSK-133 investigated. The starch extracted from rice by alkaline extraction technique. The main objective is to obtain high starch content from KSK-133 and compare with starch content of other two types which are even more economical such as IRRI-6 and KS-282 at best extraction condition of KSK-133. The independent variables are types of broken rice. In a steeping process, used distilled water with grinded flour sample of rice and set the operating conditions. 0.1M caustic soda solution was used for set the test pH. Maximum rice starch has been recovered up to 95.4% from KSK-133. In comparison of starch content with other two types, KSK-133 starch content 89.95%, IRRI-6 starch content 86.64% and KS-282 starch content 87.52% has been achieved at best extraction condition.
In Total Joint Replacement (TJR), ceramic surfaces offer a major benefit of drastically reduced wear rates and excellent long-term biocompatibility with the bone tissue. Among the available ceramic materials for load bearing bio-implant applications, silicon carbide is superior for its better biocompatibility, which can increase the longevity of prosthetic joints. The major cause of revision surgery and implant failure is Osteolysis (aseptic loosening of the prosthetic joint). The product of bearing wear, microscopic particulate debris in the joint space leads to implant loosening. Prosthetic joint mainly consists of acetabular cup, acetabular lining and femoral head. The best material for manufacturing acetabular cup is nickel
In this study, atmospheric pressure glow discharge plasma was used to modify the surface properties of wool/polyamide fabric, the effect of air plasma treatment on the printing properties of wool/polyamide blend was also discussed. Three dyes were used namely acid dye, basic dye, and reactive dye. Different exposure time and discharge current of air plasma treatment were investigated to impart changes in wool/polyamide properties, such as whiteness, wettability, tensile strength, elongation, felting shrinkage, color intensity, and fastness properties. The surface characterization was performed using FTIR and SEM analysis. The plasma treatments enhance the colour strength of the wool/polyamide blend with acid, basic, and reactive dyestuffs as well as the fastness properties, and represent an approach to printing the blend with single dye.
Crystal form of N-TiO2/WO3 Nano-Composite material was prepared from urea, commercial TiO2 and WO3 by simple solid phase reaction followed by calcination at a temperature of 400 0C for four hours at each step. The as-synthesized photocatalyst was characterized using XRD and Uv-Visible diffuse reflectance spectra. It was found that the absorption edge of N-TiO2/WO3 was well extended to visible light. The effect of catalyst loading and initial pH on the photocatalytic efficiency of the sample was tested using phenol red as a target pollutant. The photocatalytic degradation efficiency of the catalyst for the adsorbed phenol red was increased from 61.75-93.87% under visible and 48.01-75.74% under UV as the amount of the catalyst increase from 0.15 to 0.45 gram. Further increase in concentration was found to decrease the degradation efficiency. The photocatalytic degradation efficiency of adsorbed phenol red was increased from 55.88-95.23%, under visible and 44.18 -77.32%, under UV as the pH of the solution decreased from 5 to 3. But further decrease in pH was found to decrease the degradation efficiency. The assynthesized photocatalyst was highly efficient under visible irradiation than under UV irradiations.
Malacological and epidemiological investigations have been done in Katana Health Zone during the period from 2001 to 2011. The results shown that the schistosomiasis exists and constitutes a problem of health in this region. A total of 189,475 stools examinations and 11,000 of urines done during the ten years passed; 1,904 cases of schistosomiasis due to Schistosoma mansoni have been observed. That is a rate prevalence of 0. 95 % and 39 cases of Schistosoma haematobium have been recorded. That is a rate prevalence of 0.35 %. Methodical treatment per os of infested subjects by Ambilhar and the control of intermediate host by molluscicidal no toxic to human and environment are measures to take immediately.
According to Lebraty, CS (Crowdsourcing) is a realistic alternative to conventional outsourcing. This research will attempt to clarify the concept of crowdsourcing with reference to factors that determine it.
Image receptors has evolved in leaps and bounds from the time of discovery of x-radiations. This review article scans through the stages of development of image receptor from the conventional (films) to the digital (sensors) modes of image plates. An array of image receptors are available in the modern dentistry which leaves the dentist with a wide variety of options to confirm the clinical findings and thereby arrive at a clear diagnosis. It henceforthe helps in a better prognosis for the patient's ailment.
With the development of new information technologies and communication, organizations are implementing new management styles into account the knowledge of intangible capital. Therefore, organizations are struggling to survive and competitor. One of the strategies employed in these organizations is knowledge management (KM) with the support of Knowledge Management System (KMS). In fact, the effectiveness of KMS is intended to help companies achieve sustainable competitive advantage by using the existing knowledge base (Alavi, 2000). The benefits of KMS were observed, in many companies. However, it is not easy to successfully adopt KMS (Yogesh Malhotra, 2005).
The study aims to investigate the development and the optimization of a compliant clamp in accuracy high required robotic mechanisms. In this research, a compliant clamp is developed based on flexure hinges to offer the flexibility of movement. Firstly, Solidwork software is used to create a compliant clamp model. Next, a finite element analysis (FEA) is performed using ANSYS software to explore the deformation behavior and stress distribution. The stress and the displacement of the mechanism are two important objective functions considering simultaneously to find the best optimal dimension of flexure hinges. Finally, to improve the strength and increase movement capacity (i.e. how to minimize the stress and maximize the displacement of this mechanism simultaneously), the fuzzy logic reasoning combined with Taguchi method that is proposed in this paper for multiple quality optimization problem. The results reveal that the proposed clamp has the mechanical advantages and the optimal dimension of proposed flexure hinge is the length of 15 mm, the width of 6 mm, and the thickness of 1mm. Therefore, the strength of suggested compliant clamp was improved. It is expected to used in robotic industry and other fields.
Busan is one of the most densely populated urban areas in South Korea. The tremendous pressure this megacity exacts on architecture in terms of urban revitalization promotes innovation. The purpose of this article is to explore the urban renewal in one particular aspect: the outdoor market in Busan. The development of South Korea, supported by a robust policy and reinforced by Chaebols, has resulted in a legacy of unattractive concrete. When the time has come to review, the Korean government has implemented a new and more influential policy with the aim of improving the economic vitality and preserving the Korean culture. Policymakers have not failed this time to follow the train of modernity and opted for sustainable architecture. Busan is a great city and it represents a laboratory ideally suited to this new policy. The strict criteria of sustainable design are fully respected in order to preserve the cultural heritage of Busan community. Two international examples, Mexico and Rouen, served as an inspiration for projects of Busan where outdoor markets represent nuclei of economic productivity and catalysts of social life. Market Jagalchi was in dire need of new ideas and a revitalization project was undertaken that we will study in detail.
Cyanobacteria are among the earliest of inhabitants of Planet Earth and are highly diverse members of the current global biodiversity and are making significant contributions to the Carbon and Nitrogen bio-geochemical cycles, particularly in the deep oceans. Cyanobacteria in recent year have gained importance because of their potential use in various areas of research. This diverse group has application in various fields like biotechnology, pharmacology, agriculture etc. Due to presence of wide spectrum of bioactive compounds cyanobacteria has possesses antiviral, antibacterial, antifungal and anticancer activities. Several strains of cyanobacteria are also rich in food supplements. Further nitrogen fixing capacity of cyanobacteria has attracted agriculturists and researchers and they used blue green algae as a component of biofertilizers to improve both the fertility of soil as well as growth of plants. Recent studies have also shown that cyanobacteria have capability to degrade environmental pollutants and are also being used as a promising source of alternative energy. In spite of all these investigation and research more efforts should be made in search of more strains of cyanobacteria and genetically modifying known strains to ensure maximum production of the desired products.
In June, the United Nations E-Government Survey 2014 was released. Its theme is "E-Government for the Future We Want." The report provides a comprehensive collection of U.N. global surveys regarding the status of e-government and related practices around the world. South Korea once again topped the report's rankings. Many countries have climbed the standings since release of the last report in 2012. This indicates worldwide growth in e-government. The leaders in e-government have many lessons to teach those grasping the concept. This paper will deliver an unbiased view of these e-government leaders. It also will detail the critical elements other countries must adopt in their drive for e-government.
The increasing demand of electric power and shortage of present energy resources lead today engineers and scientists to think about the alternative sources of energy, the sunlight is a potential sources for generating electric power. In recent years, it is increasingly used to generated power .The use of solar energy is attractive for solar home system application also. Solar home systems are quite needing no fuel and require very little maintenance. Other advantage of a PV system are free energy, reliable power, flexibility and quick installation. Author discussed Solar Photo-voltaic based Renewable energy system in Bangladesh. Finally, author try to analyze solar home system per unit cost. The government institute is "Infrastructure development companylimited"(IDCOL) established from 2003 to 2013 solar home system 20lakh and produce100 MW electricity. We know that 70% people lived in rural area. So, this project is not sufficient for development in rural area. Sun is the source of all energy available in the world. The initial cost of the solar energy would be much higher but the experts believe that it would be a cost effective alternative to other source of energy. So, we can take initiative to increase solar energy in our house hold system and able to find an alternate way of renewable energy.
The goal of this study is to measure contagion phenomenon between foreign exchange markets during Subprime crisis & Eurozone crisis using daily data from 03/01/2005 to 02/01/2014 for fourteen selected countries namely Algeria, Argentina, Australia, china, India, Iceland, Great Britain, Malaysia, Nigeria, New-Zealand, Norway, Mexico, the Philippines and Russia via GARCH (1,1), GJR-GARCH(1,1), EGARCH(1,1), APARCH(1,1) models. In our analysis, we will have discriminated between independent floaters and managed floaters exchange rate. We also separated the period estimate in two period's crises. Firstly, the US Subprime crisis period covers from 17/07/2007 through 31/08/2009 (See Dungey, 2009, Celik, 2012). Secondly, the period of the Euro-zone crisis that we have covered from 19.11.2009 to 31.12.2012 (See Wasim. A et all 2013). In summary, we concluded of all exchange rates returns series influenced by the contagion effects come from USA and euro area over 2007-2012 periods. In addition to that, we documented that persistence volatility have been high shock in the countries adopting independent floating exchange rates compare the countries they supported managed floaters.
A malacological fauna survey was done in the Katana region in South Kivu, Democratic Republic of Congo were intestinal schistosomiasis (Schistosoma mansoni) was signaled. Sampling was done in 23 Streams using the technique of Olivier and Scheirderman (1956). About 14 species was collected: Biomphalaria pfeifferi (Krauss, 1948), Lymnaea natalensis (Krauss, 1948), B. forskalii (Ehrenberg, 1931), B. globosus (Morelet, 1866), P. ovata (Olivier, 1804), Tomichia kivuensis (Mandahl-Barth, 1974), Tomichia hendrickxi (Verdcourt, 1950), Lentorbis junodi (Connolly, 1922), Segmentorbis kempi (Preston, 1912), Potadoma ignobilis (Thiele, 1911), Potadoma freethii (Thiele, 1911), Ferrissia burnupi (Walker, 1912), Pisidium casernatum (Poli, 1791) and Physa acuta (Brackenbury et Appleton, 1991; Draparnaud, 1805), in which 5 species (Biomphalaria pfeifferi, Bulinus forskalii, Bulinus globosus, Physa acuta and Ferrissia burnupi) are recognized as intermediate effective or potential host of schistosomiasis (Schistosoma manasoni and Schistosoma haematobium). The ecological characteristic of the species in the Katana region are present in this work.
Schistosoma mansoni, the blood fluke responsible for human intestinal schistosomiasis exists in Katana region and it's hosted by the snail Biomphalaria Pfeifferi. But Schistosoma haematobium responsible of urinary schistosomiasis has not been reported in that area. The appearance of its intermediate host Physa acuta in the region attracts our attention about future infestation. The objective of this study is to determine the distribution area of this species which appears in region. The snail collection was done in 25 sites comprising 14 streams and rivers, 3 groups of ponds, 7 springs and Lake Kivu.These sites are grouped in terms of altitude gradient and the frequency of people and domestic animals. The results show that altitude has an effect on the distribution of Physa acuta in the region. The snail was collected in streams and ponds compared to sites located at the Lake and in rivers. They were found in the site where the ecological conditions were favorable (water velocity, aquatic vegetation and also water quality). The absence of snails in some elevations is related to the ecological factors which reduce the survival of Physa acuta. The risk of local transmission of urinal schistosomiasis in Katana is predictable as its potential intermediate host Physa acuta is now present and largely distributed in the region.
This study was carried out to investigate the effect of environment and addition of guar gum on the bread making quality of a Sudanese wheat cultivar. Results showed that wheat production location has a significant (P ? 0.05) impact on the biochemical properties of wheat grains. The level of wet gluten of North Sudan wheat (29.3%) was significantly higher (P ? 0.05) compared to that of Central Sudan wheat (25.6%). Falling number of North Sudan wheat flour (355 sec.) was close to the ideal range (250-300 sec.) compared to extremely higher level (490 sec.) recorded for Central Sudan wheat flour. Addition of guar gum as an improver at 1% significantly (P ? 0.05) enhanced the water absorption, dough development time and dough stability in the wheat flour of both locations, however, North Sudan wheat flour remains superior (P ? 0.05) in term of the dough properties compared to Central Sudan wheat flour. Surprisingly, addition of guar gum at 0.5% concentration to North Sudan wheat flour significantly (P ? 0.05) improved the loaf bread volume (4.45 cm3) compared to control (4.33 cm3), whereas increasing the guar gum level to 1% slightly decreased the bread volume (4.22 cm3). Contradictory, increasing the concentration of guar gum from 0.5 to 1% significantly enhanced the loaf bread volume (from 3.98 to 4.23 cm3) of Central Sudan wheat flour compared to its control (3.90 cm3). Furthermore, the bread of North Sudan wheat flour with 0.5% guar gum was superior (P ? 0.05) in sensory characteristics such as flavor, taste and texture compared to that of Central Sudan wheat flour.
Human peripheral blood is a useful material for biomedical research, since it can be used to investigate responses to treatment and predict diseases. However, various biological and technological factors produce a large degree of variation in blood of gene expression profiles. Our study was based on gene expression profiling analysis on peripheral blood of 45 healthy volunteers, 21 females and 24 men. The blood cells were concentrated, and the total RNA was isolated for the analysis of gene expression using the Affymetrix Gene Chip technology. The results were obtained by a fluorescent scanner, and the numerical data was analyzed using Bioconductor. Samples were clearly divided by gender through the unsupervised clustering analysis. 40 identified genes, differentiating samples by gender were analyzed according to their biological function and chromosomal location. Most of them are located on the X and Y chromosomes. These results provide new insights into the genetic makeup which distinguishes both sexes probably associated with diseases and sex determination.
Global Positioning System (GPS) has become as an important tool in land use study. Using GPS, it is possible to conduct survey with less manpower and less time. In this study, land use analysis was carried out using handheld GPS and Total Station. Campus of Rajshahi University of Engineering & Technology (RUET) was selected as the study area for this study. Garmin GPS was used to locate ground position and track logs of different objects within the study area. Handheld GPS could receive and track satellite signals between 0 to 3 meters of positional accuracy. The aim of the study was to compare the land use survey results conducted by both GPS and Total Station. Primary input for mapping the whole study area was GPS readings which were collected during the field survey. GPS readings were processed using some software i.e. Map source, Google Earth, Google Sketch up, Auto CAD, Photoshop and developed land use map. This paper is an attempt to evaluate the performance of handheld GPS in land use survey. Precision of handheld GPS is low. Accordingly, the results of the GPS survey indicates about 12% errors compared with the results of Total Station survey. However, handheld GPS is recommendable to conduct preliminary survey and where there is scarcity of manpower and time.
Chalan beel, the largest natural depression in Bangladesh is under threat due to population pressure, over exploitation, change of water courses, pollution and siltation. Therefore, a study was conducted to assess the habitat and biodiversity status in dry and wet seasons through MODIS AQUA 250 m images and Geographical Information Systems supported by field data from July 2010 to June 2012. The MODIS data of 2002 and 2008 were collected and analyzed to perceive the water availability, extend of water area and variety of fishes found round the year. The False Colour Composite images of blue, near infra-red and mid infra-red bands and Normalized Difference Vegetation Index of 2002 and 2008 were prepared to perform the land use and land cover changes. The data interpretation showed the trend of water receding tendency from wet to dry season in 2002 and 2008 images respectively. The occurrence of moderate and high vegetation was comparatively higher in 2002 images than in 2008. Moreover, very small water area was observed in March and April in both year images due to over use of surface and underground water for irrigation that is the threat to the natural resources in the region. Hence, steps need to be taken by the Government and stakeholders to stop fishing via dewatering and maintain the minimum water level in the Chalan beel for safe guard the aquatic biodiversity.
The study was conducted in the region of Bugorhe whose purpose is to assess where the outbreak of Aphis fabae growing seasons and the method of observation, identification key, Past software and microsoft Excel were used. The duration is 12 weeks during the season of 2011 (September-December) and 2012 (September to December) and the B season of 2012 (February-May). Results show the months of November to October 2011, 2012 and March-April 2012 have a high incidence of black aphids while the months of September to December were lower in 2011, 2012 as February 2012, so the attack of aphids develop especially during dry in August to November and in September-November 2012, while in the rainy season (September 2011, October 2012 and December 2011 and 2012, April 2012), colonies of aphids are dense, destroyed by parasitic fungi Erynia neophides or Neozygites. Larvae or adult beetles and larvae Syrphis help control when they devour pucerons. Thus, the auspicious time of the attacks by black aphids Aphis fabae is dry season cropping seasons (A or B) as Aphis fabae can colonize many cultivated or so spontaneous means of struggle to provide growers with beans in the region Bugorhe plants are based sprays of dimethoate or specific aphicid as pyrimicarb and cultivators of beans are uprooted seedlings of upon detecting virus-infected beans.
Production of biosimilars, similar to the original pharmaceuticals that faces certain challenges like possible need for unique naming to differentiate the various biopharmaceutical products, regulatory framework and commercial opportunities have made the researchers in head over heels to design the appropriate one. Clinical applications have to be the main target that relies on cost-effectiveness and market value.
The dynamics of the exploited population of Istiophorus albicans (Atlantic sailfish) from artisanal gillnet fishery was investigated based on length frequency data, using FiSAT software. Specimens were sampled from the artisanal fishery captures in the coastal waters near Abidjan (C
Sequencing batch reactors (SBRs) are usually preferred as small and decentralized wastewater treatment systems. Using a frequent enough switching between oxic and anoxic conditions, it is possible to bypass the second step of nitrification (i.e. conversion of nitrite to nitrate nitrogen) in SBR. The effect of oxic/anoxic ratio (R) on nutrient removal from municipal wastewater was examined in 5 m3 pilot-scale SBR operated at ambient temperature. During the react phase, the reactor was intermittently aerated specific aeration intervals. DO, pH and oxidation
What's to come for portable remote correspondence systems will be accomplished a few eras as which have been accomplished. This sort of advancement will drive the researchers of data innovation in industrial region. This paper investigates future mobile systems with stress on re-configurability focused around cognitive and programming characterized radios. Fifth Generation (5G) system building design comprising of reconfigurable multi-technology center and 5G system structural engineering - The Master-Core and in addition equipment and programming for the 5G Master-Core innovation is propose. The proposed system is implemented by nanotechnology, distributed computing and focused around All IP Platform. The paper highlights 5G primary improvement challenges and outlines why there is a need for 5G. It likewise surveys in a word the development of remote and cell frameworks concentrating on four primary key variables: radio access, information rates, and data transfer capacity and exchanging plans notwithstanding change in network architecture.
Diabetes mellitus is a chronic metabolic disorder which is associated with hyperglycemia. It is caused by a derangement in the secretion or function of the endocrinal portion of the pancreas. The aim of the present study was to determine the blood glucose, MDA, amylase levels in 50 cases of type 2 Diabetes Mellitus and to compare and correlate these parameters with those 50 of age and sex matched healthy controls. Glucose and amylase concentrations were analyzed spectrophotometrically by kits in all patients with DM as well as in the control subjects but MDA concentrations was measured by manual methods The results of type 2 DM were compared with control group using One way ANOVA-test to compare parameters in different studied groups. The results show a significant elevation (P ? 0.05) in levels of glucose, MDA, amylase of type 2- diabetic patients in comparison healthy subjects.