This study is focused on biochemical and characterization of thirteen varieties of dates fruits sold in "Fez city date wholesale" in Morocco. Varieties are divided into ten Moroccan varieties "Abourar, Boufeggous, Bouskri, Bouslikh
The craft sector in Morocco, being the second largest jobs' creator after agriculture, reflects the cultural wealth and expertise of master craftsmen. Pottery, especially, is one of the oldest crafts in the world, this activity employs a large number of artisans, and contributes greatly to the growth of the craft sector. This report, resulting from a survey regarding potters in El Oulja, is the study of the influence of the surface of the production unit, the number of people employed and the different types of products manufactured by the production units, compared to the turnover achieved by the latter. Statistical analysis of all variables shows that the number of employees is the only factor to significantly influence the turnover.
The north-eastern Morocco, is a peculiar area which is suspected to be a large impact site. It has a conspicuous ring structure with an apparent diameter of about 200 km of which half is in the sea. Jurassic mountains Taourirt-Oujda-Tlemcen showing an arc form correspond to the outer ring. Mesozoic and Palaeozoic bedrock units are locally brecciated and cut by pseudotachylite breccia dykes. Kebdana mounts with its intense and unusual deformation, form probably the central uplift of a complex crater. A wide variety of breccias is located inside and outside of the crater, many of which contain fragments exhibiting shock metamorphic features. The age of the impact is estimated to be toward the late of Messinian.
The Dam Sidi Chahed is located downstream of the Mikkes and Lmaleh rivers. It's located about 30 km at the NE of Meknes city and about 30 km at the NW of Fez city on the main road between Fez and Sidi Kacem. It was commissioned in 1997 and has a capacity of 170 million m3. It crosses three different structural units with the Middle Atlas to the south, the basin know the center and south-north Rif wrinkles. The use of ArcGIS and Global Mapper has been used to characterize the edge of the dam and its retention Sidi Chahed from ASTER images making several thematic maps which are: the map contours, the DTM, the map slopes and their exposure, thematic map of sub-basins, the thematic map of the river system and its classification, the superposition of the structural and drainage networks, thematic map of rainfall and late distribution maps of physico-chemical parameters. From thematic maps produced for the watershed studied, several geometric calculations were performed to characterize the watersheds under long view, width, equivalent rectangle, area, perimeter and compactness index. These parameters indicate that sub tanks are elongated favoring low flow rates, a greater flow of water and a total amount of time of considerable precipitation harvested. Rainfall results, which were obtained from the isohyets maps are divided into 7 classes with lower values since the Middle Atlas at the south (850 mm) to the Sidi Chahed dam at the north (450 mm).
Acacias are spectacular angiosperms grouping single canopy species to those of tropical forests. Easy growth, hardiness and drought resistance of these Australian Wattle trees give them variable and great economic importance. Indeed, among other they produce, wood, edible seeds, gums and provide a valuable source of high quality fodder, rich in protein for subsistence and commercial production of livestock because they provide foliage during dry periods in the absence of herbaceous species. In addition, they contribute to the warmer climate of arid and semi-arid areas by reducing evaporation and creating a shadow that slows the soil drying and provide the setting and coastal sand dunes with their lateral root system that promotes better maintenance of the sand particles cohesion. Moreover, their ability to develop a dual symbiosis with Rhizobium bacteria and mycorrhizal fungi confers ecological importance. Indeed, they provide soil enrichment and improvement of soil fertility due to their ability to fix atmospheric nitrogen and to explore deep horizons of the soil by their roots. All these factors make it an economic resource of a great environmental and social importance, especially in arid and semi-arid areas, and an excellent candidate for reforestation of Mediterranean areas.
Bromatological toxicities frequencies and probabilities of toxicological levels for ochratoxin A in flour (wheat, corn) and Drinks With Alcohol, especially samples of wine brands (Baron de Valls, Don Simon Sangria, Le Pichet, Bonita, JP. Chenet) reveal a large public health risk for consumers in Cotonou and Porto-Novo. According to European Commission's Regulation 1881/2006, meal should not exceed 3 ng/mL or 3.?10?^(-6)g/l or?3.10?^(-3) mg/l or 3.?10?^(-3) ppm. Unfortunately, corn flour has the highest average content of ochratoxin A which is 4.716 ng/mL with a probability of 0.5%. Wheat flour, has the low average of 1.6287 ng / mL with a probability of 0.5 % . In the same regulation, wines must not exceed 2ng/mL of ochratoxin A. It follows that the average content of ochratoxin A in descending order can be found in " Le Pichet " (1.635 ng / mL with a probability of 26%) ; « Sangria » (1.1359 ng/mL with a probability of 1 %) ; Bonita (0.4059 ng/mL with a probability of 0.5 %). « Baron de Valls "and "JP Chenet" not hold ochratoxin A. Corn flour, wheat, and wines such as Sangria, Bonita, especially Pichet are unfit for human health and regulars measuresmust be taken to ensure people safety.
The aim of this study was to estimate the relative efficiency (RE) of an On-Farm Experiment conducted in randomized complete block design (RCBD) compared with a completely randomized design (CRD). An on-farm experiment was carried out at Noralhuda, Gezira, Sudan during season 2010. A set of six varieties of sorghum were evaluated in this study and data was collected on flowering period (FP), number of plant (NP), plant height (PH, cm), head length (HL, cm)), 100 seed weight (SW, g), forage weight (FW, kg) and productivity (P, t/ha). Relative efficiency to RCBD, of on-farm experiment was about 91%, 2.04%, 1.22% , 0.91% , 0.88% , 0.99% and 0.89 for FP, NP, PH, HL, 100SW, FW, and P respectively. The coefficients of variation (CV), coefficient of determination (R2) and relative efficiency (RE) were 7.70%, 78% and 1.12% for RCBD respectively. The relative efficiency of on-farm trials show the same efficiency comparing to RCBD, as can be expected. It would have attained the same sensitivity as in RCBD or CRD with about approximately 100% of replication used. The use of completely randomized design was most suited on farms where blocks might be difficult to be formed and impractical to maintain, it was found that experimental design efficiency compared to RCBD is not too low on-farming experimental.
The study was performed in to investigate the effects of butter and estrogen on lipid profile and histo-texture of liver and skin in mice. 30 days old 60 (30 male and 30 female) Swiss Albino mice were divided into 6 equal groups of which (M, M1, and M2) were in male and (F, F1, F2) in female. Group M and F (Control) were fed with normal mice pellet. Mice in the group M1 and F1 (butter treated) were fed with 20% butter; group M2 and F2 (estrogen) were fed with estrogen @ of 10 ?g/mice/day. The effect of butter and estrogen in the development of obesity in mice was evaluated based on weight gain, lipid profile, blood glucose and histopathology. In this study in case of male the highest body weight gain was detected in group M1 (P<0.001) and in biochemical study, group M1 showed the increase in total plasma cholesterol (P<0.01), LDL (P<0.01), TG (P<0.001), blood glucose (P<0.05) but increase in HDL (P<0.001) in M2 group compared to control group. In female the highest body weight gain was detected in group F1 (p<0.001) and in biochemical study, group F1 showed the increase in total plasma cholesterol (P<0.01), LDL (P<0.01), TG (P<0.001), blood glucose (P<0.05) but increase in HDL (P<0.001) in F2 group in compared to control group. In histopathological study fatty changes and endothelial desquamation were found in the liver of butter treated groups. Fatty changes, loss of elasticity, dermal thickness were found in the skin of butter treated mice. On the basis of the findings and observations of the present study, it can be concluded that 20% butter supplementation would be able to cause a change in lipid profile and would also produce degenerative changes in liver and skin of mice.
The world may be on the brink of an influenza pandemic. Avian influenza A (subtype H5N1) is causing widespread outbreaks among poultry in Southeast (SE) Asia and Egypt, with sporadic transmission from birds to humans and limited probable human-to-human transmission. In this study, we discussed the most prominent risk factors regarding birds associated with the expected pandemic influenza in Egypt. The final multivariate logistic regression model showed, a significant association between Education level of bird keepers (P<0.05), Poverty (P<0.05) and Presence of community based animal health outreach teams (P<0.05) and the expected pandemic influenza (H5N1) in human in Egypt. According to our knowledge, this is the first paper to discuss the risk factors regarding birds associated with the expected pandemic influenza in Egypt.
In this study, ten BRRI released rice germplasms were used for the purpose of genetic variation and relatedness for BLB resistance in BRRI rice using RAPD markers. Out of ten decamer primers, four were selected finally for a marker-assisted selection program. The primer OPAB02 produced maximum number of bands (10) and showed 60% polymorphic loci. The highest and lowest percentage of polymorphic loci produced by primers S1027 (66.67%) and OPA02 (25%) respectively. In this study the percentage of polymorphic loci was 55.17%. The UPGMA dendrogram based on Nei's genetic distance between different pairs was correlated with their banding pattern. The dendrogram segregated ten germplasms of rice into two main clusters; the main clusters are further divided into sub clusters. BR 10, BR 14, BR 16, BR 26, BRRIdhan29, BRRIdhan32, BRRIdhan33, BRRIdhan34 and BRRIdhan38 formed cluster I whereas BRRIdhan31 comprised the cluster II. In cluster I BR10, BR 14, BR 16, BR 26, BRRIdhan32, BRRIdhan33, BRRIdhan34 BRRIdhan38 formed sub-cluster I and BRRIdhan 29 formed sub- cluster II. Sub-cluster I further divided into two sub-sub clusters based on similar banding pattern and minimum genetic distance. BR14 and BRRIdhan 32 had same banding pattern and lower genetic distance so were in same cluster. BR10, BR16, BRRIdhan33 and BRRIdhan34 were placed in same group due to their banding similarity, intergermplasm similarity and low genetic distance. Thus, RAPD perform a potentially simple, rapid and reliable method to evaluate genetic diversity and molecular characterization as well.
In today's predominant silicon based technology, a lot of research is carried out in using various silicon based matrices especially for new, efficient and reduced cost solar cells. This has led to a deep research into third generation silicon based thin film solar cells that consist of nanostructures. In this respect, a variety of silicon based host matrices have been investigated for solar cell applications including silicon dioxide and silicon nitride. Recently, interest has been extended to silicon carbide (SiC) because of its lower band gap (2.5 eV) as compared to SiO2 (9eV) and Si3N4 (5.3eV), in order to favor better electrical conductivity. This paper reports the initial works carried out on silicon carbide based thin films, where in, optical and structural properties of the film were investigated. These results would be useful in carrying out further research on the fabrication of Si nanostructures in SiC based matrix which is a challenge in today's research scenario.
Our work is within the framework of a study aiming at industrializing the manufacturing technique of decorative plates in parts of traditional Zellij, starting from geometrical reasons constructed with the help of the Computer Aided Design. We propose in this article a new method of a continues carving the primitive forms of Zellij, compared to the current traditional process : manual lithic reduction face by face. This new method allows to obtain the path of the tool of carving following an automatic recognition of the contour of each primitive forms of Zellij. Dimensions and colors of primitive forms that are going to be carved can be modified to the level of the Computer Aided Design.
The awareness of the environmental impacts of human activity has led to the adoption of several initiatives to promote more sustainable development. Producing and consuming, while minimizing impacts on the environment is one approach to reduce environmental degradation. Pressure from governments and consumers leads companies to introduce environmental constraints among the criteria to take into account in their activities. As product is at the heart of their activities, attention is focused on it since its design phase and this for its entire life cycle. This new approach consists to consider the environmental constraints the same way as other constraints related to cost, quality and delay at the design stage. This process, known as eco-design, attracts the attention of both industry and academia. Many tools and methods have been proposed to allow the deployment of this new approach. In this paper, we reviewed the impact of eco-design, and proposed approaches to help companies to realize more important saving.
Measurement and evaluation in education is very important on a wide spectrum across the board. They provide information needed in overall education planning. Decisions on instructional aims, units, grades or marks enable teachers and school administrators to determine the extent to which pupils are growing towards the desired goals. Through measurement and evaluation, a teacher can diagnose the strengths and weaknesses of pupils and takes a progress on remedial action. If effectively utilised, measurement and evaluation may lead to the improvement of both instruction and the learning situation. Without evaluation and measurement, it is impossible to know a student's needs and preferences. In the Zimbabwean primary school system, heads and teachers use measurement and evaluation to ascertain the abilities and levels of attainment by students in areas such as reading, writing, and in all subject areas. This research investigated the effectiveness of measurement and evaluation in Zimbabwean schools using the quantitative paradigm. The study adopted the descriptive survey design. The target population comprised all primary school teachers in Bulawayo's Mzilikazi district with a teacher establishment of 120 teachers. The sample consisted of 100 teachers and 10 heads of schools. Of the sample respondents, 85 were female and 25 were male. All the information was collected through a questionnaire which had both close-ended and open-ended questions. Descriptive statistical analysis was used to interpret data. The study revealed that heads predominantly used summative evaluation and teachers preferred tests, class work and oral work. The study also revealed that lack of resources hampered efforts by both heads and teachers to conduct effective measurement and evaluation sessions. The study recommends that schools should mobilise more resources towards measurement and evaluation.
It is an indisputable fact that expert teachers are perhaps the most fundamental resource for improving student learning. Therefore, the need for the retention of qualified teachers particularly in specialist areas cannot be overemphasized. In many developing countries, Zimbabwe included, teacher turn-over has been a problem especially since the outbreak of HIV/AIDS where during the early 1990s, a large number of professionals, teachers included, succumbed to the epidemic in large numbers. Other factors like retirement and resignations have also played a role towards teacher turn-over. However, the most common form of teacher turn-over is whereby qualified teachers leave poor rural schools to better schools particularly in urban areas. Thus, most rural schools fail to attract qualified mathematics and science teachers and resort to using the unqualified and under qualified teachers thereby creating a dilemma, where the least prepared teachers teach the most educationally vulnerable children. As a result, the pass rate of pupils in rural secondary schools at public examinations, particularly in mathematics and science is consistently low. This study draws on a quantitative inquiry to investigate teachers' perceptions on the causes of high-turnover of mathematics and science teachers from rural secondary schools in Zimbabwean secondary schools. The study adopted the descriptive survey design. The target population comprised all secondary school teachers from Nkayi District in Matabeland North Province. The sample consisted of 120 teachers randomly sampled. All the information was collected through a questionnaire which largely had close-ended questions and two open-ended questions. The study revealed that the majority of teachers felt that poor conditions of service forced many mathematics and science teachers to leave rural secondary schools if not the teaching profession altogether. The high teacher turn over caused high failure rates in mathematics and science in the rural secondary schools. The study recommends that Government should allocate more resources to rural schools in order to improve the working conditions of teachers. The study also recommends that there should be a specific rural allowance for mathematics and science teachers to attract and retain more expert teachers in these subject areas.
Zimbabwe gained its independence in 1980, after almost 100 years of British colonial rule. The colonial era was built on white supremacy, racial segregation and oppression of the majority African population by the white minority. The first ten years of independence were committed to rectifying the social inequities brought by the former colonial regimes. The new government was committed to the creation of a socialist state, which was guided by the principles of social justice and equality. Education was declared a fundamental human right. It was regarded as a potent tool for social and economic transformation. As a result, the formal sector of the education system was expanded to unprecedented levels. Secondary schools increased from a paltry 197 in 1980 to 1502 by 1989, a sharp increase of 662%. Enrolments increased by over 200% across the whole system. The majority of the new secondary schools were built in the rural areas first as upper-tops, that is using nearby primary schools infrastructure to do their business and later constructed in independent sites. In spite of the noble idea of availing secondary school education to the majority of rural students who needed it, there is a widespread out cry across the country about the low performance of pupils from these schools at Ordinary Level Examinations. The majority of these schools produce 0% pass rates year-in year-out. In view of the above, this study set out to investigate the major causes of high failure rate in Nkayi Rural District Secondary Schools. The population constituted of the 650 secondary school teachers in the district. A total of 100 respondents selected using random sampling was used for the study. These were made up of 55 females and 45 male teachers. The research instrument used was the questionnaire which had both close-ended and open-ended questions. Descriptive statistical analysis was used to interpret data. The study revealed that teachers attributed pupils' high failure rate to lack of materials and equipment for teaching, inadequate supervision, teacher incompetency among others. The study recommends that the Ministry of Primary and Secondary Education should embark on a massive infrastructural development to provide adequate classrooms and specialist rooms for rural secondary schools. Teachers should be adequately motivated so as to boost their moral and parents should be encouraged to support the learning of their children.
Demand for education in most developing countries (Zimbabwe included) is very high whereas the corresponding supply is low. Since education is a public service it inevitably implies that governments should wholly provide this service to all citizens who require it. However, due to financial constraints, the governments are unable to meet the educational demands for their populations. This, therefore, gives private players the chance to augment the efforts of the governments. The study was carried out in Harare Province. The study draws on a quantitative inquiry on the role played by private players in the provision of secondary education in Zimbabwe. A total of 200 respondents were used of which 110 were female and 90 were male. These were students enrolled by the four colleges that were sampled for the study. The study revealed that the teacher-pupil ratio was higher than that stipulated by regulations, most students enrolled for less than five subjects, there was shortage of textbooks, there was little participation in sports, teachers were not competent in most subject areas and most pupils were dissatisfied with the education they were receiving from these colleges. The study recommends that the Ministry of Primary and Secondary Education should closely monitor the operations of private colleges so as to ensure that they adhere to regulations regarding minimum standards on provision of secondary education. Teachers in private colleges should attend in-service courses to help them with their professional conduct.
This study determined technical efficiency of wheat farmers in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. Data from 300 wheat growers were collected through multistage stratified random sampling technique. Maximum likelihood estimation technique was applied to estimate stochastic frontier Cobb-Douglas production function to estimate the level of technical efficiency in wheat farming. Results showed that explanatory variables i.e., land under wheat crop, labor, chemical fertilizer, and tractor plough were statistically significant. The estimated elasticity for these variables indicated that a one percent increase in land under wheat crop, labor, chemical fertilizer and tractor plough would raise the wheat yield by 0.126, 0.248, 0.081, 0.226 and 0.066 percent respectively. The coefficient of farm yard manure was found insignificant. The estimated value of technical efficiency ranges from 39 to 94 per cent, with an average of 64 per cent. This means that if an average farmer opts to attain the technical efficiency level of its most efficient counterpart, then wheat yield could be increased by 32 per cent. Similarly the most technically inefficient farmer could enhance wheat yield by 58 per cent. Farmers' age, farming experience, farmer' education and land under wheat crop were major determinants of technical inefficiency. The relationship between farmers' age and technical inefficiency was positive and statistically significant implied that technical efficiency decreases with the increase in the farmers' age. The coefficient of farming experience was negative but statistically insignificant. The coefficient of farmers' education was negative and statistically significant which implied that inefficiency decreases with increase in the farmers' education in the study area. The relationship between technical inefficiency and land under wheat crop was positive suggesting that those farmers with relatively large farm size under wheat crop are technically inefficient but the coefficient is insignificant. It is suggested the use of more labor and tractor plough hours would increase wheat production in the country. Government of Pakistan should focus on formal as well as informal education in the country. Government should also encourage educated and young people to participate in agriculture particularly wheat growing.
A total of 62 Peste des Petits ruminants (PPR) outbreaks in sheep and goat flocks were investigated in Pakistan during 2005-2007. The presence of PPR virus (PPRV) was confirmed by clinical picture, necropsy examination, Ic-ELISA, virus isolation and RT-PCR. Of 397 tissue samples, 65% tested positive by Ic-ELISA. Six PPR virus isolates were obtained through cell culture on VERO or GKC cell from 61Ic-ELISA positive samples identified by characteristic CPEs and confirmed by testing the cell culture supernatant by Ic-ELISA and RT-PCR using PPRV specific F gene based primers. The sequence data of F gene from 6 isolates was analyzed for identities and a phylogenetic tree was generated based on 372bp F gene sequences of PPRV. The isolates were clustered into lineage 4 along with other Asian isolates. The recent isolates and a previous isolate from Pakistan (PAK-2004) were found to be monophyletic having close relationship with an Indian isolate (IND-PON).
This paper is mainly analytical and comparative. Here I have proposed three new forms of predictor-corrector formulae for solving ordinary differential equation of first order and first degree. These predictor-corrector formulae have derived by taking the general forms of predictor-corrector. These formulae approximate the value of dependent variable based on five initial value of independent variable by predictor formula and then improve that initial crude value of dependent variable by corrector formula. A comparative analysis among proposed three predictor-corrector formula with Milne's predictor-corrector formula and Adam-Moulton's predictor-corrector formula by means of comparing with exact value of dependent variable have expressed as relative error. Finally, conclusive discussions have narrated.
Two hundred potable water samples were garnered from myriad rustic areas of Pakistan. These were perceptible by fifty illustrative individually from Khyber Pukhtoonkhuwa (KPK), Punjab, Sindh and Baluchistan. From the bacteriological appraisal, it was corroborated that indispensible turfs of Pakistan such has Sindh and Khyber Pukhtoonkhuwa aqua founts was hexed with boisterous total colony counts i.e. (38%) and (40%) on average for samples enthralling >5700 bacterial count. Abiding preposterous intensity of fecal E.coli, Enterococci, Streptococci and other pathogens cardinally Pseudomonas, Clostridia pose inimical predicament by ameliorating recrudescence of water borne contagion. The deemed magnitude of sullied potable water is (52%) which according to World Health Organization (WHO), this grade of water is bacteriologically ominous and government and citizenry should apprehend worthwhile and optimistic approaches to cope the egregious circumstance of the country.
The study examined the changes in land use/land cover (LULC) in Jalingo between 1988 and 2006. Six LULC types were classified in the study area from Landsat TM image of 1988, Landsat ETM image of 1999 and NigSat image of 2006. The six LULC types were bareland, built-up, cultivation, shrubland, water body and wetland. The data were analyzed using thinning, overlay operations, calculation of the area in km2 of the resulting LULC type and LULC change matrix. The software used in the analysis are ERDAS and ILWIS 3.2.The areas of bareland, cultivation, water body, shrubland and wetland have decreased by 1.53km2 (1.6%), 19.22km2 (71%),0.15km2 (0.6%) 0.22km2 (0.81%) and1.64km2 (6.0%) from 1988 to 2006. Conversely, the area of built-up land has increased by 15.62km2 (40.2%) during the same period. Built-up land lost 11.64 km2 and gain 27.26km2 from 1988 to 2006 with the highest contribution of 19.22km2 (71%) from cultivated land. The study recommended among others, the need for appropriate legislations to be put in place to check indiscriminate sprawling. The study concludes that increase in the proportion of urban population is the principal driver of land use/land cover change in Jalingo town.
Droughts manifested in the changes in frequency, duration and changes in rainfall patterns directly impact on livestock assets of pastoral households of which Maasai community in Kajiado County of Kenya exemplifies. The community is seasonally exposed to drought effects and has adjusted their livestock feeding practices to cope but knowledge gaps exists as to whether the adjusted feeding practices adequately aligns to the magnitude of change experienced, This study established the influence of drought duration on livestock feeding practices from sample of 136 households, selected using simple random sampling procedure. A large majority of the sampled households had noticed changes in the frequency of droughts (98.5 %), increased drought duration (97.8%), unpredictable onset and patterns of rains (99.3%) and longer droughts lasting 7 to 12 months on average. Despite noticing increased trends of changing and variable climate, a large majority of the sample households (87.5%) continues with traditional herd mobility in coping with drought effects and limited uptake of supplementary feeding, demonstrating non uptake of planned adaptation strategies, which poses threats to livestock assets of pastoral community. Urgent interventions is therefore advised for the Maasai community to include introduction and promotion of harvesting and storing natural hay for drought feeding, use of drought tolerant livestock breeds, targeted livestock off-take to reduce economic losses and construction of watering facilities in the area and regular desilting of existing water pans to ensure adequate water harvesting during the rains for watering livestock during drought periods.
Aim - To evaluate the effect of EDTA-Urea peroxide combination on smear layer and root dentin surface at different time intervals. Methodology - 24 specimens were prepared from 12 freshly extracted non carious intact human maxillary central incisors. These 24 specimens were randomly divided into 2 groups. Group-A: Control group having 4 specimens. Group-B (15% EDTA-10% Urea peroxide combination) 20 specimens
Items with irregular and sporadic demand profiles are frequently tackled by companies, given the necessity of proposing wider and wider mix, along with characteristics of specific market fields (i.e., when spare parts are manufactured and sold). Furthermore, a new company entering into the market is featured by irregular customers' orders. Hence, consistent efforts are spent with the aim of correctly forecasting and managing irregular and sporadic products demand. In this paper, the problem of correctly forecasting customers' orders is analyzed by new method. Specifically, new proposal forecasting method (i.e., CUM modCr Method) for items are empirically analyzed and tested in the case of data coming from the industrial field and characterized by intermittence. Hence, in the conclusions section, new method produces better results than the existing method.
This article aims main aim to show the nutritional and food side truck farming of the town of Niamey through the dependents of the producers. It also shows that the production of vegetables is a completely male activity. This work was completed after a series of investigations in the town of Niamey (of 2008 to 2010), carried out near a sample of 324 producers. Each one of these investigations primarily interested three localities of Niamey (Cornice of Gamkalley, Gounti y
The present research examines the different teaching strategies especially among the graduated students. This research focuses on the different teaching strategies and how can these types affected on the students. The study examines the effectiveness of the different strategies among graduated students. The main objective of this research is to explore the different teaching strategies, who much they are different from each other and what's the linkage between the different teaching strategies. Because researcher objective to examined the effectiveness on the graduated students. That's why the universe for this research consisted of all the graduated students of Multan in Pakistan. Then the target population of the present research was the students of Bahauddin Zakariya University, Multan. For this research, 800 respondents were selected through the convenient sampling technique from the different department of the Bahauddin Zakariya University, Multan. Relationship among variables and statistical analysis was done through SPSS Software. Chi square test was used to find out the association between the teaching technique and its effectiveness. The main finding of this research is that different teaching strategies raise the level of interest of learners. Teacher should make their teaching style more interesting and challenging for the students. For this purpose teacher can take help from the different teaching strategies. Different students come from the different culture and linguistic background. That's why no single strategy is effective for the entire learner and adopt such a technique that is effective for all the students.
Long jump consist of served connected stages of run of the approaching, preparing to upgrade with three final steps, upgrade, take off, and downgrade. Ostensibly of these phases whole constitute a artistic performance the correct if their interdependence that serves objective of this skill. Either the research problem results showed that at the local level far from at the international level in the long jump competition, and that This requires the staff prepare Training Programmers to train the own physical abilities and according to results achieved for the narrow the gap between the global and achievements of the Iraqi. This study aimed to identify some variables of momentary strain and speed of final upgrade step through kinetic analysis, facilitating exercises such as rubber cords in direction of the movement and mobile traffic device for application movements of momentary strain, detection the impacts of the training on mentioned variables. The research is to impose There are statistically significant differences between tribal and a posteriori the tests of the values of the intraday speed of payment approach and achievement of the two groups of search. While search proceedings were used the video and imaging variables the extracted from it, The variables included biomechanics speed last step (through analysis), Starting speed (through analysis), The momentum change during Rise (through analysis), the force hanging over panel when Rise using foot scanner. Has been applied workouts Balahbal rubber device traffic moving on the experimental group for a period not less than 8 weeks Reality two units every week and determine intensity accordance with the time of maximum ran done and maximum Of fo rce rope user was the training in the main section of the unit's training exercises complementary Be the gradient of pregnancy-training at 1: 3 in order to have influential and effective training depending on the scientific underpinnings. The Statistical means: statistic the bag been used (SPSS). Most Conclusions: 1- The correct special exercises using rubber cods and mobile traffic was more considerable in the long jump. 2- Exercises of rubber cords frequently lead to stimulation of nervous system and improvement of nervous signals sending to muscles, these exercises contribute to reduce the time of ground connection, and subsequent reduction of momental strain time.
Internet is an important facilitator for students and students use this medium almost every time. As an Online Registration, internet attracts students to apply online at university for easier, save their time, Available in (anytime / anywhere). Online registration is beneficial for both students and university. Students can adapt newer technologies so they can adapt internet as registration tool in university of Diyala. By just clicking a mouse, student can register in any college at university of diyala online. This paper is to design online registration forum for university of diyala and also to study the benefit and reason describing the attraction of the students towards online registration.
The economic growth of a country is somehow dependent on the road network of such country and for the highways to be very effective, its geometrical features must be in line with required standards. A study for the effects of geometrical features on highway was conducted on Ado-Ikere road, Nigeria. The paper therefore looks into the critical points where accidents occur frequently along the road. Some geometrical features on these points were examined and it was observed that the medians measured 1.00m to 2.00m instead of the standard of 5.0m while the shoulders measured between 1.50m to 2.7m instead of 2.75m. The specified drainage design width of 3.00m ranges between 0.60m and 0.63m when measured and the right of way of 60.00m standard value ranges between 25.50m to 45.00m while the sight distance of 150.00m for the design speed of 100km/h ranges between 38m
The international financial crisis of 2007 is a good illustration of the realization and the spread of systemic risk. The banking crisis has peaked in September 2008 with the collapse of Lehman Brothers and later support for the financial system. In the spring of 2010, it turned into a sovereign debt crisis. Since the summer, 2011, general instability has continued to reach new heights. This article deals with a phenomenon that lies at the heart of the current situation in the euro area: the phenomenon of contagion. The contagion is one of the mechanisms by which ?nancial instability spreads to the point that a crisis reached systemic proportions. In this article, we use the CDS as an instrument to test the contagion in the financial markets of 9 countries of the Euro area: Portugal, Ireland, Italy, Germany, Greece, Spain, Austria, France and Belgium using the DCC-GARCH model.
The theme of environmental protection at the international level dresses very special interest, and it in light of substantial damage to the planet, and the ecological and financial losses that result. Therefore, this article raises the inescapable problem attached to answer the following questions: What is the legal framework for environmental protection at the international level? Is there a real protection of the environment at the international level through the implementation of this legislation at the time of injury affecting the international environment? And finally, can we make a critical assessment of the failure of international environmental law? To better understand this topic two components seem essential to mention, namely, a study of protective legal regime of international environmental law, and the implementation of environmental legislation in the context of injury related to the international environment through the study of a criminal trial on the damage to the environment.
Background: These works were designed to investigate the influence of androgens (by castration and testosterone treatment) on growth and development of murine leukaemia cell line P388 in vitro and in vivo. To approach the mechanism of this hormone, the cell cycle was analysed in bone marrow cells and tumour tissue in vitro and on murine leukaemia cell line (P388) in culture. The anti-androgen CA was used to provide additional information concerning the androgen receptor in leukaemia cells. Materials and methods: The effect of Depo-Testosterone (DT) and Cyproterone-Acetate (CA) were studied on growth tumour and cell cycle progression, in bone marrow and tumour tissue of intact or castrated P388 tumour-bearing BDF1 mice. In parallel the effect of various concentrations of DT (10-8, 10-7, 10-6, 10-4 M) was investigated on the proliferation and cell cycle of P388 leukaemia cell line in vitro. Results: In P388 tumour-bearing mice, DT (0.5mg/100g body weight) treatment reduced strongly the weight and the appearance rate of tumour in non-castrated (NC) and castrated animals. In NC animals, the cell cycle analysis showed a significant decrease in the number of cells in S phase in tumour tissue under DT or CA treatment. Same results were obtained in bone marrow with DT only. The cells accumulate into G2/M and G0/G1 phases respectively. In vitro testosterone can inhibit the proliferation of leukaemic cells with a pharmacological dose of 10-7M. This growth inhibition was associated with cell cycle arrest in G0/G1 phase. This effect was dose and time dependent. Conclusion: The data demonstrated that both in vivo and in vitro, testosterone prevent the growth of P388 leukaemia cells and induce changes in their cell cycle. The similar effect of CA and DT on tumour growth inhibition, in cell cycle of bone marrow and tumour tissue may suggest differences between androgen receptors of sexual organs and leukemic cells.
Automatic Feature Recognition (AFR) has played a crucial role linking Computer Aided Design (CAD) activities and Computer Aided Process Planning (CAPP) activities. For the purpose, many methods have been developed to recognize form features from CAD files, taking into account features interactions. Among one of the most efficient approaches that can handle features interactions is the Cell-based volume decomposition approach. However, on the one hand, this method suffers from computational combinatorial explosions when multiple interpretations of sets to remove volumetric features from a same part are generated. On the other hand, not all interpretations are rational from a machining point of view in the real manufacturing environment. This paper describes a new approach to eliminate the undesirable interpretations of features, according to manufacturing rules and metal removal principals. A Features Suppression system is elaborated, and which consists in adding or removing material rings matching to some volumetric features of the part. By this way, the part and the stock are modified, and the number of interacting features that are used to generate multiple interpretations of features is remarkably reduced. A simple example part has been processed through this paper to validate the approach.
In Sahel, Callosobruchus maculatus (F.) (Coleoptera: Bruchinae) is one of the most fearsome pest of Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata Walp). To effectively combat this pest, many authors have advocated leaves Boscia senegalensis, plant commonly used by African producers in the protection of stored products. In this study, the factors that may influence the insecticidal activity of this insecticide plant in the Cowpea storage structures were examined. It is the effect of an increase in the mass of stored seeds, the effect of an increase in the numbers of insects and the effect of shelf life of broy
This work is a contribution in the technical and instrumentation sides related to the field of photovoltaic renewable energy. It presents the details of a simple and low cost electronic realization, capable of increasing the production of photovoltaic electricity. This system is based on an electronic device developed with a microcontroller and other components available on the market. In effect, this electronic card can mechanically control the angular orientations of photovoltaic panels, with actuators connected to a power electronics developed to automatically tracking of the sun position. This system is compared with other fixed photovoltaic system, which was experimentally positioned with optimal physical and geometrical parameters. The results of tests and comparison show the energy benefits and economic and technical interest of this realization.
This research work compared the power of some specification error test using bootstrapping experiment to generate the data for each of the models at different sample sizes (n) 20, 30, 50, and 80 respectively, each with 100 replications(r). The models in this research consist of three omitted variables. For the models considered, the experiment reveals that the Ramsey Regression Equation Specification Error Test (RESET test) is more efficient than that of Q test in detecting the error of omitted variable in specification error.
Collision tumor means the coexistence of two adjacent tumors, but histologically distinct without mixture into the fabric. These tumors involving the ovaries are rare. Benign cystic teratomas are often present at the same time as other abnormalities of the ovary. The most common histological combination in the ovary is the coexistence of cystic mature teratoma with mucinous tumors, its association with serous tumors is rare and the incidence is unknown. Ovarian mature cystic teratomas are benign often diagnosed in young girls. We present a rare case of a triple coexistence of a large tumor collision (consisting of a serous cystadenoma, mucinous cystadenoma and a mature cystic teratoma Benin) in the same ovary in a girl of 16 years.
The study's objective was to assess the role of toxicological screening by high performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection (HPLC-DAD) in diagnosis of drug intoxication to compare those results with results obtained by immunoassay and colorimetric tests. This prospective study was carried out over a period of one year (2012) at the Laboratory of Moroccan Poison Control and Pharmacovigilance Center. Toxicological screening was performed by using HPLC-DAD, immunoassay and colorimetric tests using plasma and urine of 107 patients. The plasma sample was submitted to a liquid-liquid extraction. The residue was subjected to HPLC-DAD using prazepam as the internal standard. The separation was carried out on an ODS-Hypersil column with phosphate buffer /acetonitrile as the mobile phase. The screening immunoassay and colorimetric tests have been applied to urine samples. The most common drugs present were benzodiazepines (39, 44%) and antidepressants (23, 94%). The results showed a good agreement (67.29 %) between the results of screening by HPLC-DAD and results obtained by immunoassay and colorimetric tests. The discordance was occurred in 32.71%. In our study, the causes of discordance were technical limits. It was the absence of the molecule suspected at the spectral library or the similarity of the UV-spectra. In other cases the toxicokinetic of the suspected substance influence the results; the compound is metabolized or even eliminated or the identified drug is administered to the patient as symptomatic treatment. Data analysis shows that toxicological screening by HPLC -DAD allows the identification of unrecognized drugs by immunoassay and colorimetric tests. This method can simultaneously identify several molecules belonging to different classes of drugs.
In this work, the linear stability analysis of a pulsed Taylor-Couette flow is investigated in the case of a linear Maxwell fluid when both cylinders are subjected to an out-of phase modulation with equal modulation amplitude and equal modulation frequency. The linear problem is solved using the Floquet theory and a technique of converting a boundary value problem to an initial value problem. Attention is focused on the influence of elasticity on the critical parameters corresponding to the onset of instability. The numerical results show that the Deborah number has a destabilizing effect in the high frequency limit and the critical parameters are independent on the frequency number. However, in the low frequency limit the Maxwell fluid behaves as a Newtonian one and no effect of Deborah number is observed.
Rosemary, Rosmarinus officinalis L., is an herb widely used throughout the world. It is, without doubt, one of the most popular plants in Morocco. For the purpose of examining the factors affecting the extraction of the essential oil of this plant by hydrodistillation, a screening study by Hadamard matrix type Plackett and Burman was conducted. After an appropriate choice of seven variables, sixteen experiments lead to a mathematical model of first degree connecting the response function (yield) to factors. Later than the realization of the experiments and data analysis, we concluded that six factors have a significant effect on the hydrodistillation process, namely: the extracting time, the individuality effect, the harvest period, the mass plant/water ratio, the drying of plant material and the temperature of heating. As for the cutting of plants, it presents a statistically negligible effect. Our study proved the great efficiency to applying the experiments design methodology for characterizing the operational parameters that affect the hydrodistillation. It is about a relevant and economical way which allows to obtain the maximum of information in a short time and, especially, with a minimum of experiments.
The structural phase transformation under induced pressure of the GaAs- zinc blende (ZB) phase to rock salt (RS) phase, elastic properties and electronic structure of the stable (ZB) phase are studied under the framework of the density functional theory (DFT). When pressure is increased up to 10.7 GPa, transition from the GaAs-ZB to GaAs-RS structure occurs and the dependence of volume decrease of ZB to RS structure at the transition pressure is 14.11%. The elastic parameters such as elastic constants C11, C12, C33, Zener anisotropic factor (A), Kleinmann parameter (?), Poisson's ratio (?), Youngs modulus (Y) and energy band gap of GaAs-ZB structure shows a systematic variation with increase in pressure upto transition pressure. The results are found to be in consistent with other experimental and theoretical results.
The steady slip flow assuming blood as the Casson fluid has been studied under the influence of transverse magnetic field. The results for the axial velocity, plug flow velocity, flow flux and the wall shear stress have been analyzed analytically and graphically taking suitable parameters. The analysis shows that the axial velocity, plug flow velocity and the flow flux increase along axial distance as the pressure gradient, magnetic field gradient and slip velocity increase but they decrease when the stenosis height increases. Also the wall shear stress showing fluctuations increase in z
This article provides a framework for synthesis of the productivity and the competitiveness of Tunisian mining industry which highlights the significant contribution of the Tunisian mining Firm to national economy, being a natural monopoly, which differed remarkably according to key indicators such as using a study for a period between (1999-2012): its Corporate Social responsibility CSR and mine environment protection, their accumulation of human capital, the international Joint-venture (J-V) alliance and their investment. The analyzes on this study period shows two major economic shocks, such as hydrocarbon in June 2007, affecting the production chain of this mining citizen Firm who's most serious in 2011, dates from the revolution. In addition, the Firm was able to overcome the challenges of this date and found an agreement with the social demands of the citizens in the mining Basin and will come to recovery at the average rate of production from 2012 to our days.