"Innovation is not the idea, but what you do with it". Can ideation be engendered by artificial means? Can it come from bio-inspiration? In this third review centered on innovation, open innovation, and now disruptive innovation, the authors have reviewed and re-contextualized various bio-inspired technologies ranking from pharmaceutical developments, medical treatments, software and hardware, energy, materials and natural polymers. This after a refreshing introduction associated with 1- the skills of the "bio-inspired" business engineer, 2- the open innovation process path and discipline therewith and 3- the patent value of the pioneering, possibly disruptive inventions in the typical patent portfolio. A knowledge flow pattern, from sharing, integration, search, generation, classification, dissemination, to application, is proposed to outline the necessary understanding of bio-inspiration to yield application of innovative value; still nurturing the proposed knowledge "life cycle". The necessary creative confidence can be gained, reinforced by the bio-observation and inspiration; nonetheless a larger set of functions may need to take part to the innovation process with their own recognized and valued creative potential and phobia elimination. When performed by enlarged teams comprising the engineer, scientist, IP strategist, business model expert, sales and marketing teams, accountant, executive and operating teams, the ATA
Recommender systems are software solutions that provide a list of suggestions which contains elements that can be of preference for each user. The use of these systems in multimedia content publish platforms facilitates the search of audiovisual content. The objective of this research is to analyze the techniques of collaborative filtering recommendation based on using the benefits of a large user community. In this research is carried out the description of the process flow for generating recommendations. Collaborative filtering algorithms based on users and items were analyzed and the evaluated algorithms with best results in the data set of the platform were selected. The main problems of the selected collaborative filtering technique, such as the problem of the new items, were also analyzed and solutions were proposed. The developed system was encapsulated in a module for VideoWeb 1.0 platform that uses the Drupal CMS in version 6. The results were evaluated using the mean absolute error method and presented using a range of 50 to 200 neighbors. The integration of the recommendations module to the platform provides an increase in the personalization of the multimedia content posted in order to satisfy each user preferences. This module offers an increase in the reliability of the users and minimizes the research time of the multimedia content.
Most of the theories of consumer buying decision-making assume that the consumer's purchase decision process consists of several steps. However, it may vary from product to services but all the customers pass through similar process. This study will help the marketers to understand various steps in the whole process of consumer decision making for final purchase of the products of their choices. The marketers may improve their marketing strategies by understanding issues which are most common in the different consumer decision model developed by earlier researchers and scholars of marketing management. In the present study we have tried to identify the major cues for purchase decision making and we have also explained various buying decision model which are most valuable in marketing literature like consumer psychology (how consumers think, feel, reason, and select between different alternatives), the psychology of how the consumer is influenced by his or her environment, behavior while at shopping, consumer knowledge or information processing abilities etc. and we have focused as how marketer can improve methods to convince the customers effectively.
This study investigates to what extent Moroccan primary school teachers utilize questions as a powerful pedagogical implement to stimulate thinking and construct knowledge. The intent is to highlight the forms and functions of questions posed and how effective they are in consolidating understanding and scaffolding thinking. The theoretical framework underpinning this study is embedded within the sociocultural perspective that conceptualizes the classroom as a cultural location of meaning in which relationships, functions, regulations, values, and norms are socially constructed. The study draws on observation data in large-class settings. Twenty teachers from five different schools took part in the study. Fifty lessons covering a range of subjects and topics were observed. Some of the lessons were audiotaped following teachers' consent. Verbal manuscripts of classroom questions were analyzed qualitatively and quantitatively. The focus was on questioning exchanges and how they aided or obstructed knowledge construction and cognitive engagement of learners. The findings of this study illustrate how whole-class questioning is dominated by factual questions requiring prescripted responses. Few questions were of speculative nature, which invites opinions, hypotheses and imaginings. Teachers employ questioning to retain control and to support their teaching, rather than pupil learning. . From the results it can then be recommended that in-service workshops should be supplied for teachers, and courses on how to use effective classroom questions to advance attainment/ learning outcomes of students. The concern for good use of teachers' classroom questions for effectual learning outcomes should also be integrated in the training programs at different teacher training centers in Morocco.
The importance to incorporate mathematics in education has gain worldwide recognition, as it has a great potential of improving the level and quality of education completely. Mathematics is the bases of creation and is also the bases of learning and any student who is excellent in mathematics has a greater probability in excelling in other subjects as well. Today's era of technology cannot be discussed without making reference to the mathematics. Technology relates it building blocks to mathematics and any nation that wants to develop technologically must pay special attention to the study of mathematics. However, the teaching and learning of mathematics in our education is faced by a lot of hindrances. This study examines the challenges of the teaching and learning of mathematics in second cycle institutions in Ghana at Kumasi Metropolis. The researcher administered 400 total questionnaires, interviews and focus groups discussions, and a sample of three hundred and sixty (360) respondents made up of one hundred (100) teachers and two hundred and sixty (260) students respondent to them. Stratified sampling method was used to group the school population into two (2) main categories: teaching staff, and student. Random sampling was then used to select 360 respondents for data collection. After the study, it came out that, some of the problems are; lack of teaching and learning materials representing 22.22% according to the data gathered from the respondents ,from the respondents another problem was inconsistent syllabus by Ghana Education Service with a percentage of 16.67%, poor attitude towards the study of mathematics by students also had a percentage of 19.44%.
The development of systems using microwaves for military telecommunications and consumer, requires discrete components and power that can operate at high frequencies. It is efficient components for operating systems such as high electron mobility transistor (HEMT). The potential of transistors HEMTs based heterostructure AlGaN / GaN high interest to the international scientific community and are certainly the most currently studied worldwide. They have emerged as attractive candidates for applications in high voltage, high frequency to microwave power. By the spontaneous and piezoelectric polarization, they have the facility to produce a two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) at the interface with a high concentration without doping intensional. The market for power components based on this material is booming for many applications. In this article we studied some properties of nitride materials existing in the structure for a better functioning of the component, it is necessary to have a physical simulation model for describing the heterojunction AlGaN / GaN, and the fundamental principles of electrical operation a HEMT transistor. In this model, this electron mobility 2DEG depending on the gate voltage in the transistor channel and the Al concentration.
Objective: To investigative the influence of immediate loading on the stress distribution around dental implants with reductions in buccal cortical bone thickness. Materials and Methods: Three bone level dental implants (3.8mm, 4.5mm and 5.0mm diameters and a standard length of 10mm) were modeled and each placed in three mandibular bone segments having variations in buccal cortical bone thickness (2.0mm, 1.5mm and 1.0mm). A total of 9 such models were created and discretized with tetrahedral elements of parabolic displacement function. Implant-bone interface was simulated with non-linear contacts zone with friction. Implants were assumed to be placed at an insertion torque of 40Ncm and the fixation force was mathematically calculated for each of the three implants. A uniformly distributed vertical static load of a 150N was applied to the horizontal surfaces of the abutments. The overall stress distribution of von Mises criteria and micro-strain were recorded along the contact areas of implant and surrounding bone and statistically analyzed. Results: At an insertion torque of 40Ncm the pre-load calculations indicate a reduction in the compressive stresses as the diameters of the implants increase with fixation forces of 93.14N, 83.49N and 75.49N for the 3.8mm, 4.5mm and 5.0mm diameter implants. The maximum stresses were seen in the upper one third of the buccal cortical bony plates which tends to reduce as the diameter of the implant increases. The peak von Mises stresses were 173MPa, 126MPa and 98MPa for the 3.8mm, 4.5mm and 5.0mm implants. The total maximum mesh displacement seen for the 3.8mm, 4.5mm and 5.0mm models was 55
A new design of Microcotroller-TMS320F28335 based control card is being design and developed. This card is used to control and monitor the parameters of the analog signal conditioning cards which are used to measure the different plasma characteristic of the upcoming globally challenging and competitive Tokamak, SST-1 in the Institute for Plasma Research. The characteristics of the long time plasma may change in a large dynamic range and the number of diagnostic channels are in more than two hundreds, so the remote controlling of some parameters of the signal conditioning electronics such as amplifier gain, automatic testing is very essential. The existing card, which is based on 8 bit architecture with very limited features. This necessitates the need of new design with more advanced features to accommodate all required features. The details of this new design will be described in this paper.
In this paper, we study the control of a fixed catalyst multi-staged reactor. This reactor is an industrial one, used for sulphur dioxide oxidation. The aim of this work is to determine the best control strategy between one whom consist to control the production capacity of the reactor and another, more usual, whom consist to control the maximal catalyst temperature in order to avoid the occurrence of hot spot inside the catalyst. Command algorithm used is the generalised predictive control (GPC) with on line process identification. The results obtained by numerical simulation show that the control of the production capacity is possible and also preferable, since the reactor is strongly influenced by inlet reagent concentrations and, on the other hand, it presents a notable thermal stability conferred by the thermal inertia due to the important catalyst mass.
Myrtus nivellei Batt and Trab. is a Sahara-endemic plant belonging to the Myrtaceae family, this plant is very famous in southern Algeria for its therapeutic properties in folk medicine. However, its uses are limited exclusively to the ancestral know-how. In the present work, three extracts were prepared from the leaves of this plant: an ethanolic extract, a methanolic extract and an aqueous extract. The yields of dry crude extracts are respectively 11.12%, 12.45% and 16.5%. The quantitative estimation of flavonoids, flavonols and total phenols by the spectophotometric method showed that the three extracts contain these compounds. The evaluation of antioxidant capacity by the method of free radical scavenging test showed that all of the extracts have a very good reductive activity, especially for ethanolic extract which presented a percentage of inhibition equal to 78.81% with an EC50 estimated to 0.59 mg/ml. On the other hand, the FRAP test revealed that the methanolic extract has the best reducing power (66.71%) than those of the other extracts, but it remains relatively low compared to the ascorbic acid used as positive control.
Application of Continuous Positive Airway Pressure (CPAP) in neonate with respiratory distress is associated with reduction of respiratory failure, reduced complications and mortality. Devices used to generate CPAP include conventional ventilators, the "bubble bottle" system and the infant flow driver. CPAP supports the breathing of preterm infants in a number of ways. It splints the upper airway and reduces obstruction and apnea, assists expansion of the lungs, and prevents alveolar collapse. But when we consider using Bubble CPAP system in Emergency Medical Services like Air Ambulance, it is extremely difficult to maintain constant back pressure created by bubbles in water bottle to the expiratory end of nasal prongs of an infant. So in order to provide constant back pressure, there is a need to replace water bottle which produce back pressure by bubble at expiratory end with a Electro-Mechanical constant pressure generating system. A Proportional solenoid valve based Electro-Magnetic Pressure Generator device is proposed, which produce constant back pressure of 5-10cmH2O Pressure and Pressure versus Voltage relationship is studied which shows pressure generated is proportional to input Voltage.
The report of investigation of the wear behaviour of aluminium alloy samples used in the floating calliper of master cylinder clutch or brake is presented in this paper. As-received commercial aluminium alloy sample sourced from automobile hydraulic brake cylinder calliper was melted in electric furnace under a controlled atmosphere, and sand cast at pouring temperature range of 700-800 oC into rod of 300 mm long by 30 mm diameter. A wear jig was used to determine the wear resistance of the aluminium samples with and without the use of hydraulic fluid. The microstructures and surface of the as-received and cast specimen were examined under high resolution microscope to assess the effects of wear with and without hydraulic oil. It was observed that the aluminium sample wears faster in the absent of hydraulic fluid and was reduced to a bearable minimum when hydraulic fluid was applied. The results obtained are presented in figures showing the wear rates and weight loss of the aluminium samples with respect to the wear cycle, from which models equations are derived. The test results show that eutectic structured cast aluminium alloy behaves relatively better than the as-received aluminium alloy specimen in oil. It is significant that the oil functions as lubricant on the alloy under test, hence the common deteriorations experience from the cast alloy under service must have aggravated from the chemical adulterations in the oil wherewith a thin film of more wear and chemical resistance would bring effective and significant wear and corrosion protection or both to the surface.
The present experiment was conducted during spring-summer 2013 to study genetic variability, correlation, path coefficient analysis, and genetic diversity for quantitative and qualitative traits in tomato in vegetable research farm Hisar. Using Mahalanobis D2 statistics method, the 27 genotypes were grouped into nine clusters, indicating the presence of diversity for different traits. The cluster I had the highest number containing 16 genotypes followed by cluster III and VII containing three and two genotypes respectively. However, the cluster II, IV, V, VI, VIII and IX were solitary. The maximum intra-cluster distance was recorded within cluster III (10.88) and the maximum inter-cluster distance between cluster VI and VII (20.80), indicating the existence of wide genetic variability. Based on mean performances, the cluster VIII with single genotype ranked first and appeared to contain the potential genotype.The cluster VIII and II registered high plant height. The genotypes included in clusters V and VIII took less number of days to 50% flowering (29.67). The cluster III registered high fruit yield per plant (1004.60), average fruit weight (38.07), and ascorbic acid (28.7) can be utilised in breeding programme for enhancing their respective characters. The cluster IX had high number of fruits per plant (40.53). Based on cluster mean analysis these genotypes can be used in crop improvement programme in tomato for above-mentioned characters.
Crop residue left in the field after grain harvests have a large potential as a bioenergy feedstock. Crop residues of interest for bioenergy include; wheat straw, soybean straw, and rice straw, paddy straw etc. Paddy straw and wheat straw are potential substrate which can be exploited in industries in future for bioethanol (biofuel) production as they are cheap, abundant and high cellulose content. In this study rice (paddy) and wheat straw had been given both acid (1%-2.5%) and heat treatment (100
The malherbology is a science that studies the adventitious plants or weeds species. It also takes place in the mechanism of palynological studies especially in the understanding of the dissemination of pollen. The phytosociological method of data recording was been used in this study. Forty six (46) species from 15 families were recorderd.The biologic type was been established as H
Hodna is located in arid region in central Algeria. In this area, wind erosion is very important; it is also crossed by several small water courses. Periodic floods moisten the soil, bring alluvium and contribute to leaching salts. They also enrich the soil with minerals. The main objective of this work is to study the origin of the sediments using quartz grain morphoscopy, to analyse their particle size distribution and their vertical variation in soil profiles. Three profiles, located in agricultural parcels used for several years, were selected. Control samples were taken in adjacent parcels. 23 samples, corresponding to the soil horizons were collected in the field. Statistical analysis of soil samples shows that the sand fraction is important and dominates the particle size distribution of these soils. The increase of the fine fraction (fine silt and clay) coincides with the lower percentage of total sand and vice versa and, limestone changes proportionally with the fine fraction and suggesting its location in this fraction. At depth, the decrease of sands always corresponds to an increase of the fine fraction. This enrichment appears to be located in the median horizons where the textural profile marks a wave showing the highest values. In the surface horizons in agricultural parcels, the fine elements content are always greater than the controls. This is related to the tillage which comes back the fine elements in the surface. The morphoscopic analysis of sands revealed mixed deposits fluvial and wind. The comparison of agricultural parcels and controls indicates a change in the surface horizon due to tillage. This study shows also signs of significant current wind action in surface.
This paper explores and reviews the ability of Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) to improve the transferability of knowledge. The aim here is to look beyond knowledge management at a general level. By distinguishing between the types of knowledge, a more thorough understanding of knowledge transfer is sought, and in particular of the role of ITCs in this process. ICTs favor the transfer of knowledge that can be codified and reduced to data. Of central concern here is what role, if any; do ICTs have with the knowledge management? This paper raises issues concerning the relationship between knowledge management and Information technology and communication.
This study has an objective to contribute at a study of the epiphytic plants in the eastern region of the Kivu Lake preciously in LWIRO area, South Kivu, Democratic Republic of Congo. The priority contribution was to make a list or to inventory the epiphytic plants and to elucidate some ecologic data which are been relevant at some simple observations. The phytosociologic and opportunist methods was been done to realize this study. This study stand out that 61 species split up into 34 families. The floristic analysis has show us the dominance of grass (57, 37%), the phan
Objectives: This retrospective study was undertaken between 2008 and 2009 to assess the seroprevalence of Toxoplasmosis among pregnant women and the role of the parity, the age and the abortion presence or absence in acquisition of infection pregnant women at the National Institute of health in Rabat in Morocco. Methods: Specific T. gondii IgG and IgM were measured by Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA). Datation of the infection was carried out by avidity test. All existing data for every pregnant woman were collected from medical report. Results: Among 1169 pregnant women of different age diagnosed, 47% were found to be IgG seropositive including 1,5 % of IgM seropositive. The use of IgG avidity test allowed to exclude recent infection among 72,2 % of IgM positive sera. The result of bivariate analysis revealed that the age and parity influenced significantly the seroprevalence rate, whilst the existence of previous spontaneous abortion did not have any significant statistical correlation with the positivity of toxoplasmosis. Conclusion: This study showed that 53 % pregnant women were susceptible to T. gondii and considered to be at high risk for toxoplasmosis during pregnancy. However, the follow-up of pregnancy and Counselling of pregnant women remains essential of the prevention of congenital toxoplasmosis.
The lactose in cheese whey is an interesting substrate for the production of bulk commodities such as bio-ethanol, due to the large amounts of whey surplus generated globally. In the present context of increasing demand for energy and biofuel, the microbial synthesis of ethanol using industry waste materials has gained recent importance. The present study deals with the ethanol production from whey-a dairy waste by using potential thermotolerant immobilized yeasts isolates in free and immobilized state. Two species of thermotolerant yeasts strains, Candida inconspicua, Candida xylopsoci and standard culture of K. marxianus were used for bioethanol production. Of the selected thermotolerant yeast species, Candida inconspicua W16 exhibited the maximum production of ethanol (3,9
Ogilvie's syndrome is a rare postsurgical complication. The high mortality rate after caecal perforation explains the seriousness of this clinical situation. The early diagnosis is made by plain abdominal X-ray and abdominal scanner. Conservative treatment is usually effective and surgery should be reserved for complicated cases or refractory to conservative treatment. We report a case of Ogilvie's syndrome after cesarean section. A case is reported clinical evolution of a chronic colonic obstruction disease after cesarean section which has been treated by conservative methods as Prostigmine
The present work aims at analyzing the dynamics of the photoionization process of a hydrogen atom -modelling a single active electron atom- interacting with intense high-frequency laser pulses. The choice of the numerical approach to be used for solving the time-dependent Schr
The purpose of the study was to explore the level of resilience and life satisfaction among nomadic. The sample consisted of 100 nomadic (50 males nomadic, 50 females nomadic) belonged to the different profession, age; martial status were taken from Multan and Bahwalnagar. The resilience scale and the life satisfaction scale was used to measure the level of resilience and life satisfaction respectively. Statistical analysis indicated that the resilience and life satisfaction was positively correlated. The results indicated that there was significant difference among males nomadic have higher level of life satisfaction as compared to females nomadic, but there was no significant difference that females nomadic have higher level of resilience as compared to males nomadic. Further findings indicated that there were no significant differences that working nomadic have higher level of resilience and life satisfaction as compared to nonworking nomadic. Another finding indicated that there were no significant differences married nomadic have higher level of resilience and life satisfaction among unmarried nomadic.
Thyme, Thymus vulgaris L., is an herb widely used throughout the world. It is, without doubt, one of the most popular plants in Morocco. For the purpose of examining the factors affecting the extraction of the essential oil of this plant by hydrodistillation, a screening study by Hadamard matrix type Placket and Burman was conducted. After an appropriate choice of six factors, sixteen experiments lead to a mathematical model of first degree connecting the response function (yield) to factors. Later than the realization of the experiments and data analysis, we concluded that five factors have a significant effect on the hydrodistillation process, namely: the extracting time, the harvest period, the individuality effect, the mass plant/water ratio and the temperature of heating. As for the drying of plant material, it presents a statistically negligible effect.
In this work we used the AM1 and PM3 semi-empirical methods, together with density functional theory (DFT) B3LYP 6-311G, to determine the structure and position of the carbonate anion intercalated between layers of the zinc and aluminum layered double hydroxide [Al-Zn-Co3] at ambient temperature. We calculated interlayer distances, vibration frequencies, force constants and enthalpies of formation. We showed that at ambient temperature the CO32- anion is intercalated in the interlayer space by the formation of hydrogen bonds with water molecules. The results obtained using these three methods are compared to those obtained experimentally and those obtained using the Hartree-Fock STO-3G method.
A study was conducted at Maud T.E., Assam, India as part of FAO-CFC-TBI Project (2008-09 to 2012-13) to evaluate the quality of on-farm compost produced under different composting method and its effectivity on soil quality development. Comparative nutrient content in terms of N + P205 + K20 was highest in Novcom compost (3.98 %) followed by Biodynamic (3.56 %), Vermi (3.16 %) and Indigenous (2.96 %) compost. But comparative evaluation of microbial population (total bacteria, fungi, actinomycetes, ammonifiers, nitrifiers and phosphate solubilizing bacteria) in all the compost samples revealed distinctly different status of Novcom compost as compared to the rest. In case of vermi, Biodynamic and Indigenous compost, microbial population varied between 107 to 1012 c.f.u. where as that of Novcom compost varied from 1012 to 1016 c.f.u. The comparatively high microflora population in Novcom compost could be due to its intense biodegradation process, which led to their natural generation within compost heaps. Post compost application effectivity assessment revealed that Soil Development Index (SDI) was highest in case of Novcom compost treated plots (SDI : 57.83) followed by plots receiving Biodynamic (SDI : 28.22), Indigenous (SDI : 27.82) and Vermi (SDI : 23.36) compost respectively. Positive and significant (r = 0.54**) correlation of SDI with crop yield indicated that it can used as an effective tool to judge the soil quality in relation to crop performance as well as to assess the competence of soil management programme.
In present article, the 'space' is considered as a physical entity, and the gravity is discussed as a consequence of equal and opposite interaction between 'mass' and the 'space' around every mass. In order to explain the cause of gravity, a very new concept of root force is introduced as a fundamental nature of 'mass' and the 'space' both. The unit of root force is (?m?kg/s) or square root of newton. It is learnt that may be, it is a root force which gives mass to every particle and make existence possible. The exact nature of root force is beyond current understanding of physics. Another new concept of super-vacuum (absolute emptiness) is also introduced in this paper. This concept is essential to understand the importance of the 'space'. It is concluded that 'mass' and 'space' shares equal and opposite interaction, which causes gravitation. And magnitude of root force causes time dilation.
The present study aims to assess the child abuse and emotion regulation among orphan and non-orphan school adolescents residing in Jammu city. A purposive sample of 200 school going adolescents (100 from orphan schools and 100 from non-orphan schools) from Jammu, with an age range of 13-16 years was collected. Consent from guardians and assent from adolescents were taken. In conclusion, study demonstrated that the emotion regulation of orphan and non
This study was designed to find out the nature and extent of sexual harassment among the adolescent girls in two wards of Jhenidah Municipality, Bangladesh. Following survey research design, data were collected (During 2008-2009) from randomly selected 110 adolescent girls (aged between 13-19 years) exposed to eve-teasing for last 6 months or more. Findings suggest that female adolescents, irrespective of age and education, were sexually harassed frequently, either by classmates or by roadside womanizers through obscene languages, physical harassment, and ugly sexual expression and so on. However, young school going girls were more often the victims of such atrocity. But, in response, most often the victims and their families were reluctant to protest or to report to the law enforcement agencies. Because, the respondents were frequently stigmatized and blamed the conservative patriarchal society as it takes no initiative to stop such inhumane behavior. The study is descriptive in nature, and basically explores the nature and general aspect related to sexual harassment in the study area.
The economic literature distinguishes between two different approaches to the contribution of human capital to growth. The first approach assumes that human capital plays the same role in production than physical capital. Human capital is an accumulative factor and increases the overall productivity of factors, exogenous technology. This increased efficiency can offset the diminishing returns of capital and thus to support long-term growth. Thus, the accumulation of capital has a positive effect on economic growth. Rather the second approach suggests a technological dimension of human capital, critical to economic growth. This idea identified by endogenous growth, shows that innovation and technological adaptation are the engines of economic growth in the long term. But the relationship between human capital and technology is highly dependent on the composition of human capital. The above said, we will enrich the literature and study the impact of technological change on economic growth. Econometrically, we base our study on the technique of panel data. An estimate by the method of static panel seems more relevant and a positive effect from the Technological Changes to economic growth seems to be confirmed for 39 developing economies.
In last decades, the need for implementation of biodegradable materials is a showy concern for the planet earth because they contribute to the fight against environmental pollution and the valorization of plant resources. For this purpose, a composite developed with the tannin's binder and reinforcement of autranelle congolensis has been established. Throughout this work, two types of materials were manufactured under the same experimental. The implementation of biodegradable materials made with tannin's binder of autranelle congolensis (type1 materials) and synthetic materials based on Urea Formaldehyde (type2 materials). At the end of testing, it appears that type 1 materials are stiffer than type 2 materials: Indeed, the three-point bending tests performed on sample of type 1 materials when sizing rate varies between 25 and 78%, gave a Young's modulus varies between 43.832 and 466.652 MPa against 24.200 to 266.001 MPa for type 2 materials. A volume effect on the stiffness has established on the two types of materials: stiffness is increasing with the length between supports. For both materials, Young's modulus increases with the length between supports. The stiffness increases with temperature and the sizing rate. Materials having a high sizing rate are less resistant to moisture. The type 2 materials are resistant to moisture than type 1 materials. The binder developed with the tannin of autranelle congolensis has a gel time between 50 and 152 seconds.
India is home to 22 per cent of the world's poor, but the majority is in rural area. Such a high incidence of poverty is a matter of concern in view of the fact that food security and its quality has been one of the major concerns for rural poor. Agricultural wage earners, small and marginal farmers and casual workers engaged in non-agricultural activities, constitute the bulk of the rural poor. Small land holdings and their low productivity are the cause of poverty among households dependent on land-based activities for their livelihood. Even after six decades of independence and two decades of economic liberalization, it remains the bitter truth. This study assumes greater significance, because, majority of the rural poor still depend on low quality of food grain leading to poor health and malnutrition. An effective public distribution system with quality of food grain would help in reducing the government spending on public health problems. This study could be useful not only to India, but to many other economies that are on the threshold of transition; where majority of the population, still lives in the rural areas, and are predominantly dependent on agriculture for their livelihood. This study was undertaken with the objective of analyzing the socio-economic conditions of rural poor of India with respect to their quality of food grain consumption. The study conducts a questionnaire based survey on demographic, economic, and perceptible parameters on quality of food; using ordinal logit model to identify variables useful for the study. The respondents with larger income have more chances of consuming good quality of food. Interestingly, it is also found that most of the poorest of the poor respondents spend high share of their income on food consumption.
Pipeline vibration due to reciprocating compressors is a major problem faced by Oil and Gas industries worldwide. We present a method to reduce the pipeline vibration of 2HD/1 opposed-balanced reciprocating compressor. Vibrational readings are recorded for two of the reciprocating compressors in the plant (ONGC-Uran); Compressor A with major vibration in discharge pipeline and compressor B with vibration within acceptable limits so as to find the source of vibration in compressor A. As per the layout, pipeline design of reciprocating compressor A is done in SolidWorks software. Vibrational analysis of the pipeline by varying the external support locations is carried out using Ansys software. From the study, it is understood that the pressure pulsation in pulsation dampener is the primary reason for pipeline vibration. A suggestion for the vibration reduction is made by adding supports to alter the frequency of the pipeline. We conclude that for overall system performance and vibration reduction, anti-vibration measures as suggested should be implemented.
The Monte Carlo method is the most accurate method for the simulation of radiotherapy equipment. Linear accelerator (Linac) is currently the most widely used in radiotherapy center's machines. In this work we run the Monte Carlo code EGSnrc under the platform BEAMnrc to calculation of important photon beam parameters by modeling the head of the linear accelerator SATURNE43.The aim of this study was to calculate the dosimetric functions, namely: the dose profile and Percentage depth dose (PDD) for a 12 MV photon beam generated by Linac SATURNE43 and delivered in a water phantom. Photons are generated by the bremsstrahlung effect of electrons during interaction with the tungsten target. All calculations are done by considering a square field dimension 10x10cm
The present study is led on the Gourou watershed, in the autonomous district of Abidjan. Many quantities of sands and macroelements stream to this watershed's exutory in rainy season, blocking drainage canals and invading decantation basin. The objective of this work is to determine the origins of the sands in order to make map. To do it, we update the watershed's limits according to water separation lines. Then, we make a map of erosion zones susceptible to give up sands. The processing of all these data reveals a plurality of this sand blocking origins; the most producing zones being the ones situated near the road arteries. Sands come mainly from numerous bare zones of the watershed, from disorderly installed human activities and from the canals of the drainage network poor maintenance; some canals are being broken by place.
Any assessment is an objective driven process. In our case, the objective is to support training sessions by utilizing Technology-Enhanced approach, particularly ontologies and web semantic paradigms. Hence, we emphasize the idea that to provide a training which could fulfill individually the needs of all learners, we should establish an assessment of their prerequisites knowledge first. We call such method "Assessment Module". Such assessment is still a complex task and intellectually demanding for teachers. To suit our scenario of use and to meet the teacher' needs, we propose the modeling and the implementation of a new methodology for the learner's assessment in order to set-up an automated assessment for a better individualized training, particularly in Masters' training. Our approach is based on a conceptualization of knowledge and on a modeling of MCQ assessment added to a fuzzy-modeling method to refine the assessment's results. In this article, we present in detail our approach as well as two study cases we did as proof of concept, and the experimental results we got later on. The experimentations has validated our assumptions and has demonstrated that the framework we proposed and the way how it was designed provide a distinguished assessment of learners almost similar to when it is done manually by a human evaluator. Fulfilling this requirement is the prior step toward any Technology-Enhanced Individualization of training in higher education.
This article analyzes the relationship between entrepreneurship and economic growth for a panel of developed and developing countries during the period 1990-2004, as well as the importance of the social capital in the relationship between entrepreneurship and economic growth. Our study will be conducted using the method of static data panel. The main results of this study are, first, the level of social capital and entrepreneurship are significantly and positively correlated, on the other hand, a high level of social capital as an indirect effect on economic growth through its effect on the entrepreneurial activity. Thus, this article aims to develop elements of theoretical and empirical answers to the effect of a sound institutional environment and adequate capital on enhancing entrepreneurial activity that would have positive effects on investment and economic growth.
In this work, the predicted skin doses of patients undergoing routine medical examinations were carried out at Federal Medical Centre, Makurdi. Measurements were also made using phantoms and Thermo-Luminescence Dosimeter (TLD) in place of patients in order to compare the results obtained. The predicted mean chest doses for 100 patients undergoing routine medical examinations at Federal Medical Centre Makurdi were 724.964
In front of the evolution of the ecological pressure of the NGO (Non-Governmental Organization) and labor unions (syndicates), and in front of increasing awareness of the consumers, the employees, and the shareholders, companies are obliged to transform theses pressures into run-up which urges them to improve and to create their core competencies and their green images and to introduce ecological innovations to guarantee their surviving.