Ultrasound elastography is a promising imaging modality for the differentiation between benign and malignant tissue, such as the detection of stiff tumors in the (female) breast. In order to deduce the elastic tissue properties and reconstruct the spatial distribution of Young's modulus (E-modulus), the inverse problem governed by the equilibrium equations of linear elastostatics must be solved using internal tissue displacement estimates which are, in practice, subject to spatially non-stationary measurement errors. In this paper we investigate the novel E-modulus reconstruction approach of taking into account the spatially non-stationary errors of ultrasonic displacement estimates within the field-of-view. The application of spatially adaptive weight factors derived from the mean-square displacement estimation errors by means of an appropriate confidence measure leads to an improved reconstruction quality that strikes the best balance between the two opposing reconstruction goals of "achieving high image homogeneity" and "keeping high-frequency spatial information", which both are diagnostically important. We demonstrate that over- and under-regularization within the field-of-view can be significantly reduced leading to an improved image quality. The results presented here are derived from extensive simulations and phantom experiments. The simulation results will be compared to those of an earlier study.
The reaction between α-trans-himachalene and dichlorocarbene has been studied using density functional theory (DFT) B3LYP/6-311G (d, p). The global electrophilicity and global nucleophilicity indices indicate that α-trans-himachalene behaves as a nucleophile while dichlorocarbene behaves as an electrophile. The majority product obtained by stoichiometric reaction between dichlorocarbene and α-trans-himachalene is (1R, 2S, 4R, 7S)-3,3-dichloro-8-methylene-4,12,12-trimethyl-tricyclo [5.5.0.02,4] dodecane (referred to here as P1(α)): in this reaction the attack takes place at the endocyclic double bond at the α side of α-trans-himachalene. The majority product obtained by the reaction between two equivalents of dichlorocarbene with α-trans-himachalene is (1R, 2S, 4R, 7S, 8R)-3,3,13,13-tetrachloro-4,12,12-trimethyl-tricyclo [5.5.0.02,4] -spiro tetradecane (referred to here as P2(β)): here the attack takes place at the β side of the exocyclic double bond. P2(β) is also obtained by the equimolar reaction of P1(α) with dichlorocarbene. P1(α) and P2(β) are both exothermic. Analysis of local electrophilicity and local nucleophilicity indices demonstrates the chemo-, regio- and stereoselectivity of the reaction. Analysis of the potential energy surface shows that this reaction follows an asynchronous concerted mechanism. Calculating the intrinsic reaction coordinate (IRC) shows that the reaction mechanism can be characterized as "one-step" and "two-stage". Stationary points were characterized by frequency calculations in order to verify that the transition states had one and only one imaginary frequency.
In the work reported here we looked at the magnetic behaviour of a 3/2 spin system with crystalline anisotropy and transverse field. The spin Hamiltonian considered here contains terms which cannot be commuted further, giving rise to important quantum effects: quantum fluctuations and thermal fluctuations. We used the mean field approximation method to determine the expressions of magnetization along the z (longitudinal) axis and the x (transverse) axis, as well as the partition function. The thermal variations mz and mx for different values of the transverse field show that the latter inhibits order along the z axis and encourages spin confinement in the transverse plane.
In the present study the anticryptosporidial efficacy in chickens of two commercially available antibiotics, norfloxacin and spiramycin, in the drinking water alone or in combinations with one commercially available anticoccidial (clopidol) treatment in ration were used. At day 6 of chicken life, 210, male, white Hy-Line chicks were divided into 7 groups (1-7), 30 in each group. Chickens of first group (G1) served as negative control uninfected-untreated group (UUC). Birds of the second group (G2) were inoculated orally with inoculum containing 5X105 Cryptosporidia baileyi (C. baileyi) oocysts/chick and served as infected-untreated positive control group (IUC). All birds of groups 3 to 7 infected with 5X105 C. baileyi oocysts/ chick and treated with 12mg/kg BW norfloxacin (G3), 1gm/10kg BW spiramycin (G4) from 1st to 5th days post-infection (DPI) and 0.5 gm/kg ration (125ppm) Clopidol (G5) from one day old chick up to one week PI. Last two groups were infected similarly and treated with both of norfloxacin+clopidol (G6) or spiramycin+clopidol (G7) with the same previous dose and course of each treatment. The efficacy of the tested medicaments were evaluated by daily count of cryptosporidia oocysts in the feces of chicks, mortality percentage, body weight gain, the degree of histopathological changes of Bursa of Fabricius and lesions score. The results showed that the mortality rate reached 10% in (spiramycin and/or clopidol) treated groups, 6.7% in norfloxacin treated group and 3.3% in norfloxacin+ clopidol treated group while it reached 13.3% in infected-untreated control group. High bursal lesion score was recorded in infected-untreated group followed by infected treated chicken groups regardless the type of medicated drugs. Total oocyst per gram feces of experimentally infected chicks with C. baileyi was reduced significantly in all infected treated groups regardless the type of used medicaments when compared with other infected-untreated control chicken group. The recommended dose of norfloxacin and norfloxacin + clopidol decreased the oocyst output of birds by 62% and 63%, respectively. While, other groups showed lower efficiency percentages 43% (spiramycin + clopidol), 40 % (spiramycin) and 35 % (clopidol). Also, non significant differences were observed in body weight gain on day 28 of chicken life between uninfected control and infected groups. Finally, none of these drugs alone can be entirely suggested for the chemotherapy of avian cryptosporidiosis. While, in addition to application of good sanitary measures and disinfection, the present study may conclude that the administration of both norfloxacin in drinking water at 1st to 5th DPI and clopidol in ration one week before and after infection may be helpful in prevention and treatment of cryptosporidiosis in chickens.
The geological, magnetic and mineralogical studies have uncovered a polymetallic mineralization deposit at Amensif in the Amezmiz mining district (western High Atlas, Morocco). The Cu, Pb, Zn, Ag and Au mineralizations are hosted in the Lower Cambrian volcano-carbonate formations. These formations are structurally controlled by Hercynian faults (NE-SW, ENE-WSW, E-W and NW-SE). These hercynian faults were facilitated the circulation of hydrothermal fluid that responsible for the implementation of the economically mineralization. The hydrothermal alterations having affected the Lower Cambrian volcano-carbonate formations of Amensif are in mutual relations with the genesis of the Cu, Pb, Zn, Ag and Au polymetallic mineralizations. Mineralogical study of this deposit reveals the presence of a particular and characteristic mineral assemblages composed of chalcopyrite, sphalerite, galena, arsenopyrite, pyrite, grey copper, minor amount of silver, gold and bismuth. Microtextural relationship between the sulphides indicates sulphureted these mineralizations result from two distinct stages paragenetic: (I) an arseno-ferriferous stage and (II) a polymetallic stage. The estimated reserves based on the analyses of samples collected from 25 drill cores established in the sector go back to 568 110 Tons of ore with 3.79% Zn, 0.69% Pb, 1.02% Cu, 98.30ppm Ag and 0.48 ppm Au. The geological setting, lithofacies, mineral assemblages, geochemical analyses and a mode of hydrothermal alteration remind those described in certain "High-temperature polymetallic Carbonate Replacement Deposits" type worldwide.
Biometrics plays an active role in the research methods for scientists and research interns during planning, development and implementation of research projects. A number of measures have been put in place to improve the research capacity among the scientist in various sectors of agricultural research among other related disciplines. The present statistics shows that the field of biometry in a number of research institutions especially in Africa is still wanting. Therefore, the objective of this study was to addresses the role of biometry in developing capacity of research methods for agricultural research scientists. The study was carried in Agricultural Research Corporation (ARC), Wad Medani, Sudan. Where sample size of 50 scientists was selected using simple random sampling procedures. The major variables tested were methods used in data analysis, research experience, refresher courses, institutional capacity and quality of published papers among others through administering semi-structured questionnaire. The data was analyzed using descriptive statistics, non-parametric methods and regression modeling. The results showed that there was a significant difference (p<0.01) on agreement of the methods used in data analyses where over 90% strongly valued application of various statistical methods as compared to about 8% who did not value the said methods. In addition, there was a significant correlation (p<0.01, R2=41.7%) between the number of scientific papers and years of research where the result indicated that for every ten years of research there was about four peer reviewed journal papers. Overall, 100% of researchers indicated biometrics has an active role in developing agricultural scientific research and its most ideal solution for improving performance and building capacity through provision of training/refresher courses. In conclusion, the creation of a sustainable capacity building program in Biometrics will help researcher to produce science of high quality through use of effective statistical design, interpretation and presentation of results.
In Morocco, water scarcity is a major factor limiting agricultural production. Water shortage is accentuated by soil quality depletion exaggerated by intensive cropping and tillage systems that cause a decline in soil fertility, structure and organic mater. No-tillage system (NT) has been proposed as a viable alternative to conventional tillage (CT) to improve the soil quality and ensure water conservation. The aim of the present study was to evaluate tillage effects on soil moisture, soil organic matter (SOM) and soil aggregate stability in a Calcixeroll soil under three tillage treatments: conventional tillage system (CT), NT system with crop residues removed (NT0), and NT with 50% of crop residues returned to the soil surface (NT 50). Our results showed that residue cover combined with no-tillage (NT 50) has significantly increased the levels of SOM at the top 100 mm soil layer compared to CT and NT0. The results also indicate that soil water content in the three studied layers (0-50, 50-100 and 100-300 mm) was higher for NT. The performance of soil aggregates was better with regard to the different stresses caused by the mechanical tests. This usually leads toward soil consolidation and increasing the soil resistance to wind and water erosion. We conclude that the increased yield associated with no-tillage system can be explained by both better water conservation and soil quality improvement.
The notion of inequality usually refers to the social inequalities so the reflection mostly stops by only one point judged as the criterion of the stratification: the purchasing power. That could both: allow a social ascension if it is improved or in the most obscurantist expectation aggravate the social exclusion if it is reduced. According to the history, the social stratification concerned all civilized societies, with the predominance of extremities: the upper and the poorest classes, it is only through changes of manners and savings that a new social caste lying between the two could be generated. Moroccan society has experienced this same pattern. This article reviews the first birth of the Moroccan middle class, its evolution, and then its characteristics in the current context.
This study was proposed to project future production of cassava due to introduced cassava processing technologies in Mikongeni (Kibaha district) and Tongwe village (Muheza district) in Tanzania. Primary data were generated from 120 consumers who were randomly selected with the use of questionnaire, focus group discussion and experimentation. The study projected the future trend of production for cassava using goal programming approach and indicated that about 128 571.4 tonnes (an increase of 60.7% per year) can be produced per annum in the two districts, if farmers use the said technology in full scale. The study recommended that the farmers have to be informed on the growing demand of the mechanically processed cassava products, thus the need to meet this demand.
Natural fracturing includes all the mechanical discontinuities affecting the rock matrix. These natural fractures usually constitute preferential drains or permeability barriers which partially control the movement of fluids during production. The fracturing map of the Calcareous Dorsale in the Northern Rif was established using remote sensing (photo-interpretation) and GIS techniques, as well as field measurements of fractures randomly distributed in six microtectonic stations. Firstly, using the above mentioned approaches the main sets of fractures are detected. The dominant direction of fractures corresponds to the NE-SW direction which also coincides with the dominant orientation of the hydrographic network. Thus, the results from these two methodological approaches permit the development of a hypothetical scenario of karst groundwater circulations between the different units of the study area and other nearby units.
We try in this article to see how can help bring health outcomes, particularly on improving life expectancy. The purpose of this paper is to study the contribution of GDP rate of literacy, health expenditure and aid allocated to health on improving life expectancy for 5 countries of the southern shore Mediterranean using econometric techniques given in panel unit root test, cointegration test, and causality test during the period 1992-2010. We note that the variable aid allocated to health contributes positively to the improvement of life expectancy.
Economic diplomacy is increasingly associated to the overall development strategy, particularly in developing countries which are still having echoes tied to integrating a global economy characterized by a fierce competition. Considered as a developing country, Morocco is building its economic diplomacy to reduce the structural deficit in its trade balance and support Moroccan investors in their pursuit of foreign markets. The purpose of this article is: to understand the Moroccan economic diplomacy, to study its contribution by recalling all its limitations and constraints, to assess the performance of the Moroccan economic diplomacy, to better understand the issues and to spot light on the practice of Moroccan economic diplomacy and its role in improving integration of the Kingdom into the global economy.
Subsurface irrigation system is one of promising techniques for better valorization of water irrigation particularly in arid and semi-arid regions. This irrigation system is characterized by low, frequent and localized water supplies within the root zone. Researchers conducted in relation to subsurface irrigation are unanimous about its several benefits, which explain its rapid expansion across the world. However, its implementation in Tunisia is still very limited. In order to identify the performance of subsurface irrigation system (SDI) under arid conditions of southern Tunisia, a comparative experimental study (between this system and the drip irrigation system (DI)) was conducted within the experimental station of the Institute of Arid Regions-Chenchou (Gabes), in a potato plot. The experimental protocol consisted of eight treatments: a)- Two treatments with the DI system : T1 (q = 4 l/h) and T2 (q = 2 l/h). b)- Six treatments with the SDI system: emitters of different flow rates (4 l/h and 2 l/h) and laterals buried at three depths (10 cm, 15 cm and 20 cm) . Results show that water content within the root zone was always higher under SDI system and that its fluctuation is especially more restricted than that recorded under DI system. This could explain high irrigation efficiency values recorded with SDI treatments where laterals buried at 15 cm depth's have generated the highest water productivity. However, for laterals buried at 20 cm depth's and with emitters delivering 4 l/h, deep water percolation is more evident. Nevertheless, these results obtained during a single season, are still preliminary and could not be so reliable in order to give suitable recommendations on the appropriateness of this irrigation technique, but support to carry on these trials under other conditions (other soil types, different crops and other climates) of Tunisia.
The glaciers of the Hindukush-Karakoram-Himalayan (HKH) region consist of a huge amount of perpetual snow and ice. These glaciers are retreating in the face of accelerating global warming. Estimation of volumetric decrease of Siachen glacier out of Shyok river basin and that of Baltoro and Biafo Glaciers out of Shiger river basin is carried out in this study using Remote sensing satellite and Topographic data. The total geographic area of the river basins in northern areas is about 128,730 km2. Altogether, 5,218 large and small glaciers in northern areas cover a total glaciated area of about 15,040 km2. The total ice reserves in HKH region of Pakistan are about 2,738 km3. The Hunza, Shyok and Shigar basins contain the major part (about 83%) of these ice reserves. Alpine glaciers are subjected to volumetric decrease owing to host of factors. This study presents the volumetric decrease computations during the decade of 1990-2000 of largest glaciers of northern areas of Pakistan. The results computed through study are there after compared with mathematical model of ice reserves and ice thickness which supplements their validity. Finally the correlation of volumetric decrease of these glaciers with average temperature rise of northern areas and sea level rise along coastline of Pakistan during the last decade is carried out. The percentage volumetric decrease of Siachen, Baltoro and Biafo and glaciers during the decade, computed in this study work, subjected to manifest of global warming and anthropogenic activities indicates that three out of world's seven largest glaciers have experienced a volume loss of 11.09, 6.14% and 3.79% respectively during the decade of 1990-2000.
Students in secondary schools need career guidance to make informed career choices which will contribute to the skilled manpower needs of the economy. This study investigated the role of secondary school career guidance on achieving national manpower development in Kenya. The study was conducted in secondary schools in three Counties in Kenya namely: Nakuru, Kisii and Migori. The study used descriptive cross section survey research design. The target population was all students and teachers in the three counties. The accessible population was all the form four students, teacher counsellors and head teachers. Public County, Sub County and Private secondary schools were used as sampling units. Simple proportionate random sampling was used to select 32 secondary schools in the three counties. A sample of 429 respondents comprising of 365 students 32 head teachers and 32 teacher counsellors was used. Three questionnaires: Student Questionnaire (SQ), Teacher Counsellor Questionnaire (TCQ) and Head Teacher Questionnaire (HQ) were used to collect data. Reliability of the instruments was estimated by use of Cronbach` alpha coefficient. Reliability coefficient of 0.78 for (SQ), 0.81 for (TCQ) and 0.79 for (HQ) were obtained. The hypotheses was tested using Pearson Product Moment Correlation Coefficient. The findings indicate that there was a positive and statistically significant relationship between students and teacher counsellors` perceptions on the effectiveness of guidance services. The findings further indicate a relationship between the school guidance programme and students' career choices in National Manpower Development and a relationship of the roles played by teacher counsellors, and head teachers in the influencing students` career choice. It is recommended that all secondary school students be provided with equal opportunities to access effective career guidance services.
Students in secondary schools need career guidance to make informed career choices which will contribute to the skilled manpower needs of the economy. This study investigated the adequacy of career guidance resources in secondary schools in Kenya. The study was conducted in secondary schools in three Counties in Kenya namely: Nakuru, Kisii and Migori. The study used descriptive cross section survey research design. The target population was all students and teachers in the three counties. The accessible population was all the form four students, teacher counsellors and head teachers. Public County, Sub County and Private secondary schools were used as sampling units. Simple proportionate random sampling was used to select 32 secondary schools in the three counties. A sample of 429 respondents comprising of 365 students 32 head teachers and 32 teacher counsellors was used. Three questionnaires: Student Questionnaire (SQ), Teacher Counsellor Questionnaire (TCQ) and Head Teacher Questionnaire (HQ) were used to collect data. Reliability of the instruments was estimated by use of Cronbach` alpha coefficient. Reliability coefficient of 0.78 for (SQ), 0.81 for (TCQ) and 0.79 for (HQ) were obtained. The hypotheses was tested using Chi- square. The findings indicate that there was a positive and statistically significant relationship between students and teacher counsellors` perceptions on the effectiveness of guidance services. The findings further indicated the school administration provided valuable support to the teacher counselors to make sure that they had enough materials and time to manage the guidance programme. Schools started resource centres and did their best to equip them through the support of school administration, parents and other well wishers, but the findings showed that not all schools had enough equipment and reading materials. It is recommended that the school resource centre should be more equipped to support the guidance programme.
Vulnerability maps of groundwater pollution are basic tools for land use planning. However, some of the parameters taken into account by the different methods of vulnerability assessment may vary over time such as recharge, rainfall, groundwater level, etc. In the present work, through the application of the DRASTIC method to evaluate the intrinsic vulnerability of the porous aquifer R'Mel (Morocco), and using the data of three different years, we showed that intrinsic vulnerability varies from one year to another, i.e. that it is dynamic. For this we compared the years 2000, 2003 and 2005 selected for their different rainfall. The sensitivity maps obtained are different from one year to the next and the errors margins determined for each map are low and slightly different. Furthermore, the sensitivity analysis showed that the effect of parameters on the final vulnerability index changes from one map to another and that all parameters are necessary to apply the DRASTIC method. Analysis of these maps shows great variability in the spatial distribution of the degree of vulnerability, and that the proportions of areas occupied by the different classes vary also from one year to another. These vulnerability maps developed by the application of the model DRASTIC, are dynamic and therefore they can compromise the protection of resources.
This papers details the different non-thermal technology and processing impact on food. The different technology included are ultraviolet light, ionizing radiation, pulse electric field, natural antimicrobials, hurdle technology, high pressure processing, carbon dioxide treatment, plasmas technology and pulse X-rays.
In this study, we are interested in the development of a new model "Quantitative Structure Property Relationship" (QSPR). To illustrate the behavior inufigeant of the thermal degradation of resins oxides organophosphate based on the Quantitative Structure-Property Relationship (QSPR) and the quality of the experimental data. Subsequently, we have discussed the influence of the impact of the thermal parameters quantum chemistry on the retardant behavior of degradation of multifunctional resins (DGEBA, TGTEP, HGTEP and HGCP). Self-timer degradation prediction was made by the semi-empirical PM3 and DFT method database software Gaussian 03.
A very important disease of younger age that usually appears and leads to death of neonate in case of improper diagnosis and treatment is Neonatal calf diarrhea. Disease has its own economic importance as livestock has a major role in gross domestic production (GDP) of Pakistan. A trail was conducted to check chemo-prophylactic effects of different anti-diarrheal drugs. Thirty neonates were selected and divided into six equal groups treated respectively with Colimune Ora, Cosumix Plus, Streptomegma, NMK Powder and Biovet by keeping last group as control. Blood sample were collected to check any untoward change in blood just after birth, on 3rd and 28th day of experiment. Mixed results were found in hematology on 28th day with overall increasing pattern in Total leukocyte count (TLC) and Packed cell volume (PCV). IN contras Total erythrocyte count (TEC) shows increase of 16.57%, 96% and 93.47% respectively in case of Colimune Ora, NMK and Cosumix Plus whereas decrease in case of Streptomegma and Bio Vet up-to 5.06%. Mixed results concerning DLC, serum sodium and potassium level were witnessed. Inclusively there was no annoying change was noticed with increase in (TLC) eventually providing protection to animal to avoid the disease. Henceforward use of above listed drugs prophylactically especially Cosumix Plus, strongly suggested against neonatal calf diarrhea to lessen the mortality due to neonatal calf diarrhea.
The main objective of this study was to examine the effectiveness and adequacy of the work injury compensation and whether there is adequate compensation to those who get injured in the cause of duty. Exploratory study design was adopted for this study on a targeted population of compensation claims filled between the year 2007
The properties of metals and alloys can be changed by heating followed by cooling under definite conditions to make them suitable for specific applications. Carburization is a method of producing mild steel having tough inner core and hard outer surface. Three Heat Treatment process namely Quenching, Carburizing and Tempering were done. The mild steels are carburized at temperature range of 850 to 950 oC and then it is tempered at 200 oC for thirty minutes after that it subjected for different kind of tests such as hardness, tensile and toughness. The results indicated that the process of carburization greatly improves the mechanical properties like hardness and tensile strength and these properties increases with increase in the carburization temperature but apart from this, the toughness property decreases and it is further decreases with increase in carburization temperature. The mild steels carburized at the temperature of 950 oC gives the best results for the mechanical properties because at this temperature it gives the highest tensile strength and hardness, so it must be preferred for the required applications.
The properties of metals and alloys can be changed by heating followed by cooling under definite conditions to make them suitable for specific applications. Carburization is a method of producing mild steel having tough inner core and hard outer surface. Three Heat Treatment process namely Quenching, Carburizing and Tempering were done. The mild steels are carburized at temperature range of 850 to 950 oC and then it is tempered at 200 oC for thirty minutes after that it subjected for different kind of tests such as abrasive wear, hardness, tensile and toughness. The results indicated that the process of carburization greatly improves the mechanical and wear properties like hardness, tensile strength and wear resistance and these properties increases with increase in the carburization temperature but apart from this, the toughness property decreases and it is further decreases with increase in carburization temperature. The mild steels carburized at the temperature of 950 oC gives the best results for the mechanical and wear properties because at this temperature it gives the highest tensile strength, hardness and wear resistance, so it must be preferred for the required applications.
The concept of corporate social responsibility (CSR) was born in the United States and spread to Europe for decades. We focus in this article on CSR practices in Morocco. We study the craft sector SMEs, it is considered one of the pillars of the Moroccan. The fundamental questions we ask about are: How to craft SMEs perceive themselves their social roles and / or societal? What is the status of their current practices in terms of CSR? Extent craft SMEs in the region of Fez are socially responsible? To answer these questions, we conducted a survey of SMEs in the craft sector in the region of Fez. We structure our article as follows: in the first part we present the conceptual framework of CSR in general and Morocco in particular. Then we will present our research methodology. The third part is devoted to the presentation and discussion of the results obtained from the data collected from the survey.
In a competitive marketplace, talent management is a primary driver for organizational success. Broadly defined, talent management is the implementation of integrated strategies or systems designed to increase workplace productivity by developing improved processes for attracting, developing, retaining and utilizing people with the required skills and aptitude to meet current and future business needs (Collings & Mellahi, 2009). The purpose of this essay is to link talent management intervention in contributing to HR practice of recruiting, training and development at the organisational level. In other words, the essay examines the effect of talent management on the HR practice of employee training and selection in the organisation. This essay therefore, provides a comprehensive account of the correlates, contexts, theoretical frameworks, talent pool development, examining the role of HR in finding the right people, employee engagement practices, while measuring business impact of talent management, challenges of talent management and outcomes of talent management from recent literatures and research findings in the field of HR Management practice in recruitment and training. Despite the growing popularity of talent management and over a decade of debate and hype, the concept of talent management remains indistinct. A recent paper concluded that there is "a disturbing lack of clarity regarding the definition, scope and overall goals of talent management". This paper thus proposes the explanation in the area of talent management as it concerns recruitment and training of employees. While there have been some useful theoretical contributions to date (Boudreau & Ramstad, 2007; Cappelli, 2008), heretofore the theoretical foundations of talent management have been relatively sparse. If talent management is to gain more mainstream acceptance then the theoretical foundations which underpin it must be advanced.
Marketing communications are becoming more and more the form of a dialogue between the company and its customers. Brands are no longer just asking how to contact their customers, but also how customers can contact and even how they can contact each other. The techniques used for this purpose are numerous, with Internet, fax, mobile and wireless applications. These technologies allow to move from mass communication to more targeted communication and two-way, in which consumers play an increasing role.
Nowadays information systems play a very important role in improving an organization's performance and its increased competitive capacity. Therefore, it is essential for organizations to decide what are the most important business processes and core competencies that have to be supported by an information system. However, recent trends in organizational development have demonstrated the importance of knowledge management, in this context; we are interested to this question: what is the boundary between information systems and knowledge management systems?
An attempt has been made to study and analyze the performance of a magnetic fluid based infinitely long parallel rough surface bearing. A comparison has been made with two different forms of the magnitude of the magnetic field. The stochastic model of Christensen and Tonder has been used to account for the effect of surface roughness, considering a different type of probability distribution function. The concerned stochastically averaged Reynolds type equation is solved with suitable boundary conditions to obtain the pressure distribution leading to the calculation of the load carrying capacity. Further, the expressions for volume flow rate and response time are derived. The graphical representations make it clear that the adverse effect of porosity and roughness can be minimized by the positive effect of magnetization particularly, in the case of negatively skewed roughness. However, this compensation is found to be more when the magnitude of the magnetic field is described by a trigonometric function. This investigation establishes that the bearing system sustains certain amount of load even in the absence of flow which does not happen in the case of conventional fluid based bearing system. It is found that the volume flow rate is comparatively augmented in the case of trigonometrical form as compared to the algebraic form of the magnitude of the magnetic field. It is appealing to note that the response time does not change for both the forms of magnitude of the magnetic field.
Researchers studying entrepreneurship have lent great value by exploring the factors that explain how entrepreneurs create new businesses and therefore, how societies and economies grow and prosper. Although there is considerable research based on psychological and economic approaches to entrepreneurship, the influence of cultural factors on the development of the company remains under study. However, the purpose of this article is to integrate, from a theoretical point of view, the socio-cultural factors and entrepreneurial activity.
Scientific progress, technology and the population explosion have led to the knowledge, accumulation, fast transferee of it and the increase of individual educational ambitions. This formed many pressures on the educational institutions to provide education with high efficiency for the increasing numbers of students with low possible costs. It has become for the educational process new prospects and fields that are because of the stunning challenges derived from the needs of the epoch and the development necessities, which target the education and its style. All these are for meeting its excessive increase in preparing the students and education demanders, which require educational institutions with specification that receives these huge numbers of students. Furthermore, the knowledge is in excessive increase where the available time in classes will not be able to absorb that increase. This increase requires using the technology in the educational process, especially in the English language.
This paper is intended to discuss the image of Islam and Muslims in the representational discourse of the New York Times during the Arab Spring. It is predicated on the premise that news reports in the media are both biased and less objective. Certainly, the wave of demonstrations in Muslim majority countries like Tunisia, Egypt, Libya and even Syria were a raw material for the New York Times' writers to report if not rethink their views and perceptions of Islam and Muslims. In this journalistic discourse, Muslim women are delineated as being both alien and different; they do not cherish a good representation, given the bad images that turn linked to them many decades ago. As for the Arab leaderships, they are in turn not safe from the propagandistic tendencies of this print media form as they become equated with and synonymous to evil, despotism and dictatorship. While it adopts the content analysis method, this paper aims at casting some light on the way the New York Times render Islam and Muslims in its columns. It, therefore, makes no distinction between news reports, be they articles, Op-Eds or Editorials.
The aim of this paper was to discuss the key role of information communication technology in quality services delivery at Babcock University Library. Libraries have always been regarded as service oriented centers which, if they integrate the use of ICTs, could provide timely, relevant, reliable and current information. The effective use of the ICT will make librarians more competent and this will, in turn, make their libraries more competitive in their strategic marketing plan. The paper, among other things, highlighted the user based components of ICT application and services that, when adequately put in place and effectively used, could afford Babcock University library a competitive advantage over other libraries. Finally, it concluded by making some recommendations to Babcock University library administrators on what could be done to create and maintain services that the customers will perceive as being more superior to those of their competitors.
This paper tests the validity of morphological characters used to distinguish two Leptactina species put in synonymy by Figueiredo (2007) on the basis of our unpublished works: Leptactina arnoldiana and L. mannii. Analyses of variances and discriminant analysis were used for that purpose. Significant differences exist between the used variables but the discriminant analysis brings to light only the number of nervure as discriminant character. We assert with Figueiredo (2007) that these two species are synonyms and an identification keys is proposed.
Edible oils are an important constituent of human diet because they provide desirable nutritional properties, flavor and texture of food. Olive oil is one of the most frequently used edible oils. Therefore knowledge of its physicochemical properties is indispensable to assess its quality. In fact, there are many factors having an influence on the chemical and physical characteristics of olive oil, such as the climatic conditions, the agronomic and genetic factors. In Morocco, different varieties have been developed in order to improve the yield and oil quality. But few comparative studies were made between the different product varieties. The aim of this study was to characterize the olive oils from five olive varieties most cultivated in Morocco. Then compare them by using the physic-chemical parameters with storage conditions (darkness and sunlight). Several parameters were studied, namely, quality indices defined by the International Olive Oil Council (IOOC): The acid value "Av", the peroxide value "Pv" and the specific extinctions "K232 / K270". The results of different analyses show significant differences between these five varieties, and demonstrate that the Picholine de Languedoc variety is the most efficient in term of quality for the consumer.
Disasters recognize no geographical boundary and cause disruption to human, social and ecological life of society. Every year natural disasters take a heavy toll on human lives and property. The Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) defines disaster as an overwhelming ecological disruption that exceeds the capacity of a community to adjust. Besides natural disasters, present day mankind is also facing the brunt of man-made disasters like climate change, bioterrorism, industrial and technological disasters, ecological disasters, wild forest fire and so on. Whatever might be the nature or type of disasters, they cause irreparable losses and injuries to the mankind. Disasters are common occurrences all over the world. Generally speaking the term disaster includes a natural or manmade disasters or a combination of both with its damaging affects in a large number which is large enough to disrupt the normal course of emergency and healthcare services. Poor and developing countries are most vulnerable to these disasters. It is estimated that disaster losses in developing and third world countries are 20% higher than developed countries, as a percentage of GNP. Out of many third world and developing countries, Somalia recently has faced a severe famine from 2011 to 2012. This famine was the worst disaster of the country's history. Both physical and human related factors contributed a lot to raise the severity of this famine. In the present paper an attempt has been made to study the causes (which are both natural and political), impacts of the famine. Moreover, some recommendations are also suggested.
This paper examined the impact of bank consolidation on credit access and availability to small and medium scale enterprises (SME's) in Nigeria for the period 1999-2012. The main objectives are (1) To examine whether or not bank consolidation in Nigeria brought about increased lending to SME's.(2) Determine the level of lending risk to SME's .(3) Determine if there is any significant difference between SME's financing in pre and post consolidation in 2005.Data on commercial bank loans to SME's as percentage of total credit was the main variable used and were obtained from CBN Statistical Bulletin 2012. The mean, standard deviation descriptive statistics and the t-test tool were used for the analysis. The study found out that bank consolidation in Nigeria led to a drastic reduction of SME's financing to less than one percent (0.37%) on average. The lending riskiness of banks to SME's in post consolidation reduced while there is no significant difference between SME's financing in pre and post consolidation era. The results however go contrary to the much taunted belief that bank consolidation will lead to increased SME's financing in Nigeria. The study recommends improved transparency of SME's accounting and reporting of their activities, banks should relax some of the stringent lending measures to SME's while government should design policies that should group SME's in such a manner for proper identification and planning (specifically according to trade and industry) so that it can guarantee credit facilities and ensure prompt repayment through designated agencies.
Matters relating to the negotiation require a clear and rigorous procedure. As such, any political negotiation is spared and every candidate in the negotiation party should have an effective mechanism in response to the different offers that are made. As part of this work, the goal of ours is to assess the negotiating mandate, structures, capacities and response mechanisms for Cameroon's participation in the negotiations of Economic Partnership Agreements (EPAs) with the European Union (EU). To achieve this, we have taken advantage of any existing documentation from which we were able to show the negotiation process follows its normal course. However, the differentiating character of the parties' negotiations blocks developed to date, the ratification of the EPA is not always done. This blockage is partly due to the incompatibility of provisions that confer this agreement with Cameroon commitments in the latter part of sub-regional integration. At this stage, a comprehensive EPA would be the best solution in order to limit the negative effects of this agreement on the survival of regional integration in Central Africa.