Increased pressures on the finite water resources of the world are requiring the irrigation sector to become more accountable for its water use. There are a multitude of factors which can affect the uniformity of an irrigation system. An evaluation or performance assessment of irrigation systems can point out flaws or otherwise of an irrigation system for improvement. An evaluation of a recently installed sprinkler irrigation system was done to gather the necessary data needed to determine the systems performance and also to determine whether excessive application loses were occurring in the system. The assessment took into account the operating pressures, lateral and sprinkler discharges, sprinkler distribution patterns and uniformity coefficient. Operating pressures and discharge deviated marginally from manufacturers specifications. A uniformity coefficient of 84.13% suggested a good system with very minimal water loses.
The purpose of this paper is to examine the effect of cash holdings level on firms' profitability. Three simple regression models were used to examine the relationships between cash holdings and firms' profitability using a panel data of 65 non-financial firms listed in Amman Stock Exchange (ASE) during the period from 2000 to 2011. The results showed a positive significant relationship between cash holdings and profitability. This means that a good financial performance of the firm is an outcome of vast corporate cash holdings. This positive relationship reflected the beliefs of Jordanian firms' managers that the absence of effective liquidity management will cause cash shortages and will result in difficulties in paying obligations, which negatively affected the firm's profitability. This study contributes to the practical world. It helps firms in the markets of emerging countries in general and in ASE in particular, manages their liquidity and cash. Furthermore, the study helps firms hold the percentage of cash, which lead to efficient financial performance. This study encourages the future researches to find out the suitable strategies related to cash holdings.
Interstitial pregnancy is a rare form of ectopic pregnancy, but it is associated with the highest risk of morbidity and mortality and needs early diagnosis. Interstitial, angular and cornual pregnancies are mistakenly and frequently confused and need a strict distinction. Interstitial pregnancy refers to an ectopic pregnancy that is implanted in the interstitial portion of the fallopian tube. Its correct diagnosis can be quite difficult; it relies heavily on quantitative beta-hCG assays and ultrasound and potentially on laparoscopic evaluation. The diagnosis by transvaginale ultrasonography is based on multiple criteria. Several effective treatment options for treatment of interstitial pregnancy have been described but the most appropriate technique remains controversial. Managing an interstitial pregnancy is dependent upon whether the ectopic pregnancy has ruptured, the stability of the patient, the gestational age at diagnosis and the patient's desire for future fertility. The greatest risk to patients after successful treatment remains recurrence of interstitial pregnancy and the uterine rupture during subsequent pregnancy this is why a transvaginale ultrasonography should be performed 5-6 weeks after the last menstrual period and a cesarean delivery should be planned at term or performed, if tocolysis fails in cases of preterm labor. To illustrate the particularities of this form of ectopic pregnancy we report two cases with a brief up date.
A transversal and analytic study was conducted to determine the economical factors of vulnerability of the households to malaria in Miti-Murhesa Health Zone during a period of January to December 2010, including 492 respondents. The economical vulnerable household is defined as the one who consumed more than 13 % of his annual income for the refunding of malaria incident. The methodologies of gathering data consist by administrate an individual questionnaire to the respondents and documentary revue. The results of One way analysis show a statistical significant association between the economical vulnerability of the households and the following factors : a household headed by a woman, the cost of the hospitalization spending more than 10$, an annual income of the household less than 370 $, a household which is jobless, a household having more than 7 persons inside, a payment of other fees more than 2 $, a patient who has frequented a tradi-practician before reaching the medical structures. The Two way analysis show that the factor analyzed, annual income of the house hold less than 370 $ is the most independent but on which we do not have any solutions in short time, followed by the one of the hospitalization spending more than 10 $, vulnerable factor for which the solution in short time is possible.
Malaria is one of the main of Public Health problems, which threatened the development of poor countries and the wellbeing of the population. It has an important measured direct and not direct cost which restraint the economic development. This work evaluates the cost of taking in charge treatment due to simple malaria in a rural health Zone of Miti-Murhesa, Democratic Republic of Congo. Data collection has been facilitating by an individual questionnaire half-structured administrate to 492 houses hold. Results shown that the medium of malaria episode in the house hold in the Health Zone was of 2 varied between 1 and 4 episodes for percentile 25 and percentile 75 per year. The high direct cost for the taking charge of malaria is the hospitalization with a mean of 10.7
This study investigates the impact of corruption on economic growth in Algeria over the period 1995-2011 by using the Heritage Foundation's freedom from corruption index and the World Bank's control of corruption indicator. The Johansen cointegration test has been applied in order to investigate the existence of long-run relationships among the tested variables. As well as, the vector error correction model (VECM) has been employed to analyze the long-run and short- run dynamic relationships among the various time series. The initial findings indicate that both 'freedom from corruption' and 'control of corruption' have long run positive effects on enhancing economic growth in Algeria. It is also revealed that the human capital has an insignificant positive impact on economic growth in the long term. Moreover, VECM analysis suggests that all explanatory variables have positive and insignificant short-run effects on promoting economic growth except the 'control of corruption' indicator. These results support the view that corruption sands the wheels of economic growth. Thus, the Algerian government should root out this scourge by finding the relevant solutions that must be supported with effective weapons such as transparency and tougher accountability standards.
A number of Overseas Countries and Territories (OCTs) having links to EU Member States were listed in 2000 under the tax haven headline by the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). A series of measures had been taken in order for them to adopt the OECD`s internationally agreed tax standard and to become compliant to the EU`s Code of Conduct for business taxation. At the same time a number of both fiscal and corporate advantages make these territories attract significant business activity. The aim of this article is to present a comparative analysis of two types of offshore companies: the international business company (IBC) and the exempt company, offered by six OCTs having links to the United Kingdom: Anguilla, Bermuda, British Virgin Islands, Cayman Islands, Montserrat, Turks and Caicos Islands. These companies are being analyzed in terms of characteristics, administration and Governmental fees for incorporation and continuation. Although the international business company (IBC) is seen as the emblem of the offshore sector, the results of the comparative analysis performed have shown that the exempt company is similar to the IBC structure in many respects. The lack of taxation of the revenues generated outside the territory of incorporation, the lax company administration conditions and the low Governmental fees are common features of these two corporate structures which are part of the offshore sectors of these territories.
Communication is one of the important parameter which barricades itself during disasters. Along with this, the other problem is measurement of physical conditions of the calamity struck region. There must be simple ways to tackle them. The purpose of this paper is to unveil such a system which remains active at all times, and is fault-tolerant with respect to any unexpected events such as a natural disaster. Hence, it mainly involves transmission of distress signals, warning signals and other information related to disaster relief. These signals are acquired using an all terrain Unmanned Ground Vehicle. The signals and the physical properties of the region like gas leakage, damaged terrain etc. are sent to the ground station using a high altitude repeater called the airborne system, which is tethered to the ground.
The purpose of this study is identifying the intellectual behaviour of module tutors and its impact on student's satisfaction and intention to leave. A sample size of 151 full-time students was randomly chosen from various educational institutions. A multi-factor leadership questionnaire with a Likert-Scale from 1-5 was used to collected the data to determine students perception of intellectual behaviour displayed by module tutors at various level in key different academic institutions in Malaysia. Intellectual behaviour is measured using five variables namely idealised attributes, idealised behaviour, intellectual stimulations, inspirational motivation and individual considerations. These variables were initially established by previous studies as dimensions of transformational leadership. To ensure reliability and validity of the data set, sample size only includes students who have been with the educational institution for minimum one semester. The correlation analysis shows that all the in IA, IB, IS, IM and IC were significant and highly correlated with student satisfaction. However, this study found only IS is significant and negatively correlated with student's intention to leave. Also this study found increased in level of satisfaction is significant and negatively correlated with intention to leave. In terms of multiple regression analysis, this study found that only idealised attributes (IA) and individual considerations (IC) were significant and positively influences students satisfaction. However, this study shows none of the variables of intellectual behaviour has any significant impact on student's intention to leave. However, the increased level of satisfaction was found to have a significantly negative impact on student's intention to leave. The current study contributes to the body of research by investigating the combined impacts of intellectual behaviour on student satisfaction using one instrument, in cross-sectional area setting. This research shows that intellectual; behaviour of transformational leadership is crucial in improving student satisfaction and intention to leave. Future research should be undertaken on different context or by increasing the sample size by widening the research context to ensure validity and reliability of the results.
The study analyzed Safari Card system as a revenue risk management practice on financial performance by Kenya Wildlife Services. The target population of the study was 1,286 employees in the National Parks where Safari card System is used to collect the Parks entry charges. The study used systematic random sampling procedure to arrive at the 296 sample size. The study collected both primary and secondary data which was processed to answer the objectives of the study. A descriptive survey research design was used to obtain a description of a particular perception about a situation, phenomena or variable and views were taken to represent those of the entire population. Data was analyzed using descriptive statistics and presented using frequency tables and charts. The relationship between Safari Card as a risk management practice and financial performance was tested using a regression model. The introduction of Safari Card as a transactional risk reduction system made KWS to increase its liquidity as a measure of financial performance, although the system did not improve working capital. Second, the introduction of Safari Card cash handling system positively improved KWS liquidity. Third, the introduction of Safari Card Customers Relations risk management system did not positively influence KWS liquidity, working capital and use of its assets optimally to generate the required short term liquidity. Fourth, the introduction of Safari Card financial information risk management system did not positively influence KWS liquidity, working capital and use of its assets optimally to generate the required short term liquidity.
The objective of this work is the study of the quality of a derivative of Moroccan dates: Tahlaoute. It is a vital and essential product oasis whose population exceeds two million. However, this product has been a little or no studies. The study was performed on 220 samples (110 samples of traditional Tahlaoute and 110 samples of industrialized Tahlaoute), the physicochemical characteristics (4 criteria), the microbiological and hygienic (10 criteria) were assessed against the standards. The results showed that the quality of industrialized Tahlaoute is much larger than traditional Tahlaoute and this on all criteria studied whether physico- chemical or microbiological (60% of samples of traditional Tahlaoute are not consistent with international standards). In addition, storage conditions are generally unfavorable, resulting in an alteration of traditional Tahlaoute and its susceptibility to contamination by microorganisms. The control of manufacturing processes and preparation as well as the entire food chain of these products must be improved to ensure the health and safety of consumers.
Robustness is one of the requirements used in controllers and compensators design. This paper examines the robustness of a Notch and a Sallen-Key compensator when used to control a highly oscillating second-order process. A variation of
Pakistan is an under developing country and it is facing the problems of globalization which are created due to global media. The present study is conducted to dig out the impact of global media of Pakistani culture with particular focus on the role of cable television in the promotion of foreign cultural trends in Pakistan. In this study it is documented that the young generation of Layyah city is extremely influenced due to cable network. To understand that what type of cultural impact have been imposed on our society by foreign TV entertainment channels. By using survey and content analysis data was collected from the target respondents. The results of the study strongly supported that foreign entertainment channels are extremely influencing the Pakistani young generation.
Knowledge sharing has been identified as the key enabler of knowledge management. To leverage knowledge resources and to support knowledge sharing, organizations are employing knowledge management systems. While knowledge management systems are important, practical implementations have found that technology alone cannot guarantee that knowledge will be shared. The objective of this research study was to examine the determinant factors that promote or discourage knowledge sharing behaviors of individuals with in NBI context and propose a technical and non-technical solution. Drawing from multiple streams of research including social psychology, organizational learning, knowledge management, information systems and so forth, this research developed an integrated theoretical model and unveiled three sets of critical factors: psychological, organizational and technological that are believed to affect the knowledge sharing behaviors. The posited theoretical model was validated using a field survey of individuals from NBI, the case study area of this research study. The results of the study provide empirical support for the overall structure theorized in the research model. 9 of the 11 hypothesized relationships were supported. Knowledge sharing behavior was predicted by individual's intention towards knowledge sharing and perceived behavioral control. Knowledge sharing intention in turn was predicted by knowledge workers attitude towards knowledge sharing, subjective norm and perceived behavioral control. The strength of Social network and trust exerted positive effect towards favorable attitude towards knowledge sharing and subjective norms towards knowledge sharing. Perceived organizational incentives and benefits exerted a positive effect towards favorable attitude towards knowledge sharing. The perceptions of loss of knowledge power exerted a negative effect on the attitude. Organizational climate positively influenced knowledge workers subjective norm. Additionally, facilitating tools and technology was positively associated with high levels of perceived behavioral control towards knowledge sharing. Based on the findings, the study discussed implications for theory and practice. Overall, the results of the study advance prior research in the area of knowledge sharing by shedding light on the determinants of knowledge sharing behaviors of individuals. In addition to contributing to theory, the findings of the study also yield insights for practice. These insights could be used by organizations in developing realistic environments that are conducive to knowledge sharing.
SRAM cell design takes a big fraction of the entire power and die area in high performance processors. The overall power consumption in SRAM can be reduced either by decreasing the dynamic or static power. A Charge Recycling (CR) is a very efficient means to reduce the power dissipation in the write cycle of SRAM cell designs. To keep this point in view, this paper represents the simulation of four 64-bit SRAM cell topologies by using Charge Recycling scheme and their comparative analysis on the basis of their average write power consumption. The 64-bit SRAM cell designs are arranged in 8X8 form. Simulation reveals that 64-bit 9T SRAM cell with CR perform better than others in the term of power consumption but if die area and average power consumption both considers, then 64-bit 7T SRAM cell with CR perform well as compared to 64-bit 9T SRAM cell with CR. All the simulations of SRAM cell designs have been carried out on 180nm, 130nm and 100nm CMOS technology at 100 MHz and Vdd = 1.8 V.
The Cloud computing offers a distributed system over a network in which a program or any application run on many connected computers at the same time. Cloud computing is a hosted service in which an end user can access the cloud based applications through the browser or any mobile application. Though the cloud computing is a very vast and useful technology but there are still some challenges to be solved. Among all of these there are security issues. The security is most important impact of any software or any hardware. So this paper focuses on the security issues arising from the usage of Cloud services and security issues in different service models of cloud computing.
The sensitivity of subtropical African river basins to possible future climate change is a matter of some concern. In Ivory Coast, previous works on climate change impacts predict a decrease in annual average water resource by the 2080s between 6.9% and 8.4%. This is a potentially serious issue because of a series of historical resource management decisions that have increased dependence upon water use, such as through major dam building schemes. This paper focuses upon the Buyo Lake catchment, a central resource for the Ivorian people with the aim of providing future water resource scenarios, under climate change so as to develop appropriate adaptation policies. The study applied simulations from the UKMO climate model, HadGEM1 from the ENSEMBLES project 2009, with the A1B emissions scenario in continuous simulation. Daily climate data such as rainfall, temperature, wind speed and relative humidity were input to the SWAT hydrological model. The simulations were performed after model calibration. Analysis focuses on the periods 1950-1979 (baseline), 2035-2064 (2050 horizon) and 2064-2093 (2080 horizon).The results showed that the entire basin of Buyo could experience a serious temperature elevation of +1.34
The automotive industry is a backbone for nation development and approved as one of the dynamic sector with rapid change of technology capability, customer preferences, and complex management for the auto components. As part of the initiatives to support the ability of current generations to meet their needs without compromising the ability of future generations to meet theirs, firm starting to implement eco innovation in terms of producing an eco product and implementing green process in their manufacturing activities. However, there are low evidence of literature underlines firms capabilities to enable eco innovation as scholars tend to discuss factors from Macro and Meso level. Thus, this paper provide an insight for new paradigm of eco innovation research by introducing dynamic eco innovation practices as an antecedent for eco innovation efforts and indirectly supporting eco performance in triple bottom line effect. Four main factors identified as the heart of dynamic eco innovation practice namely; technology collaboration, green human resource, eco innovation culture and environmental management system strategy. Furthermore, this paper shed light on new research imperatives by proposing a research model with hypothesis development to be tested mainly in the automotive industries and particularly development countries as the background setting.
Each community has its own culture and culture represent the identity of a specific community. Culture is a way of living of the people of any community. The culture of Pakistani is pure Islamic culture and Islam is official religion of Pakistan. The present study is conducted to explore the influence of Indian culture on Pakistani society in Layyah because Indian entertainment channels are most popular in Pakistani society. Main aim of this study was to explore the impact of Indian TV dramas and movies on the Pakistani cultural norms and values. Using multistage sampling technique 120 viewers were selected from Layyah city. Findings of this study show that Indian dramas and movies are directly influencing the Pakistani culture. In this way cable TV network is main source to promote the Indian culture in Pakistan.
In Bangladesh the most important event in a women's life is marriage which is surrounded by the various financial transactions including primarily the religiously sanctioned dower. Added to the dower, the practice of dowry popularly known as 'Joutuk', demands made by the groom's side to the bride's side, have in the last few decades become a widespread practice in the society supported neither by state law nor personal laws, but apparently designed to strengthen traditional patriarchal assumptions and with the expansion of capitalist relations that help capital accumulation by men in Bangladesh. The dangerous scenario is that every year a number of women become the victims of violence for non fulfillment of dowry demand, which is caused the threatened to their lives as the law cannot eradicate the menace of dowry due to lack of proper enforcement. This paper is an attempt to indicate the severity of the dowry violence including the analysis of legal strategies to put on curb the dowry violence in Bangladesh.
This paper aims to improve our understanding about the prevalence and determinants of child abuse in Bangladesh. Another thing is to focus on the activities that are taken by the NGOs in this perspective, which is trying to improve the "abusive" condition & give the children who are directly or indirectly affected by the various abusive conditions a path of better future. The information was collected from 36 children aged 08-15 years is given sheltered by the NGO named "APARAJEYO BANGLADESH". Findings revealed that a large number of the children are in the labor force, although the country laws prohibited child labor. The prevalence of child abuse and exploitation was widespread in all over Bangladesh. The incidence of physical assault is much higher among younger children although the probability of other types of abuse was higher among older children. Boys are more exposed than girls to abuse of any kind. Poverty is also significantly associates with child abuse. The out-of-school and the illiterate children, landless and unskilled laborers are more likely to be abused than others when age and sex of children are controlled. In this review it is highlighted on the causes of child abuse & given some recommendation to improve their (Children) condition with public awareness.
Rickshaw is very popular as a mode of transport in Bangladesh. Every year from different part of Bangladesh a large number of literate and illiterate people join the labour market. Because of the insufficient jobs in the labour market, most of these people try to find jobs in the informal sector like rickshaw pulling. This study is conducted to analyze the socioeconomic conditions of those people who are involved in the rickshaw pulling occupation in the city of Comilla, Bangladesh. The objectives of this study are to find out the causes of migration, asses the demographic status and the previous occupation and finally analysis the income-expenditure status and remitting behaviour of the migrated rickshaw pullers. 150 rickshaw pullers have been randomly selected for the study purposes. The findings of the study reveal that rickshaw pulling is an easy way of earning more money and employment but the social status of the rickshaw pullers are not satisfactory and it is not an economically sufficient way to earn the livelihood in the long run.
Natural gas processing is a complex industrial process designed to reduce impurities from raw natural gas by separation process to produce gas which is known as pipeline quality dry natural gas. In Titas Gas Field (Location #A), natural gas process plant is mainly designed to separate the water from the raw gas and make the gas transmittable to the consumer. Natural gas dehydration for Titas Gas Field mainly includes the separation of water from gas by Glycol Dehydration Process. Besides, a little amount of condensate is also separated during the dehydration process. Condensate of Titas Gas Field mainly contents hydrocarbon of C3-C4. As the absorbent, TEG (Tri-Ethylene Glycol) is the most preferable to use. In this paper, we represent the design of the equipment using in the glycol dehydration plant of Titas Gas Field, Location #A. Equipment sizing means calculating optimum height, diameter, number of tray, capacity, circulation rate etc. of each equipment. Calculation of height, diameter, number of tray capacity, circulating rate etc. of the equipment by using various tables, figures, charts, methods. In this paper we designed Inlet 3-phase separator, Glycol contactor tower, Lean-Rich glycol heat exchanger, Glycol circulation pump, Glycol flash separator (3-phase), Glycol regenerator (Re-boiler), Stripping still. It has to be mentioned that this is a theoretical design of the equipment for a glycol dehydration plant based on the operating condition of Titas Gas Field, Location #A which can be more efficient than the operating equipment.
It is difficult to treat textile wastewater to a satisfactory degree because of high chemical oxygen demand COD, Biochemical oxygen Demand BOD, Suspended solids (SS), conductivity and highly intense colours. Colour removal from textile waste water has gained considerable attention these days. Coagulation-Flocculation is a frequently used physiochemical treatment method to decolorize textile effluents and reduce the total loads of suspensions. Jar Test apparatus is used to conduct the research work. The study focuses on determining the effect of coagulation and flocculation, optimum dosage and PH of coagulant and flocculant on the removal of reactive textile dyes from the dye bath effluent of a textile industry. In dye bath effluent two reactive dyes are present named Sumifix Supra Red E-XF gran. and Sumifix Supra Yellow E-XF gran. in ratio 0.55:0.45.Dye bath effluent has initial pH of 11.Alum is used as a primary Coagulant and two flocculants named Polymer A110 (anionic) and Polymer 202 As (cationic) are used as flocculant aids. Effect of mixing speed and mixing time is almost same for both flocculants. Maximum dyes removal is at 200 rpm for Polymer A110 which is 86% and for Polymer 202As is 72.4% which is at 180rpm. At maximum dyes removal is achieved when the mixing time is 18 min it is 85.6% and 72.5% for Polymer A110 and Polymer 202As respectively.
The study of diet examined 272 specimens of Sphyrna zygeana (162 males and 110 females) and 215 specimens of Isurus oxyrinchus (120 males and 95 females) from artisanal fisheries. They were collected between October 2009 and September 2010. The analysis of stomach contents revealed that 87estomacs Sphyrna zygeana were empty (31.98%) and 185 stomachs contained food (262 prey). 154 stomachs of Isurus oxyrinchus contained food (224 prey) and 61 stomachs were empty (28.37%). According to the index of relative importance (IRI) calculated both diets consisted mainly of fish. Levin's Index obtained from S. zygeana (Bi = 0.446) and I. oxyrinchus (Bi = 0.432) indicates that trophic niche is relatively narrow. These two species are specialist predators that use fewer resources with a preference for fish. The community index of Jaccard (Sj = 0.265 <0.5) indicates a similarity between the diet of both species. There is also a dietary overlap (? = 0.7644) between these two species and gender (I. oxyrinchus, C? = 0.897 and S. zygeana, C? = 0.868).
The limit altitudinal of Anopheles gambiae is always topic to controversy in the region of Lwiro. In our routine exercises of surveillance of the anopheles mosquitoes vector of malaria, we come, for the first time, to find the larval lodgings over to Anopheles gambiae to 1886m altitude and a few to the some adults in houses. The implantation of the fish ponds is the main reason of this rise in altitude and numeric of this species in the middle. In these biotopes Anopheles gambiae is their present to 85.20%.
Growth pattern and trend is an important factor for a city or municipality because the future condition depends on the growth pattern and trend. Chittagong District is one of the three hill tracts districts in Bangladesh. It is found that growth trend of the Chittagong city is on the north east direction. On the south side it is no possible because of the presence of Patenga sea beach which defines the last boundary of the city area. In this process of urbanization, the physical characteristics of Chittagong is gradually changing as open space have been transform into building areas, low land and water bodies in to build up lands etc. In this project, proper analysis is done and the ERDAS software where build up area, vegetation area and water body is analyzed. Ward wise land cover change also found in this research. By considering this data, it has been found that north east direction is the growth trend. This study can help the future researchers to analysis growth pattern and trend analysis.
Real-time recording of the electroencephalogram (EEG) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) may reveal the brain's activity at high temporal and spatial resolution. However, the EEG recorded during fMRI scanning is corrupted by large repetitive artifacts, called Gradient artifacts which are generated by the switched MR gradients. In addition, Ballistocardiographic artifacts (BCG) are overlaid on the EEG resulting from heart beat related body movements and blood flow changes. This thesis presents generic methods to remove fMRI environment-related artifacts from EEG data with the minimization of residual artifacts. Firstly, methods for removing gradient and BCG artifacts have been presented in this thesis which is based on capturing temporal variations in the artifacts by carrying out temporal principal component analysis (PCA) and recognition of a set of basis functions which describe the temporal variations in the artifacts. FASTR (fMRI Artifact Slice Template Removal) algorithm is used here for subtracting gradient artifacts in which a unique artifact template is generated for each slice as the local moving average plus a linear combination of basis functions that describe the variation of residuals. The basis functions are derived by performing temporal principal component analysis (PCA) on the artifact residuals and selecting the dominant components to serve as a basis set. QRS complexes are identified for the purpose of pulse artifact removal. These methods are implemented as an FMRIB toolbox in EEGLAB. The algorithms employed here give satisfactory results by removing all the artifacts. This artifact reducing analysis offers possibilities for improved neurological research and clinical neurosurgical applications.
It is well known that the notion of integral in mathematic branch is among the most difficult contrarily to some known techniques as integration by part or by change of variable, the integral is forgotten. The mathematic theories contain other notions having the applications which allow to determine the integral of some types of functions, for instance Laurent's series, Beta's functions, Gamma's functions, Laplace's transformations,
In the perpective of enquiring the state of the plantations phytosanitairy of coffee tree of the North Kabare in order to undertake the averages ways of fighting (preventive, curative or integral) able to grow up the coffee production in the science subjects in the South Kivu coffee tree a study for evaluation the phytosanitary state of coffee plantations in the region of Kabare the North has been done. At the end of the study, it has noticed that the anthracnose, the rust, the die-back and the sigatoka even the thrips unwrapping, the drawing pin coffee tree, the dentals drawing pin, the rongers leaves catapillar, the pyral of drupes and the coffee tree hannetons are respectively the illnesses and the found insects in the coffee plantations of the North Kabare but with the incidence relatively different. The anthracnose's rate incidence has been very highest (33%), followed by the coffee trees rust (30%) than the sigatoka (22%) and at the end die-back (15%). As far as ravagers are concerned, the drawing pin of coffee tree presented a relative incidence the highest of 32% of order, followed by the unwrapping thrips (15%), and the coffee tree hannetons (14%), of rongers leaves catapillar (14%), of pyral of drupes (13%) and at the end of dentel drawing pin (12%). All the coffee trees of the region of the North Kabare are old in the way that their ages vary between 43, 1 years and 69 years with 57, 5 years of average.
In an attempt to find non-harmful to humans and does not pollute the environment, effective tack against the coffee and alternatives to synthetic pesticides polluters of the environment, an in vitro test of activity biodegradable organic substances insecticides, insecticide alkaloids, steroids, saponins and isolated Capscicum frutescens L. terpenes was performed in the presence of synthetic pesticides (Supadip and Dimethoate) and water as controls. Mortality tack the coffee very varied significantly depending on the treatment, concentration as well as the interaction of treatment and concentrations of insecticides tested substances. The insecticidal activity of Supadip was superior to all other insecticides tested at doses of 0.01ml / l and 0.1 ml / l (100% mortality) at the dose 0,636g / l, the alkaloids have Capsicum similar to that of Supadip and dimethoate (100% mortality) effect. Steroids have a mortality of 57% at the dose 0,636g / ml saponins and terpenes have a minimum effect to said dose. Dimethoate was inactive at doses 0.1 ml / l and 0.01ml / l. Alkaloids have low lethal dose LD50 (0.21
A research has been made in Katana area in order to know the causes of woody flora disappearance in the occidental part of Kivu Lake in the Democratic Republic of Congo. Investigation method and free observations helped us on the ground. The obtained results confirmed that the woody flora have been damaged by human activities. 100% of population from the area has agreed the flora damage. Agriculture takes the first place as the cause of woody flora disappearance about 36% followed by the research of the live embers and firewood which takes 20%, building is concerned about 17%; sawmill about 15% and the brickworks take 12%.
Background: Acinetobacter baumannii (A. baumannii) is one of the most important nosocomial pathogens, Increasing resistance coupled with the fact that few novel antibiotics are currently available or in the pipeline, leaves patients and physicians with a very limited armamentarium against these pathogens. Combination therapies are considered as effective options to overcome this matter. Materials and methods: Fifty A. baumannii isolates were collected from clinical specimens, from patients in ICU at Ibn Sina Hospital in Rabat, Morocco during the January 2011
This study investigates psychosocial factors as determinant of examination malpractice among secondary schools' students in Ondo State. The study adopted descriptive research design of the survey method. A total of 200 respondents were selected from 5 secondary schools using simple random sampling technique for the study. Four hypotheses were generated. The major instrument utilized for collection of data was a self- constructed questionnaire titled "Students Psychosocial factors on examination malpractice (SPFEM). Chi-square statistics was used to analyze the data collected. All hypotheses were tested at 0.05 level of significance. The findings of the study revealed that there was a significant relationship between psychosocial factors (that environment, self-efficacy, anxiety and parental pressure) and examination malpractice. Based on the findings of the study, it was recommended that guidance programme be organized on study habits and preparation for examination for students in secondary schools.
In the current overview paper, particulate emissions from the combustion of agricultural residues are discussed. The influence of operating parameters and fuel quality was investigated. Studies on the mass concentration, number concentration and size distribution of particles emitted from agricultural waste fired boiler are presented. Mass concentrations of particles in the flue gas from small scale combustion appliances reported in the literature to be in the range of 8 - 2095 mg/Nm3, while particle number concentrations in the range of 7.0 x 10-2 to 1.8 x 108 particles/cm3. The dominating chemical compositions of the particle emissions were Ca followed by K, Mn and Mg. Organic Carbon (OC), Elemental carbon (EC), Elemental emission, Poly-cyclic Aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) and emission of different size particles (PM?0.1 to PM10) were also reported. Combustion temperature is the most important factor in determining PAH composition.
In the past few years, an increasing number of stimuli responsive thin polymer films and intelligent hydrogels have been reported in the literature for various biomedical applications, including drug delivery, tissue engineering and wound healing. The thermo-sensitive approach can be advantageous for some specific applications as it does not require organic solvents, co-polymerization agents, or an externally applied trigger for gelation. The conformation as well as change in physical properties of polymer brushes and polymer hydrogel can be influenced by the environmental stimuli, such as solvent composition, temperature, pH and electric fields. This review focuses on the recent advances of these stimuli responsive molecular thin film and stimuli responsive polymeric gels with unique properties and utilities. We also discuss some conflicting behaviors shown by polymer grafted membrane and polymer gel surfaces, synthesized by using same monomers. Major properties of stimuli responsive thin polymer films, and on their potential application in the field of nano-optics, ultrasensitive spectroscopies and other biomedical applications including drug delivery are also outlined.
Settlement pattern of cities Depends on several factors including topography, climate, available materials and the cultural expression of community. The reaserch concerns for the cultural expression of community. This research deals with the city in ancient Yemen during period of the ancient kingdoms since the beginning of first millennium BC even the kingdom of Himyarite in the Central Highlands of Yemen. The research aims to identify the relationship between the religious beliefs of a society and its impact on Architecture. The reaserch methodology depends on puting theoretical framework shows the relationship between beliefs and the process of designeing and building. Then, it is applied on the architecture through selecting of certain models of ancient cities of each kingdom. The research concluded general conclusions about Urbanism in that era, in addition to know the strength of the relationship between religious beliefs and structural output.
The study was attempted with an objective to evaluate the relationship among yield and yield contributing characters, genetic diversity and selection indices of 76 rice genotypes. Number of tillers plant-1, number of effective tillers plant-1 and number of filled grain panicle-1 were positively and significantly correlated with yield plant-1 suggesting that genotypes with high partitioning efficiency gave increase in yield plant-1. Path analysis suggested that number of effective tiller plant -1, number of filled grains panicle-1 and 1000- seed weight were related to the yield plant-1 mostly through their direct effects. The genotypes were grouped into seven clusters based on Euclidean distance following Ward's method and the highest intra-cluster distance was found in cluster VI and inter-cluster distance between the cluster I and VI. Study of selection indices through discriminate functions observed that Bhute shalot possessed the highest selection score index (301.41) and rank as the best followed by Hati bajore, Jamai naru, Bazra muri and Enghi which suggests that the highest scoring genotypes might be recommended for farmer's cultivation for better yield. Among this landraces the superior genotypes may be used in future plant breeding program.
Generally speaking, the structure to forbidden electromagnetic band gap (EBG) is defined as being periodic artificial structures (or sometimes not periodic) which prevent the propagation of the electromagnetic waves in a frequency band specified for all the angles of incidence and all the states of polarization. The EBG is normally realized by periodic arrangement of dielectric materials. Within this framework, a new type of metallic electromagnetic structure was finalized. A big impedance of surface and a very precise forbidden bandwidth of frequencies characterize it. It is the flat structure, that we shall call EBG in the shape of dome. To begin the study of this structure, we are going to analyze the coefficients of reflection and transmission feigned. We shall approach then the application of this structure on the environment close to a network of patch antenna, of a micro strip line and a guide of rectangular wave to show the importance of this material in microwave structures.
The land of Palestine is also known as 'Holy Land'. It is holy because it is concerned with three great religions of the world i.e. Christianity, Islam and Judaism. It is an area roughly located between the Jordan River and the Mediterranean Sea. Presently, Jewish state of Israel and state of Palestine together form the ancient land of 'Palestine'. This sacred land after Second World War, particularly after the establishment of Independent State of Israel, has been turned in to a land of chaos, war, miseries and deaths. Thousands of innocent Palestinian Arabs and Jews from Israeli side have lost their lives in this conflict which is mainly concerned with a piece of land where communities i.e. Arabs and Jews, were living in harmony before the forceful mass immigration of Zionists from Europe to the holy land of Palestine. The involvement of Superpowers have further worsened the crisis. They have used the sentiments of both warring sides for their own benefits. The regional powers being militarily weak, failed to protect the legal rights of their coreligionists in Palestine. The younger generation in Israel and State of Palestine are brought up an environment of mutual hatred towards each other. The peace in the region is not possible until their mutual disputes are not resolved. But do they have such a higher level of maturity to solve their mutual disputes? In present paper an attempt have been made to study what are the causes, geopolitical effects and possible solutions to this conflict.
Fault diagnosis is an ongoing significant research field due to the constantly increasing need for maintainability, reliability and safety of industrial plants. The pneumatic actuators are installed in harsh environment: high temperature, pressure, aggressive media and vibration, etc. This influenced the pneumatic actuator predicted life time. The failures in pneumatic actuator cause forces the installation shut down and may also determine the final quality of the product. A Self-Organizing Map based approach is implemented to detect the external faults such as Actuator vent blockage, Diaphragm leakage and in correct supply pressure. The Self-Organizing Map is able to identify the actuator condition with high accuracy by monitoring five parameters. The parameter selection is based on the committee of DAMADICS (Development and Application of Methods for Actuator Diagnosis in Industrial Control Systems). The Self-Organizing Map Systems were implemented in real time using MATLAB and the results prove that the system can effectively classify all the types of external faults.
Introduction: Viral hepatitis affects millions of people around the globe. The burden of disease is significantly higher in developing countries such as those in Africa. Lack of awareness coupled with inadequate information about the disease amongst general public is the major reason for the spread of infection. Awareness of the disease can help in building advocacy and improving access to care. In order to assess the awareness levels of hepatitis among general public in Cameroon, we designed and conducted a cross-sectional study. Materials and Methods: The objective of the study was to assess the awareness of hepatitis in a set population of Cameroon. A cross-sectional study was conducted in a small population in Cameroon. A total of 88 people aged between 18 to 70 years participated in the survey. Results: On a scale of 0 to 10 the average awareness level of the survey respondents was 5.38. Although the results indicated that the survey participants had some knowledge about hepatitis, it was observed that there was lack of awareness in some key areas of the disease such as modes of transmission and vaccination. There is a need for initiatives at a population level to increase the awareness about viral hepatitis, modes of transmission, treatment and prevention in Cameroon.
For the instability and the nonlinearity, complexity and difficult problem a state feedback method is proposed to cancel the nonlinearities and control of three-phase photovoltaic inverter. The nonlinear model is linearized using feedback linearization, state feedback law and state transform. The steady state has applied for simplified the state feedback law, make the closed-loop dynamics in equivalent linear subsystem, and then applies the input output feedback linearization control. This nonlinear state model transforms the d-q reference into an equivalent linear system, the pole placement control loop technique is applied to separate the control and make the closed-loop system pole placed in the desired location. The system is composed of one photovoltaic array, capacitive DC-link, three-phase inverter connected to the grid assumed to be in phase with the inductor current. The capacitor voltage is regulated and controlled to reduce the harmonic in the input of the inverter and to assure the stability of the photovoltaic system. In order to analyze the closed-loop dynamics of the subsystem the incremental conductance algorithm is used to optimize and track the maximum power from the photovoltaic generator under varying temperature and irradiance conditions. The algorithm shown better performances and effectiveness compared to other techniques. It can respond quickly to changes in the external environment and make sure the photovoltaic array is always working at the point maximum and improve the efficiency, the stability of single stage three-phase photovoltaic grid-connected. According to the simulation results this controller is globally stable.
Removal of trivalent arsenic from contaminated groundwater was studied using steam activated carbon prepared from the leaf, seed and pod of Moringa oleifera (MO) plant of the indigenous-cultivar of Bangladesh. Batch adsorption experiments were performed as a function of contact time, adsorbent doses and variants. The removal efficiency of the MO-leaf-carbon and MO-seed-carbon was substantial, while it was trivial for MO-pod-carbon. The pseudo-first- and second-order and intra-particle diffusion equations were used to evaluate the sorption mechanism of the MO carbon options. The MO is a common plant variety of the arsenic-affected Bengal delta. Therefore, it can be exploited as a cheaper resource of carbonaceous adsorbent for the economical removal of arsenic from the water.
A surface water contamination vulnerability mapping has been carried out to contribute to water quality protection of the Martil river dam. The applied methodology (ESU) depends on three parameters i) density of the hydrographic network ii) soil hydrologic potential and iii) agricultural drainage. The vulnerability degree is a result of a typological interaction between these three parameters through there different possible combinations Results indicate that high vulnerability classes are shown within almost 85 %of the catchment area. Otherwise, some southern, northern and south western areas (14 %) are of mean vulnerability, while a very restricted area (1 %) shows low vulnerability to contamination.