Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) assay was conducted for molecular genetic analysis of six cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp germplasms) i.e. BARI Cowpea, BARI Felon-1, Ranirhat, Ruma, BF06001 and BF060011, to observed genetic variability and relatedness among them. Out of 15 decamer random primers, three were used to amplify genomic DNA and the primers yielded a total of 20 RAPD markers of which 11 were considered as polymorphic. The maximum number of bands (9) (25%) produced by the primer S1184, whereas the least number of bands (5) (15%) was generated by the primer OPA10. The average scorable and polymorphic bands produced by the three primers were 6.67, and 3.67, respectively. The percentage of polymorphic loci was 55. The UPGMA dendrogram based on Nei's (1972) genetic distance between different pairs were correlated with their sources of origin. The dendrogram indicated segregation of six germplasms of cowpea into two main clusters; the main clusters are further divided into sub clusters. In sub cluster I, BARI Cowpwa-1, Ranirhat and Ruma formed sub sub-cluster I; BARI Felon-1 formed alone sub sub-cluster II. Again, sub sub-cluster I; Ruma formed alone cluster and BARI Cowpea-1 and Ranirhat formed sub sub-cluster III.
The present study was conducted from April through September 2013 to find out the edible fishes of Rhound Stream at District Dir Lower Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. Different types of nets and of various mesh sizes, and hooks were used for collecting fishes. During the study period, ten edible fish species were identified. Taxonomically, the collection was embodied to three orders, Cypriniformes, Channiformes and Mastacembeliformes and three families. The most abundant family was Cyprinidae represented by 7 genera and 8 species while Mastacembelidae and Channidae each were represented by only one species. The collected fish species were Schizopyge esocinus, Raconma labieta, Cyprinion watsoni, Cyprinus carpio, Crossocheilus diplocheilus, Garra gotyla, Puntius ticto, Puntius sophore, Channa punctatus, and Mastacembelus armatus. Our study revealed that Rhound stream is having rich edible fish fauna. If proper stocking is carried out, it can harbor more fish quantity and species, and may become the back bone area's economy.
The issue of serious food and nutrition problem is now commonly associated with less developed countries. Food is understood as involving interconnected domains with questions of agriculture, socio-political, market and distribution, employment, ecological, roles of women and just to mention a few. It is surprising that most of the problems which international institutions like the World Bank, Food and Agriculture Organization, Economic Commission for Africa, Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, International Fund for Agricultural Development and governments of developed countries have to deal with supporting the developing countries in the last two decades have revolved around the inability of agricultural sector to provide adequate food and nutrition for their populations. Nigeria government has only been paying lips service to the issue of food security as it is evident in weak policy making in the area of agriculture. For Nigeria to achieve food security, different challenges like political, social, ecological/climate change, institutional weakness, the role of women in food production among others must be taken seriously. It is recommended that all the stakeholders in agriculture: policy makers, scientists, extension workers and farmers be brought together to discuss the challenges confronting food production/security and forage the way forward. Government should consider implementing the views of the stakeholders one after another and continuity of projects and programmes initiated by donor agencies.
We consider a nonlinear hyperelastic tube subjected to a deformation radial. We study then the phenomena of asymptotic stability of the tube. We use techniques for obtaining approximations to periodic time solutions of nonlinear second-order differential equations subject to a harmonic forcing term, and to limit cycles of autonomous equations. These approximations take the form of an expansion in integer powers of a small parameter, having coefficients that are functions of time.
Several studies have shown a positive relation between the body mass index (BMI) and the physical activity. The aim of this study is to investigate the relation between BMI and PA of Algerian adolescents. Three hundred and fifty Algerian adolescents (165 boys and 185 girls) between 10 and 19 years old participated to this study. The adolescents completed PA and lifestyle questionnaires. They were 185 girls (52.9%) and 165 boys (47.1%) with 13.17
Until now, malaria remains a major public health problem in the intertropical zone. The situation is aggravated by the developing resistance of Plasmodium falciparum strains against currently used drugs even artemisinin. Antimalarial new drugs are urgently needed. In this study, we have compared the antiplasmodial activity of defatted ethanolic extracts of four medicinal plants from the traditional pharmacopoeia of Niger to the one of Artemisia annua. We used the Mark III Test of World Health Organization, over the W2 chloroquine-resistant strain of the parasite. Antiplasmodial activity was discussed over the light of phytochemical profile of the plants, determined by standard methods of chemical screening. Cassia nigricans, Sebastiania chamaelea and Euphorbia hirta exhibited good antiplasmodial activity, with respectively IC50 of 2,8
Introduction: If the uterine leiomyoma is a common and well known disease entity, ectopic location, is rare. The treatment is surgical enucleation and the diagnosis is histological. The objective of this work is to describe a rare location of myoma. Observation: We report the case of a patient of 50 years postmenopausal, who consulted for a vaginal nodule. MRI has to say vaginal tumor origin. The patient therefore underwent surgical resection of a nodule 1cm white and firm. Histological study has allowed us to retain the vaginal leiomyoma diagnosis. Discussion and conclusion: The leiomyoma is a benign mesenchymal tumor whose extra-uterine seat is rare. In her vaginal location, it is usually asymptomatic, discovered incidentally during a clinical examination. Vaginal myoma is usually a nodule on average 3cm, firm and painless, affecting middle-aged women. Radiological explorations show the origin of the vaginal origin of the lesion. Surgical resection is required because of sarcomatous degeneration have been described. The diagnosis is based on histological examination of the tumor.
Disappearance of Methylene Blue (MB) in distilled water has been investigated when it was treated by sunlight and /or chlorine and Fe2+/H2O2 system at different pH values. It is found that the above elements and systems have actions on MB disappearance with different efficiency. The disappearance efficiency by using each system was compared in terms of percentage and kinetics disappearance. By exposing Methylene Blue (MB) aqueous solutions to solar rays, kinetic disappearance increased slowly with decreased pH. This fact, which became faster, is inversed by regarding pH when free chlorine is added to the same aqueous solutions of MB. However, when free chlorine is coupled with sunlight, a remarkable enhancement, at higher pH, of the disappearance activity compared to obtained results with isolated elements. On the other hand, the system H2O2/Fe2+ was also tested to remove MB in terms of kinetic curves at different pH. Important and faster removal levels were obtained at acidic pH.
An experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of irrigation water management practices and rice cultivars (BRRI Dhan -28 and BINA Dhan -8) on methane (CH4) emission and rice productivity during Boro season (January to May 2011) at the experimental field o6f Department of Environmental Science, Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh . Two different rice varities such as BRRI Dhan-28 and BINA Dhan-8 was selected for the study. Different water management practices such as Continuous flooding (CF) at 5 cm standing water, CF at 5cm standing water for first 3 weeks, CF at 5cm standing water for first 6 weeks, CF at 5cm standing water for first 9 weeks, alternate wetting and drying(irrigated at 5cm depth, 3 day in a week and 4 days drying) and water saturated condition (no standing water) were followed in the different plot in this experiment. It was observed that alternate wetting and drying (irrigated at 5cm depth, 3 day in a week and 4 days drying) treatment gave highest yield 5.76 t/ha and 6.713 t/ha respectively in BRRI Dhan-28 and BINA Dhan-8. However the lowest seasonal methane emission 13.349 g CH4/m2/season (26.37% less than CF at 5 cm standing water) and 13.808 g CH4/m2/season (28.08% less than CF at 5 cm standing water) were found under the alternate wetting and drying in BRRI Dhan-28 and BINA Dhan-8 respectively. So alternate wetting and drying(irrigated at 5cm depth, 3 day in a week and 4 days drying) irrigation water management practice should be followed for reducing CH4 emission and sustaining rice productivity during the Boro season in Bangladesh climatic condition.
A Hill road is one which passes through a terrain with a cross slope of twenty five percent or more. A hilly or Mountainous area is characterized by a highly broken relief with widely differing elevations, steep slopes, deep gorges and a great number of water courses. Owing to complex topography, the route has to be ineffectively increased. Flexible pavements are especially affected by moving vehicles, as a result of moving vehicles the pavement starts deteriorate. The existing road has been badly damaged due to heavy intensity of rain and by the due course of time. The main objectives of this project involve widening of the existing road up to the desirable limit and to renovate the pavement where the roads have been heavily damaged. The results indicate that the Benkelman beam method was used for the calculation of the deflection behavior against dynamic vehicle loading for flexible pavements.
In the early 70's, Black, Scholes and Merton have made a major breakthrough in option pricing. These contributions and developments are the source of the famous Black-Scholes model which had a great impact on how used by traders, both in terms of option valuation in the development of coverage This work has also been the starting point for the spectacular development of computational finance in the 80's and 90's.En 1997 Merton and Scholes were awarded the Nobel Prize in Economics (Black had died). This formula is widely used in practice to the extent that it defines the implied volatility has become a real unit of measurement. The mathematical model that describes the financial market is both simple and effective. The aim of this paper is to develop options pricer using VBA language and the Black and Sholes model.
Chance of our ignorance, lack of information which prohibits predict what the future brings, and the existence of multiple causes that cross the path of winning anyway, all this creates major undesirable effects of this that financial institutions have fully made the effort to graduate uncertainty or rather determine the predictability that now was mathematical statistics and not deterministic form. Among the methods most used in the context of risk management in finance is the Value at risk. This method allows materializing the risk of losing a position or the entire portfolio. The goal of this paper is to clarify some notions about this approach and to have more ideas and trace while giving tracks to highlight the risks, corrected to overcome weaknesses and to better understand the fluctuations. Thus we would calculate the Value At Risk of a diversified portfolio composed of three assets.
Since its accession to the independence, the Democratic Republic of Congo knew a succession of the disorders and wars with negative impacts on its economic tissue, its social and cultural development. The succession of wars which the R.D. Congo especially in its East part knew maintained a climate of insecurity in the National Park of Kahuzi-Biega and its periphery, more precisely in Health area of Cibumbiro in the health Zone of Miti-Murhesa and much more in its littoral part with the National Park of Kahuzi-Biega. The war of Rwanda and the massive arrival of the Rwandan refugees in RDC involved wars known as of "release", the creation of the militia and groups armed and conflicts between the ethnos Congolese Groups. This conflict generated many cases of plundering, rapes and massacres, which generated the disappearance of domestic fauna. Plundering themselves make lose 49 % of the domestic cattle and the fear of future plundering made the disappearance of its 51% ; such are the principal causes of the disappearance of domestic fauna in the health area of Cibumbiro.
The purpose of this study is to enhance the senescent plantain by making dockounou with a nutritional value for feeding Wistar rat. Batches of rats were fed with dockounou boiled and formulated with millet, soybean, sorghum, cassava, maize and rice flours for 15 days. The parameters such as weight gain, dry matter intake, feed efficiency and the digestibility of various dishes of dockounou were evaluated. It appears that apart from the control diet, only the dockounou of soybean made a weight gain to 2.05 g/d and 2.25 g/d obtained respectively with the formulation 80:20 and 75:25. The high dietary intakes to 7.18 g/d and 7.51 g/d were respectively obtained at 80:20 and 75:25 formulations for the same diet. Furthermore, there is no significant difference in the food efficiency and the digestibility dockounou of soybean at both formulated and the control diet. Regarding nutritional performance of dockounou of soybean formulated to 80:20; this food could be used in the diet of Wistar rat.
Bangladesh is one of most densely populated country where women are identified with domestic life while politics is viewed as a male dominated public activity. This study seeks to critically appraise the extent of women's empowerment in local level in Bangladesh. It also investigates the reasons for women's low rate of holding elected office. The study is based on secondary data. It found a number of determinant factors for lower status of rural women. Self-respect, unity, co-operation, collective strength will increase the group function that finally leads them to empower themselves. The constitution has given the opportunity for women to participate at local level to national level of government with reserve seat but the fact is quite different. The elected female candidates at local level are not more than ten percent and the major political parties are not willing to incorporate women, it is about fifteen percent at highest level of the parties. However the constitutional provisions of Bangladesh can be seen as milestone towards ensuring women's equal access and increased participation in political power structure but still there is a structural problem of women's incorporations at union parishad level. Women are marginalized in functions and service delivery at union level due to a number of factors.
In this work, we present a hybrid classification technique combining an expert system and an object-oriented approach. The expert system allows the integration of a knowledge base built through a series of deductive rules, that will guide the classification whose primitives requires informations on the highest level and will be represented by semantic objects, not pixels. Instead of the original bands only, other derived data combining textural, spectral information and shapes, are included in the classification process. The result is then combined with an expert system whose rules use variables such as vegetation index (NDVI), shading of building objects and other indicators. In conclusion, this approach has allowed us to improve the accuracy of the feature extraction method by extracting objects like, roads, trees, grass, bare soil and shadow on a very high-resolution image of the city of Rabat.
The use of pesticides in modern agriculture is required to maintain a level of production consistent with the demand and needs. However, most of these molecules are highly toxic and hardly biodegradable. Their massive and repeated use can lead to negative consequences for all components of the environment. However, the challenge facing today is to reconcile wheat production with the international quality standards. So it is in this context that we conducted our research, consisting to identify the influence of treatment with an herbicide widely used in Morocco, on the biochemical parameters of wheat seed. To do this, we tried to make a comparative study of the physicochemical properties of five varieties of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum), and to assess their nutritional values. The results obtained show that the samples of treated wheat present highly significant different rates, higher or lower, relative to control, which can reach to: lipids (2.92
The wife has always been a reality on which a stack of theories of discussions and laws have been created. Despite the wife to be the discussion object in the working world, and to be the important element for the politicians to rise the image in front of the public, the wife has always been at the second place in the working world. All the inequalities between men and women that persist in industrialized countries are still more important in the developing countries. The average feminine salary represents the half of the average masculine salary. The wives are suffered the joblessness than the men. Seventy percent (70%) of the poor persons of the planet are the wives. The two third of the illiterate adults persons among 860 million in the world are women. The right at word of the wives post at the education right. The women situation at the work is much different from one area to another of the planet according to the development of the countries, even also the mentalities. The work of the wives in DRC as other parts of under Sahara Africa come elsewhere, all proceed from a very long history. We don't say nowadays in Africa that the women jobs never stop. In the centuries ago, most of the central African explorers that new that, have said that problem. Speaking about the job of the wives in has work, "the African women (bantoues) in XXth century: Michal Masroz report that two European travelers exploring the centre Africa, one in XVII century another in XIX century another in XIX century the said clear about the sexual division unfavorable to the women, these one taking the principal part. During the Belgian colonization, the traditional area, the work of slaves as far as to their minds or the consideration they had from then society. Actually as it is in the countryside as in the town, the activities of Congolese women contribute to the income of the family. That feminine dynamism is essential to the well-being or simply to the survival of many families. The Congolese women can benefit the advantage of this situation to reach at the real equality with their husbands and these by which conditions? This work will show us the blockages that meet the wife when looking for a job, the persistent inequality between both sexes and the solutions for a probable amelioration of the integration of the wife in the working world in the seven day Adventists conventioned schools of the North Kivu Provincial Coordination.
The study used a district-level data from 2008-2012 to examine socio-economic factors affecting academic performance of pupils in food insecure district of Garu-Tempane, Upper East Region. The study explored the possible correlation between selected factors like age (years), type of marriage, religion, number of dependent, type of residence/domicile, type of dwelling, occupation and highest qualification of parent/guardian as independent variables and academic performance as dependent variable. A quasi-experimental design was used in selecting 360 pupils both from participating and non-participating public primary schools with similar socio-economic characteristics in Garu-Tempane District. The study revealed a causal link between school feeding program and academic performance as the participating schools' pupils had an improved academic performance. Again, Pearson Product Moment Correlation coefficients for socio-economic variables and academic performance results showed positive significant correlations (p<0.05) with type of marriage, (r=0.69), number of dependent, (r=0.193) and type of residence/domicile, (r=0.188). The study therefore recommended that the school feeding programs' sustainability should be well-targeted not only on the basis of food insecurity but through a more rigorous in-depth socio-economic survey and vulnerability mapping with a view to scaling-up of the program in food deficit areas to incorporate more schools.
Being an essential quality of the financial markets, market liquidity represent a big concern for both, financial authorities and investors. Liquidity offer depends on several parameters including the mode of organization of exchanges. The structure of the Exchange influence directly competition between investors and the quality of the information available to them. Thus, liquidity offer strategies differ from a order driven market of a quote driven market. Therefore, competition between liquidity providers depends on their liquidity offer strategy and differ in both markets.
Reverse Engineering is the process which recovers the design artifacts of a software system by using its Size of source code, Available source code type, Abstraction level, Documentation type support. This research focus on the different case studies of recovery of Metrics and is elaborated by using the method of Reverse Engineering, to measure the complexity of the recovery of artifacts for the maintenance task. During this process of analyzing a subject system and in this way representation of a system is created at a higher level of abstraction. It represents an overview of the yield of reverse engineering and reviews cardinal achievement and areas of application, shedding light on key open research issues of the future.
Neglected for a long time in territories analysis, the border spaces constitute areas of intense socioeconomic activities. Guidimouni (Niger) depends heavily on the contact with the Nigerian border. The frequency of trades and migratory movements perfectly illustrate this dependence. Several factors contribute to this dynamics, among which the proximity with the Nigerian border, the multi-feature of the market of Guidimouni and the importance of agro-pastoral resources, etc. In spite of these favorable assets, several factors disturb the progress of the exchanges, in particular the Nigerian currency fluctuation, customs harassments, roads quality, etc. In view of the importance of the exchanges between Guidimouni and several Nigerian localities, it is important to revitalize the exchange networks with Nigeria. It is a question of allowing the municipality of Guidimouni to better take advantage of the benefits from these exchanges, and then to participate in the efforts of local development at work.
In the hinterland of Lubumbashi characterized by peasant agriculture floristic investigations were conducted in common bean crop (Phaseolus vulgaris) during the 2014 growing season in 12 fields spread over two roads which: Kasumbalesa and Kipushi. Thus 10 quadrats 1m side were randomly placed in each field. The inventory identified 24 species grouped into 7 families and 5 biological types including: therophytes 66.66%; Geophytes 12.5%; 8.33% hemicryptophytes chamaephytes and finally Nanophan
The present work reports a comparative study of spontaneous crystalluria for non- and goitrous patients with the aim to determine its correlation with parathyroid gland activity and goiter etiology. The crystalluria was accessed based on optical polarized light microscopy (OPLM). Goiter presents high woman predominance with an average age of 35.6 years. The frequency of majority constituents in crystalluria is age dependent and amorphous complex carbonated phosphates (ACCP) and uric acid (UA) are the frequent chemical species. The observed hyperphosphaturia can be explained by the estrogen's activity on parathyroid cells proliferation. The presence of oxalo-calcic crystalluria confirms hyperparathyroidism as one of the hypercalciuric kidney stone etiology. Clinical goiter diagnostic and treatment could be followed and confirmed by a simple fluctuations follow-up of crystalluria composition according to phosphate and calcium species.
The aim of our study is to apply of simple, effective and less expensive methods of treatment of the iron of natural water. For these reasons, we chose oxidation by simple agitation and adsorption on a natural material, coal of the wood of pine. The tests showed that agitation does not have any effect on elimination of iron in an acid medium The oxidation of iron by simple agitation is supported by a basic Ph, with pH = 8 the concentration of residual iron in water reached 0,62 mg/l at 15 min of agitation, iron is completely to eliminate with pH = 10. The tests of adsorption showed that balance is reached at 10 min; the adsorption of iron on coal of pine is a fast phenomenon. The study of factor which influence the kinetics of adsorption by coal of pine reveal that the output of adsorption increase with the increase in ph (97% with pH= 9). The variation stirring velocity shows that the good output is obtained at a speed of 100 turns/ min. The isotherm of adsorption obeys the model of Freundlich.
Liver dysfunction is a major health problem .Excessive drug therapy, free radicals, environmental pollutants, and alcoholic intoxicants are the main causes of liver disorders. The present investigation was designed to evaluate its in vivo hepatoprotective properties of Canscorra decussata (family Gentianaceae) whole plant methanolic extract against paracetamol toxicity in rabbits. Hepatoprotective activities of methanolic extracts of C. decussata were examined against paracetamole induced liver damage in rabbits using silymarin as control. Enzyme activities of Serum Glutamate Oxaloacetate Transaminase (SGOT), Serum Glutamate Pyruvate Transaminase (SGPT), and Alkaline Phosphatase (ALP), bilirubin total and direct billiribin were analyzed. Oral administration of methanolic extract exhibited significant hepatoprotective activity.
Introduction: This article discusses the extent to which the promulgation of Public Procurement Act (PPA) 663 has affected the acquiring of water treatment chemicals which is pivotal to the operations of Ghana Water Company Limited (GWCL). The purpose is to find out from officials within the company about their impressions with the coming into force of the act for more than a decade now. Methods: A descriptive study with quantitative methods was conducted with workers of GWCL; procurements and materials, operations/project management unit and projects planning and development in Accra. Questionnaires were administered to 85 workers within GWCL through a purposive sampling method. Data analyses involved descriptive statistics using SPSS version 20. Results: Out of 85 participants, 88.2% revealed that all contracts are made available to interested individuals to apply through sources such as website of GWCL and newspapers. Most workers agreed that procurement management has improved efficiency and effectiveness in procurement of essential water chemicals (mean=4.08). Finding further revealed that the PPA has significant (65.9%) and very strong effect (27.1%) on procurement of essential water treatment. However, the structure has been plagued by lapses affecting procurement of water treatment chemicals. These include bureaucracy and centralization which has negative impacts on procurement activities. Conclusion: The study concludes that since the coming into force of the act, there has been institutionalization of structures to handle procurement within GWCL. Therefore, measures to decentralize the activities of GWCL will further help in enhancing efficiency within GWCL and other entities to a larger extent.
Background: Incidence and prevalence of reproductive health difficulties have been shown to be higher among younger people. In Ghana, youthfriendly sexual and reproductive health services and facilities are very limited. The study aimed at examining the friendliness of sexual and reproductive health service delivery and utilization. Methods: Across sectional design with both qualitative and quantitative methods was conducted to examine the friendliness and utilization of reproductive health services among youth in the Kwadaso Sub-Metro of Ashanti Region, Ghana. A multi-stage stratified sampling was used to enroll 170 youth (150 in-school and 20 out of school youth) aged 10 - 24years. Data analysis involved descriptive statistics using SPSS software version 20. Results: Findings demonstrated that out of the 150 in-school youth sampled, 56% ever had a boyfriend or girlfriend, however, about one third(39.3%) did not recall the length of stay with partner, 58% have heard about sexual reproductive health services offered in the study area. A total of 55.8% of all categories of youth had used at least one or more reproductive health service before. Findings again revealed that 37.2% and 44% respectively of youth who had used sexual reproductive health considered the services received at a facility to be very friendly and friendly, yet, a few 18.6% indicated unfriendliness with services received at the facility. Conclusion: An integrative and comprehensive approach is required to scale up youth utilization of sexual reproductive health services especially facility based. This requires baseline survey of youth users of reproductive health services and the quality of services offered.
Despite the skepticism regarding the adaptation of Islamic finance in the international financial system, large banks are buying Islamic bonds and creating branches that operate around the world by applying their methods of financing, the principle of sharia, namely prohibition of interest. Generally, they apply to investment operations, procurement of goods, services or assets. In what follows, we will evaluate the experience of Islamic finance since the 70s to the present, while studying its appearance, its main funding patterns and trends across the world, to finish with the challenges by the latter, which was deemed obsolete again, now rival the current financial system and becomes his redoubtable challenger.
The current financial crisis is the worst that the world has known since the 1930s, it marks the end of an era of credit expansion based on the dollar as the international reserve currency. This crisis is different from previous crises were part of a cycle of boom and bust. The problems started in spring 2007 with the crisis in the American mortgage (subprime) resulting in bankruptcies, including one of America's greatest institutions markets, in what follows we will analyze and determine the causes, consequences of the crisis and proposed solutions to circumvent it.
The predecessor of the Southern African Development Community (SADC) was the Southern African Development Co-ordination Conference (SADCC), established in 1980 in Lusaka, Zambia. In 1992, Heads of Government of the region agreed to transform SADCC into SADC, whose focus is on integration of economic development. SADC members are Angola, Botswana, DR Congo, Lesotho, Madagascar, Malawi, Mauritius, Mozambique, Namibia, Seychelles, South Africa, Swaziland, Tanzania, Zambia and Zimbabwe. The targets and timeframes for the integration milestones are as follows: Free Trade Area, Customs (CU), Common Market, Monetary Union and Single Currency. A Customs Union is where a group of countries that have established a free trade area agree on common external tariffs and a common external trade policy. The first major challenge of the proposed transition from the SADC Free Trade Area to a SADC CU is the establishment of a single Common External Tariff (CET), which is a complex process to negotiate. Within SADC there are currently 11 individual tariff policies that will need to converge into a single and uniform tariff regime. Addressing the conflicts that may arise from attempting to service obligations from membership in multiple regional and international bodies, such as customs unions and common markets is difficult and the development of policies and strategies that are targeted at supporting vulnerable groups, rural and urban poor, small businesses, informal operators and women within SADC is insurmountable. For the SADC to succeed, the creation of SADC Customs Union (CU) will be obligatory. The goal of this paper is to analyze various economic and political-economy-related issues associated with the process of creating an SADC CU whose thrust is liberalization of intra-union trade that creates incentives for all parties to reduce their remaining tariffs.
The Nyamulagira volcano enters in eruption approximately each 2 years and the last eruption of November 06, 2011 was started 22 months after that of January 02, 2010. The aim of this work is the characterization of some aspects of seismicity prior the Nyamulagira eruption on 2011by temporal analysis of the hypocenters (epicenters and depths), earthquake number and spectral frequency. A temporal evolution showed that the seismicity rate, the hypocenters, the corner frequency and energies release vary and give a comprehension of the behavior of the volcanic activity. 10 months before the eruption, earthquakes were deep (10 - 30 km) and scattered with weak corner frequencies (< 2.6 Hz) in the field of Nyamulagira. That confirms a partial melt or deep magmatic intrusion with weak displacement. The magmatic migration starts between April and October 2011 with shallow earthquakes (0 - 5 km) and high corner frequency and high energy. This period prepares a pathway of magma to the surface. The frequency and energy were then higher in the last swarms of 04 and 05 November 2011, 2 days prior the eruption. This last seismicity denote at the same time a magmatic intrusion, a fracturing of the weakness zones and an extrusion of the lava at the surface. A deep investigation of these parameters on several eruptive cycles would facilitate the knowledge of the magmatic dynamics of Nyamulagira volcano and also the predictive approach of its eruptions.