This paper reflects the benefits to control transit countries have adopted architecture of intelligent transportation systems as a model for the deployment of intelligent traffic systems. Efforts are evident in the traffic control agencies of Ecuador in generating and implementing projects to improve their controls of transit using information technology and communication, however interoperability and heterogeneity are due deficiencies deployments that are performed without using a model that the normal and standardized. The recent creation of autonomous governments who will within its competence, traffic control, evidence a risk of implementing new traffic control systems, exacerbating the problem continue. This research proposes the adoption of a Framework for the design of an ITS Architecture in Ecuador which aims to improve the interoperability of existing systems from a model for deploying new traffic control systems.
The led study presents the current state of the quality of waters of the tablecloth of Bonoua as well as its situation towards polluting elements of anthropological origin (NO3-, Cl-, NH4 +). This tablecloth is more and more requested to cover the water requirements of the city of Abidjan, while its quality is felt (experienced) by the diverse sources of pollution which multiplied further to the urbanization and to the development of the agro-industrial cultures. To estimate the current subterranean quality of waters of this tablecloth a comparison and a follow-up of its physico-chemical parameters from 2001 till 2015 was realized. It was coupled with a multivariated statistical analysis to know the Analysis in Main Component (ACP) to determine the origin of mineralization, The methodology took into account on one hand the hydrochemical parameters which showed that waters are acid with a pH between ((4,2UpH and 6,88UpH, more important concentrations in nitrates (140mg / L) to Ahoutou
This study aims to show the links between family type and quality of the parent-children relationship the one hand, and school engagement and the quality of this relationship among college pupils in Togo the other hand. An inquiry was conducted among a sample of 329 pupils of form four. The results obtained show that students in two-parent families enjoy a peaceful relationship, while those of the single parent or blended families live a conflictual relationship. Students from single-parent or blended families have a disengagement whereas those from two-parent families have a high engagement.
The assessment of groundwater vulnerability against pollution is a crucial procedure for land settlement. The topography enables decision makers to better manage and analyze information necessary for the delineation and / or identification of areas where groundwater is vulnerable to pollution. Within this context, and considering the strategic role of the Rish groundwater in the socio-economic development of the South East region of Morocco, a map of the aquifer vulnerability with multi-criteria acronym approach PRK has been developed. This approach, based on the parametric methods of class system, aims primarily at designing an index map of the intrinsic vulnerability of the hydrogeological system through gathering the overall indices by classes. It is grounded on the multiplying combination of the information layers relating to three parameters: 1. (P) - topographic slope, 2. the ratio (R) - combining variation of the amplitude of the fluctuations of the piezometric level compared to the thickness of the unsaturated zone and 3. (K) - permeability of the aquifer, whence the generic term P.R.K, taking the initials of these parameters. The overall indexes acquired by this combination vary within a range of values from 2 to more than 91. They are distributed into six classes corresponding to degrees of vulnerability fluctuating from "very less" to "extreme". However, the dominant class is "very less vulnerable". It covers up to 89% of the total area of the studied zone.
The student performance has been affected for different factors, many of them are unobvious. The habits or daily activities undoubtly have a deep effects on the student performance. In this work, the study of student daily activities, and the relationship with his academic performance, using Data Mining techniques was done. In the attribute selection phase, 5-13 attributes from the 35 total were selected. The students were classified in four classes related with their academic performance: low, regular, good and high; the classification accuracy was near to 90%, using algorithms like MLP, KNN and tree algorithms like Random Forest, Random Tree and J48. The activities and factors presented for low and high performance students, also the tendency of activities and factors in the four classes, are reported.
Multiple sclerosis is a demyelinating disease of the central nervous system, it begins in half of the cases in women of childbearing age. The influence of pregnancy on MS is difficult to assess because of the unpredictable evolution of the medium and long term illness. We offer an observation MS and pregnancy collated serving MII Maternity Souissi - Rabat and try to study in the light of the literature the course of pregnancy, childbirth and the evolution of the disease in the postpartum period.
The present working paper aims to examine theoretically and empirically the long run relationship of the exchange rate pass-through to import prices. Using a heterogeneous panel approach to estimate the ERPT for four developing countries. Our methodology consists of no stationary panel estimation and a cointegration test, our results show that the ERPT in developing countries has a heterogeneous character.
The best knowledge of cancer treatment in recent years has improved a remarkable way the prognosis and survival of patients. The problem that remains to ask is the quality of life after cancer, still preserving fertility. It is the successful part of modern oncology. An essential feature in the care of patients, which calls for very good progress particularly with regard to medically assisted procreation. Thus, the rate of spontaneous pregnancies reported after breast cancer are low, due among other treatments. It is essential to consider the question of fertility after breast cancer and eventually offer fertility preservation techniques in these patients. We report in this article these different methods in women by first analyzing the effects of radiotherapy and chemotherapy.
The parietal endometriosis is an uncommon clinicopathological variety, its pathophysiology remains unknown. It usually occurs after pelvic surgery. We report the case of a patient who presents a cyclical pelvic pain, sitting at the caesarean scar. With the examination of a 4cm mass in the right iliac fossa. The Doppler ultrasound showed a polylobed image, tissue, center vascularization, measuring 40/24 mm, suggestive of parietal endometriosis or a tumor of soft parts. So we said a wide resection of the lesion, in which were excised a solid mass of 3.3 / 3 cm under the fascia adherent to the rectus muscle of the abdomen. Histological study objectified diagnosis of endometriosis of the wall. The postoperative course was simple with a decline of 16 months without recurrence. This is a condition that remains mysterious to the interest or understanding of its characteristics to improve prognosis by diagnosis, early treatment and prevention during each surgery.
The concomitant occurrence of cervical cancer and pregnancy is rare. Figures published in the literature are variable and estimation Motherhood practitioner from 1500 to 2500 births on average one case of cervical cancer per year. Non-invasive cancers are more encountered that invasive cancer, with an average ratio in the three publications carcinomas in situ to invasive carcinoma. The incidence of cervical cancer during pregnancy and aggravating his relationship has been widely discussed. There seems to be no worse prognosis specifically linked to pregnancy. For some other studies would invasive cancers even lower than in the reference population and taking into account the average age of patients of childbearing age. The same applies to the action of estrogen does not appear to be an aggravating factor for cervical cancer is not a hormone-dependent. Contrary to what was previously described. Prenatal care during pregnancy should be an occasion to systematically seek cervical cancer. It is important to make an early diagnosis to a proper care and improved prognosis. The advent of smears, colposcopy and biopsy or colposcopy micro enabled quick and accurate diagnosis. These various examinations usually will make the difference between dysplasias, carcinomas in situ and possibly very limited micro invasive cancers both in scope and depth to larger micro invasive cancers and invasive cancers in order to take a decision on the multidisciplinary course of pregnancy, therapeutic indications and terms of delivery. We present in this article the peculiarities related to cervical cancer association and pregnancy at different phases diagnostic and therapeutic news.
The innovation paradigm has a broad base that can hold a plethora of areas. A set of instruments are set up for the benefit of regional innovation policies: the upgrading of human resources, development of infrastructure and the establishment of regional marketing.
This article examines the results of chemical data of the granitoids of the Ngovayang massif at the Northwestern border of the Congo craton in South Cameroon. The aim is to identify the sources and geotectonic framework of emplacement of these formations. It is a contribution to the understanding of the geodynamic context of the Ngovayang massif in the Nyong unit. 24 samples were analyzed by XRF and ICP/MS and are constituted of orthogneiss, charnockitic gneiss, migmatites and metagranites. This study brings out the progressive variation of the nature of the gneissic basement of this massif. Orthogneisses are the principal rocks and are characterized by an enrichment in Na as opposed to an impoverishment in K. This confirms their enrichment in plagioclase and their impoverishment in alkaline feldspar, K/Na ratios < 0.5. Trace element contents are also characteristics, marked by an enrichment in light rare earths (Laavg=10.48ppm) and impoverishment in heavy rare earths (Ybavg=0.63ppm). Their spectra are much fractionated ((La/Yb)N=15.86) without any significant anomaly in Eu but a negative anomaly in Ti and Nb. These results confirm its belonging to granitoids of the TTG type of trondhjemitic affinity. The migmatites have a granodioritic composition and are calco-alkaline. They have low Y content and are comparable with the CA2 type of pluton. They originate from the melting of a source containing garnet in melting residues, similar to those generating TTGs. The migmatitic gneisses seem to be the product of sediments. Charnockitic gneisses have two different trends; the firsts are of granodioritic composition and the procedure of their emplacement is that of differentiation similar to that of TTGs. The seconds have a tonalitic composition and formed by the partial melting of a source containing no garnet and eventually no hornblende. No matter the domain, the formations of the sector of study present in a variable manner, an impoverishment in LILE (Rb, Th and sometimes K). These results show that the metamorphites of the Ngovayang massif are the products of archaean granitoids deformed during the collision of the Congo and Sao Francisco cratonic blocks during the Eburnean orogeny.
The recent implementation of biometrics solutions for user authentication in public networks has caused great concern about the safety and privacy of biometric data. Different vulnerabilities detected on automated fingerprint identification systems could reveal minutiae data if they are stored in plain text. In order to solve these security issues, several fingerprint minutiae template protection schemas have been proposed, among which there are the fuzzy vault, biohasing and cancellable or non-invertible fingerprint templates. To carry out an efficient biometric data protection process, the schema must meet three basic requirements: cryptographic security, revocability and performance; however, most of the schemas described to date fail in this task. A fingerprint minutiae template protection scheme must capture as much identifying information of the fingerprint as possible and solve the problem of template alignment before the comparison process is performed in the protected domain. A study on the cryptographic scheme of fingerprint minutiae template protection models and alignment methods was conducted in this work. Emphasis was placed on the cryptographic bases of minutiae template protection scheme and existing algorithms for aligning protected templates, highlighting the weaknesses of each one. As a result, the knowledge necessary to design an alignment-free minutiae template protection model was obtained.
Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.) is one of the most important arid legumes cultivated for pulse and forage production in the savannas of west Africa. Its cultivation is confronted to biotic and abiotic constraints. The abiotic constraints are primarily of (recorded rainfall, temperature, poor soil). This research was conducted to identify cowpea breeding lines that tolerant to drought. Seven genotypes obtained from cowpea breeding program of marker-assisted recurrent selection (C2-111-4, C2-111-2, C2-9-3, C2-11-3, C2-31-2, C254-4 and C2-64-2), two parents of crossing (Gorom local and IT97K-499-35) and IT99K-573-2-1 (yiis yande, grown under drought stressed and non-stressed conditions. Drought stress reduced seed yield, 100 seed weight and chlorophyll stability index. Correlation between stressed and non-stressed seed yield were (r=+0.646). Biplot displays of quantitative indices of stress tolerance and genotypes seed yield indicating that genetic variability for drought tolerance existed amongst the tested germplasm with regard to seed yield and drought tolerance. According to their yielding ability and quantitative indices of stress tolerance, the genotypes (C2-31-2, C2-9-1, IT97-499-35, C2-111-4, C2-111-2, C2-9-3, C2-11-3, et C2-64-2) were grouped in low yielding under drought condition; Gorom local et C2-54-4 in order were identified as high yielding and moderate yielding under drought. IT99K-573-2-1 was found to be susceptible drought.
Serology plays an important role in the diagnosis of leptospirosis. Few laboratories have the resources and expertise to perform the microscopic agglutination test and leptospirosis remains a neglected disease because of limited access to diagnosis, due to reliance on antiquated standard methods and the cost of commercially available alternatives. There is a need for rapid and simple serological tests which facilitate the early diagnosis of leptospirosis, while antibiotic therapy may be most effective. In Morocco this disease is little known. Studies about it are very rare. In this study 11 serums which referred to the National Institute of Health in Rabat, Morocco during 1-1-2014 to 30-6-2015 were evaluated by IgM ELISA and Slide agglutination test (SAT). 7 serums were positives by Elisa and 10 were positives by (SAT). 9 of cases were from Sidi kecem region. All patients were male. The rate of age for all patients was 29.5 years.
In the Mediterranean region, the magnitude of floods and their frequencies imposes their consideration by forest managers and local decision makers. In this context, the identification of areas expected to be affected by floods is a fundamental information to improve the management of this risk. The methodology developed in this paper allows presenting a tool to assess flooding risk across the river basin. It is based on the idea that the risk of flooding is the resultant of the random factor (frequency of natural phenomena) and the vulnerability factor (sensitivity of land use). The purpose of this article is to make a flood risk map of the Martil plain, which includes the two urban areas Tetouan and Martil. The realization of this map requires a hydrological study to calculate the maximum capacity of the region and a hydraulic study to determine the speed and height of the centennial flood of Oued Martil using the Iber 2.0.3 software. The results will be presented as thematic maps, using the Arcgis 9.3 software, which enable to managers and local authorities to propose mitigation measures in areas expected to be affected by the floods and to act more efficiently in case of flooding. Thus, the study showed the prevalence of high flood hazard while the vulnerability is more moderate; indeed, it is increasingly felt with the growth known in the region in terms of urban planning and infrastructure.
The evolution over time of organoleptic and physico-chemical properties of hen eggs sold in Kisangani (DR Congo) markets was evaluated in terms of number of days after spawning. The results show that the majority of eggs sold (54.7%) are older than 30 days. The physicochemical parameters including volume, density, pH and water content decrease with time. The pH changed to slightly basic (7.5 before 8 days) to slightly acidic (6.8 after two months) while the water content is 77.4 to 69.3% for the same period of time. The organoleptic parameters are also changed with time. Notable differences can be noticed in the visual aspects of the yellow and white of the egg, odor and flavor. The duration time of transport, poor packaging and storage conditions are at the root of this deterioration in the quality of eggs.
The aim of this paper, is to use the Buongiorno's mathematical model for studying the effect of boundary conditions and some control parameters on the onset of convective instability in presence of a uniform vertical magnetic field in a confined Darcy-Brinkman porous medium filled of an electrically conducting nanofluid which will be considered as Newtonian and heated uniformly from below. The linear study which was achieved in this investigation shows that the thermal stability of nanofluids depends of the state of the horizontal boundaries (rigid or free), the magnetic Chandrasekhar number, the buoyancy forces, the Brownian motion, the thermophoresis and other thermo-physical properties of nanoparticles. The governing differential equations are transformed into a set of ordinary differential equations by using similarity transformations, these equations will be solved analytically by converting our boundary value problem to an initial value problem, after this step we will approach the searched solutions numerically by polynomials of high degree to obtain a fourth-order-accurate solution.
The center of Lubumbashi, the most urbanized space has now become a night market of agricultural and manufactured goods. That means it has now a double impact. On the one hand it degrades the beauty of the city and on the other hand, it allows the poor to fight against poverty and food insecurity. Thus, this article aims to identify the players involved in this activity, generate profitability, constraints and perspectives of actors. To achieve 67 Sellers were surveyed at 17:30 and 22:00 local time interval. The parameters analyzed are respectively: sociodemographic data (age, gender, marital status, educational level, occupation), invested capital, income, profitability, constraints and prospects. The results revealed that this activity is dominated by women (94.03%), married (64.18%) with a secondary level of study (61%), mean age 34
The study presents land owning constraints which Parakou urban market gardeners are confronted to, and which affect negatively the development of their activity. The methodological approach used here is based on a census of the city market gardening production sites, on an evaluation of the farmed land area, and on exchanges with actors concerned with that activity, in order to apprehend the land owning difficulties and their impact on the activity. A data base has been constituted after analysis of the inquiry files through the SPSS software, 17.0 version. Then, descriptive statistics tools have been used for the analysis of the data. The obtained results have indicated that the legacy donation and the purchase cover 53 % of the means of access to land, the anarchical occupation is 21 % and the loan guarding and small farm by share cropper cover 26 %. None of the census of the market gardening sites offers sustainable investment guarantee for the market gardeners because they possess no secured property title. As such, the producers could be sent away from the lands at any time, from one season to the other, without any warning. That activity, which takes place essentially in the swampy underworld, at the base of slopes, and in the slope basins of the city, is characterized by farming on small land portions by producers (between 365 m
Malaria due by Plasmodium falciparum is the cause of 39.3% of deaths among hospitalized children under 5 in the Democratic Republic of Congo. Today, in addition under five die by malaria as victim of fake drugs or even of auto medication, with the major risk of inducing selection of Plasmodium resistant strains to conventional antimalarial drugs. This study was conducted to determine the knowledge, attitudes and practices on malaria by care providers. A transversal and descriptive survey was conducted in 43. The following results were obtained: 50% of nurses and 50% of physicians were interviewed, 61.1% did not retrained, 38.8% know more than five signs of severe malaria; 84.1% versus 15.9% require laboratory confirmation before treatment; 51% recommend intermittent preventive treatment of pregnant women; 1.7% prescribe chloroquine; 12% prescribe quinine, 8.5% prescribe amodiaquine monotherapy and 20.5% tablet artesunate monotherapy for uncomplicated malaria; quinine is prescribed to 99.2% and 1.7% intra venous artesunate for complicated malaria treatment of and 78.5% did not refere cases beyond their competence. Recycling remains a key concern, anarchy prescribers and non-adherence to national policy providers are barriers to malaria control efforts, we must emphasize the campaigns on education, information and communication for health providers behavior change on case management in the health structures.
Poultry production in Ghana has been constrained by several factors including high production cost and competition from imports. To be competitive and remain viable over the long haul, poultry agribusinesses would have to be efficient and profitable. The scale and size of agribusinesses play a role in their overall performance and sustainability. Given that the fact that commercial layer bird production in Ghana is dominated by small and medium scale enterprises, this paper sought to evaluate the financial viability and efficiency levels of these enterprises through a comparative analysis. The study was conducted in five districts of the Ashanti Region of Ghana, which has a large share of commercial layer bird production. A multi-stage technique was used to sample data from 100 layer bird farmers. The farm budgetary technique was used to ascertain the profitability of enterprise whiles a t-test was conducted to compare the efficiency measures of the categories of layer enterprises. Findings from the study revealed that commercial layer bird production is a viable agribusiness venture with positive gross margins and net farm income. The major drivers of production cost were the variable cost (feed, day-old-chicks, medication, and hired-labor). A comparative analysis of selected economic parameters indicates that medium scale farms are more efficient and have favorable gross margins, net farm income, rate of return on investment, profitability index, and benefit cost ratio. Similarly, the medium farms performed better on the production efficiency measures such as egg-lay rate, egg
This study is showing different types of energy in D.R. Congo where hydraulic is most exploited followed timidly by solar energy. According from many power cut of energy in our country, others types of energy cannot be neglected. For each energy we have presented: the definitions, uses, inconvenient and environmental impacts. The cartography of these energies represented in a map for each province was very useful to their distribution. It was found a big disparity in the energies distribution, because of environmental factors in each provinces.
Oral candidiasis is a common opportunistic infection in diabetic patients. Candida albicans is colonized on different oral surfaces such as tongue, palate, dental caries and plaques. Different factors like age, sex, denture wears and smoking play role in amount and severity of colonization of this microorganism. Our goal was to determine the relationship between the existences of Candida Albicans in oral diabetic patient. This cross - sectional study was performed on 120 diabetic patients. After completing the questionnaire and collect saliva samples and smears from the mouth were cultured directly on sabouraud agar medium containing 0.005% chloramphenicol and for identified use of specific tests. Data were statistically analyzed using Chi-Square, Mann-Whitney, t-test and correlation tests. Overall, in this study from 120 patients, 61 cases (50.8%) had a positive culture for Candida. In this study, Based on observations Candida infection rates were relatively higher in older patients and in women. Infections among participants who used dentures (0.001P <) and have smoking (P <0.038) had significant relationship. The infection in people with type II diabetes is more than subjects with Type I diabetes. C. Albicans was the most common isolated Candida species in both groups. This study showed a high prevalence of Candidiasis and Candida colonization in oral samples of diabetic patients. Our goal was to determine the relationship between the existences of Candida Albicans in oral diabetic patient.