An image is worth a thousand words. This is a common adage which may have to be revisited. The query "Eiffel Tower" yields about 60 million images using GoogleTM search engine. These words combined with "steel structure" score about 20 000 images. The power of images is paramount. With about 80 million enforceable patent documents, a large number containing images, one may wonder whether the adapted tools to exploit this image databank are available and used. Adding three dimensional activation of patent drawings by means of computer aided design would likely return creative amazements with large potential for innovation. In 2010 ideators filed approximately 2 million new patent applications around the world. These patents tend to contain more readily exploitable images. Combinatorial, associative or intersecting approaches, as illustrated in the introduction, are definitely a major source of inspiration for innovation, moreover disruptive. What about the "Big Data" necessity? Can the 60-70's technology wonders, such as PCs, Biotech, Mechatronics, further evolve today without the "Big Data" component? Big data approach is definitely not common in the IP domain; matter of legal fears or lack of adapted tools? The question will anyway probably not slow-up the advent of Big Data in a broad fashion in many areas. Inclusive innovation, with a goal to serve beyond the development mainstream, encompasses more consumer data therefore Big Data analysis too. Inclusive, open and disruptive innovation modes are pending on good and clear visualization of the trends, initially partly or mostly technological. This chapter, as part of a series on innovation, attempts to answer some questions related to the above matter and provides insight in the visualization technical status and its potential and direct applicability to IP analysis, and IP discovery in general. Visual analytics, although not developed, are integrated in the horizon of a bigger data analysis bringing additional questions such as: Beyond the classical synergy -additive- equation, is there a potential for multiplying the ideation outputs? Furthermore, is there presently too much emphasis engaged on the data itself, rather than the analytical trends and the acumens that can be produced? Are the available tools, such as for extraction, suitable?
The present study aims at investigating into the existing financial market for agriculture in some selected areas of Bangladesh. The sample was comprised of 27 Public and Private Sector Institutions (PPSIs), 21 Member Based Institutions (MBIs) and a set of 50 Informal Financial Intermediaries (IFIs) comprising 10 intermediaries each from moneylenders, well-to-do people, shopkeepers, businessmen, and friends and relatives. The sample was selected through purposive sampling technique. The specific objectives of this study are to examine the structure of financial market for agriculture including lending policies, loan transactions, interest rate, recovery, efficiency, linkages among the lending institutions. Both descriptive and tabular analysis was employed to achieve the objectives of the study. The study reveals that several components constituted the structure of financial market in the study area. Considerable differences existed in lending policies between PPSIs and MBIs. The average annual credit disbursement of all PPSIs was Tk 332.63 lac while it was Tk 4036.20 lac for MBIs. IFIs' average annual disbursement was Tk 16.466 lac. Share of PPSIs to the lending was 92 percent. The PPSIs interest rate varied between 8 to 11.50 per cent and those of MBIs between 14 to 20 percent. IFIs' interest rate varied from 10 to 100 per cent. MBIs have highest recovery (98 percent). PPSIs could recover only 60 per cent of their loan. MBIs are more efficient than other financial intermediaries. Linkages among the different financial intermediaries are noticeable.
To evaluate the in vitro chemosensitivity to Atovaquone (ATQ) and analyze polymorphism of Pfcytb gene of Plasmodium falciparum isolates from Abidjan. Fifty seven isolates of P. falciparum collected between 2010 and 2012 from the outskirts of the city of Abidjan. Were used for testing in vitro susceptibility according to the microtest optical version of the World Health Organization (WHO). Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) was used to determine mutation in the Pfcytb gene. The analysis of the relationship between the observed mutations and chemosensitivity of isolates was made using Cohen's kappa test. The geometric mean IC50 of atovaquone is 1,645 mM. All 57 isolates were sensitive to atovaquone. The 29 isolates of P. falciparum sequenced showed no mutation of Pcytb gene at codon Y268. No other mutation was observed. Our study showed no correlation between phenotypic and molecular data (K< 0). This study shows that the combination atovaquone / proguanil can be one of the drugs of choice for the prophylaxis of multidrug-resistant falciparum malaria recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO).
In the setting of study of the biodiversity of kivu Lake Basin Rivers, the first activity was done from January 2012 to December 2012 to inventoriate the diversity of fishes in Nyabarongo River. The knowledge on the fishes kinds species population and the in the case that fishes contribute in the East of the DRC rivers is important pronounced with a high degree in the region, So our study is based on the distribution of fishes in Nyabarongo river. To reach better results, we have taken specimens of fishes with nets and hooks according to the method of capture at random. The nets (traps) are placed in the river with the opening orientated down wards in direction of the river bed attached on the sticks. Earth worms or advocates, bananas, casava bread was put in /on the trap and was observed since nine o'clock till fourteen in the evening. At the end of the rope was attached a metallic bowl which leads the hook in the bottom of the river. At all, 352 specimens of fishes were caught in different places of our study in which the Clarias specie dominated because it supports the Nyabarongo river pollution with an elevated percentage followed by the Barbus kerstenii with a mean percentage and the Oreochromis niloticus specie (kind) with a feeble percentage.
Tuberculosis is a worldwide problem with a considerable morbidity and mortality per annum. The disease is curable and early diagnosis and chemotherapy is very essential. Despite completing the recommended course of therapy and clearance from the disease causing agent the clinical signs persist in TB patients. The current study aimed to assess the possible claims of persistent signs which are either resulted from the drug side effects or the disease itself by the TB patients. A cross-sectional study design conducted on volunteer pulmonary tuberculosis patients. The variables included were those signs which are used to diagnose tuberculosis. Closed questionnaire with YES or NO answer was used. The current study revealed that three fourth of the treated TB patients claimed the presence of either one or more signs, while one fourth reported free from any signs which they knew before anti-TB treatment. Extra pulmonary tuberculosis (in fact it cloud be new infection) was observed on 7.1% (2/28) of the participants. It is concluded that persistent of clinical signs after completing TB treatment courses is noteworthy. Prolonging recovery time would affect productivity. Despite the limitations the information generated suggested further study to clear out the mere cause/s of the clinical signs.
The effectiveness of the Long-Lasting Insecticide-treat Nets (LLINs) has been widely demonstrated in the last two decades as an effective means of vector control against malaria. To understand how the washing practices in the community affected the effectiveness of LLINs, a survey was conducted in three health areas (Cotonou, Parakou and Tangui
E-library system makes the work of a person who is in charge of the library more convenient to search, arrange and make an inventory of the contents of the library. In this paper, a search system for an E-Library for the academic organizations was introduced such as universities, researches centers. This system has some methods of searches and it is convenient for the researchers to find their required information. The data base contains two categories, Books and Theses. The administrator of the E-Library can add, update, and delete any information in the database easily. We developed an E-Library Search System using PHP, MYSQL and APACHE with WAMP server.
Global university rankings have cemented the notion of a world university market arranged in a single "league table" for comparative purposes and have given a powerful impetus to intranational and international competitive pressures in the sector. The studies on evaluation of academic productivity and quality and web presence have led to development of new academic fields such as Bibliometrics, Scientometrics, Informetrics and Webometrics. During the last thirty years, as an outcome of these new emerging academic fields, several university ranking systems have been developed both at national and global level. Although these university ranking systems have attracted attention; they have been criticized due to a number of issues such as inappropriateness of indicators chosen, scoring procedure adopted, weighting, etc. In this study, a combined academic and web performance evaluation and global ranking system has been developed and implemented using data mining. The new global system which processes about more than 5,000 world universities is based on data from non-subjective, reliable and universally accepted online sources. The scoring procedure includes statistical analysis and data has been collected via a tool developed for this purpose to eliminate human errors.
Water for agricultural use has been adversary affected by climate change in Arid and Semi-Arid Legions. Water inadequacy and un-reliability can be addressed by farmers' adoption of agricultural water technologies and innovations of water harvesting, storage and application. Adoption of these technologies is low in developing countries. This study aimed at investigating factors influencing smallholder farmers' adoption of agricultural water technologies and innovations Lare and Elementaita Divisions, Nakuru County Kenya. These areas were selected as they are water constrained and inhabited by smallholder farmers some having while others having not adopted these technologies. Study objectives were: to document the socio-economic status of the farmers and ecological characteristics' influence on technologies' adoption. Descriptive research design was used with a sample size of 114 and 76 farmers who had, and not adopted the technologies respectively and selected using purposive and proportionate sampling techniques. Data was collected by use of face-to-face administered structured questionnaire and analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics. Findings indicate that the farmers had low education level by Kenya's standard. Chi-square analysis indicated existence of statistically significant relationship between land topography, affordability of irrigation facilities and availability of technical and financial support and adoption of the technologies. No statistically significant relationship exists between soil types and water harvesting, storage structures and adoption of technologies. Financial constraints and lack of skills in management of these technologies were challenges. Technical, financial and supportive policy focusing the farmers' technologies' adoptive capacities is advised.
The main vectors of paralytic shellfish poisoning are bivalves that accumulate toxins through their mode of nutrition (filtration) during proliferation of toxigenic algae. Acanthocardia tuburculatum is one of the most important bivalve molluscs which cause paralytic shellfish poisoning problems in Moroccan and Spanish Mediterranean coasts this species is capable of accumulating high levels of PSP toxins for a long time in these same tissues when microalgae producing potentionnellement toxin are not present. This presents a danger to the health of consumers. This work is part of a cooperation agreement and scientific research between the NHRI and DINAY Company is to do a study on the contamination of the red shell (Acanthocardia tuburculatum) paralytic marine biotoxins (PSP) by dosage of these last by the biological method in mice jointly by five laboratories. Taking into account the coefficient of variation of the method of mouse bioassay is 20% our results concluded that the comparison of results obtained by the statistical test between the different laboratories revealed no significant difference in the same commission inter responsible for monitoring the safety of marine and shellfish acknowledged in September 2008 that these results are satisfactory. This study also allowed taking measures during internal checks and monitoring of the marine environment as expand the batch of samples and diversifies in terms of size and that each lot is the subject of several repetitive analyzes.
The ancient name of Iraq is Mesopotamia. The word Mesopotamia is a combination of two words 'Meso' & 'Potamia'. The Word 'Meso' refers to 'between or middle while 'Potamia' refers to 'Water body or river. Therefore it is a land between two rivers and these two rivers were Tigris and Euphrates. The middle location can be sometimes useful while other times it may be a destructive. Iraq's geographical middle location has been responsible for rise and fall of many civilizations since ancient times. But in the present paper a discussion has been made on the present i.e. in 21st century Iraq. Presently, Iraq is trapped, firstly, between two sectarian ideologies of Islam, one is the 'Sunni sect' whose philosophy and ideology is supported by Saudi Arabia and other one is 'Shia or Shiite sect' supported by Iran. Iraq is also caught between the rivalries of U.S.A. and Russia. For both also a stable Iraq is not favorable because both supply arms and ammunition to Iraqi army. The result is in front of us, a terror off shoot of Al-Qaida known as ISIS (Islamic state of Iraq and Syria /Levant) has captured a large swath of area in the north as well as west of Iraq and capital Baghdad is under the threat of their attacks. In the present paper an attempt has been made to known exactly what are the causes behind this sectarian evil war in Iraq its geopolitical effects and some possible remedies for the solution of the current problem in Iraq have also suggested.
The impact of industrial effluents on environment is an obvious reality and a serious threat in the medium term for the quality of surface water and ground water as well. The impact on the water environment surrounding the paper mill (CDM) in Sidi Yahia Gharb is mainly due to the use of water in the manufacturing of pulp using the Kraft process and the discharge of waste effluents in: the Ma
Basing on agency theory this empirical study explores the effect of corporate governance on managerial cash holding decisions. For the sake of a testable propositions concerning the determinants of corporate cash holdings, different theories of corporate cash holdings are reviewed (pecking order theory, trade off theory and free cash flow theory).The investigation is performed using panel data procedure for a sample of 138 firms listed on Karachi Stock Exchange during 2008-12.The results suggest that cash flow is the only variable which is statistically significant and positively related to cash holdings. Alternatively, liquidity, leverage, bank borrowing variability of cash flow is significantly and negatively related to cash holdings. Dividend, market-to-book ratio and ratio of non-executive to total directors are positively whereas firm size family dummy and CEO duality are negatively related to cash holdings but the relationships are insignificant. In particular managerial ownership (MAN) and MAN3 is negative but significant however MAN2 is positively related to cash holdings. These variations in sings indicate the non-linear relationship between managerial ownership and cash holdings. To author knowledge this is first study that explores corporate governance as an important determinant of cash holding.
Numerous kinds of animals are domesticated in the world for fruman feeding.The domestication methods has also changed to satisfy the meat request. The Traditionnal domestication alwaysexists but the big or important part is industrial.At Katana, the pig domestication has helped the population to promate the economy and fight against the poorness.Thin population in occupied try pig domestication because they have noticed that animal brings a lot of benefet which can help to make face to different problems of social order.So,if we want to know the causes at consequences of diminution or regression of pigs domestication in this region,in this part of the South Kivu,an identificationof differents difficultives is necessary and helps to lead the new technics which can push the population in that activity(domain).
In this present study an evaluation of a daily variability of suspended sediment flux of the river Cirhanyobwa, one of the important tributary of Lake Kivu, is reported. A daily sampling was done during one year. Suspended sediment and discharge was measured using standards method and floating method respectively. The results shown that agricultural has a impact on the transport of suspended sediment in this river. The quantity of suspended sediment in the river Cirhanyobwa was high during the beginning of the first tillage in July-August and February. Daily Suspended sediment and flux increased with daily flow. Ecological techniques are useful to prevent the suspended sediment transport in the river bed. These techniques consist of agricultural practices and conservation of river bank.
In Nigeria today, terrorism has claimed waves with its dire consequences on Small and Medium Scale Enterprises and living standards of the people. Terrorism has posed insecurity and hazards in the business environment, thereby, engineering unimaginable upheaval in the northern region of the country. This study aimed at examining the impact of terrorism on Small and Medium Scale Enterprises mortality rates and standard of living in the northern region of Nigeria. The study used both primary and secondary methods of gathering reliable and adequate data and information to achieve its purpose. The primary method includes the personal interview and questionnaire administered to the randomly selected respondents; and the secondary method includes textbooks, journal and internet. To analyze the data gathered for this study, descriptive statistical tool, tables and Chi-Square method were used. The study revealed that terrorism can lead to high mortality rate of SMEs and degradation of the living standards of the people in the northern part of Nigeria. It was concluded that terrorism will not only lead to high mortality rate of SMEs and degrade the living standards of the people, but may crumble the country's national economy at the long run if no vibrant measure is taken to halt the menace. The study therefore recommended that the government should formulate and implement vibrant policies and programmes as mechanism towards addressing the root causes of insecurity in Nigeria and putting a halt to the menace.
The major problem of Pakistan since its formation is huge difference among religious conservatism and liberalism. Both perceive the formation of Pakistan according to their views but, this rivalry is not new. During British India, such ideologies were working against each other and Muslim society had been divided into two schools of thought: the Aligarh and the Deoband. Aligarh School of thought motivated Indian Muslims regarding getting western education as solution of their current socio-political problems, while Deoband School of Thought found this solution in religious education. This article highlights the difference among ideologies and practices of both the school of thoughts with special reference to Pakistan, and solution of this difference according to the theories of Sir Syed and Allama Iqbal. Both the scholars found the reason of Muslims backwardness is far from the modern education. If Sir Syed gave the concept of rationalism in religion for the purpose of getting rid off from orthodox and rigid behavior, Allama Iqbal focued upon the need of ijtehad and reconstruction of religious thoughts that is a solution of all the modern issues and problems. Both the point of views are discussed in this article.
This study aimed to investigate the effects of cultural conservatism, basic democratic government endorsement, common good democratic endorsement and national militarism on the moral judgment competence. Data (N=96) of bachelor, master and m.phil students was collected from 2 universities and 1 postgraduate college in southern part of Punjab province, Pakistan. Culture conservatism scale, Basic Democratic Government Endorsement Scale, Common Good Democracy Endorsement Scale and National Militarism (War Politics) Scale were used for measuring cultural conservatism, basic democratic government endorsement, common good democracy endorsement and national militarism. The Urdu version of Moral Judgment Test was used to measure moral attitudes and moral judgment competence. The finding showed no relationship with cultural conservatism, basic democratic government endorsement and common good democracy endorsement, while there is a significant negative correlation with national militarism (r = -.27, p< .05) with moral judgment competence. The postconventional arguments also showed a negative correlation with moral judgment competence. These findings are discussed according to the prevailing political conditions in Pakistan.
Salt stress is a major adverse factor that can lower seed germination and seedlings growth, leading to reduced plant growth and ultimately lower crop productivity in arid and semi arid regions of the world. In order to improve crop tolerance to this abiotic stress, many research studies have the importance of seaweed extract (SWE) in alleviating stress damage to plants. Seaweed extracts are used as nutrient supplements or biofertilizers in agriculture to increase plant growth and yield. In this study, we examined the effect of liquid seaweed extracts made from Sargassum vulgare on the germination and growth of durum wheat (Durum triticum L) (cv Karim) under salt stress in laboratory and greenhouse conditions using foliar applications. We assessed SWE at different concentrations (0.2, 0.5, 25 and 50 %) on germination parameters (percentage, mean time) and growth parameters (radicle length, shoot length, shoot fresh and dry weights) of durum seedlings. Our results indicate that seeds treated with SWE of Sargassum vulgare at lower concentrations (0.2 %) showed enhanced germination (better response in germination rate associated with lower mean germination time and consequently greater seedling vigor and greater radicle length). Furthermore, Sargassum vulgare was found to be more successful and better candidates for developing effective biostimulants to improve the growth of wheat plants under salt stress. This study provides important information on the identification and utilization of Tunisian seaweed resources for agriculture and is the first study to report on the uses of these seaweeds as a source of liquid extracts as biostimulants in agriculture.
The South and East Mediterranean countries (SEMC) import huge food commodities that form the bulk of their food consumption. However, imports of basic products have been exposed to several hazards making it more difficult to improve agricultural performance and the satisfaction of the increasing demand due to population growth in the region. Indeed, political and social instability, the crisis in the euro area, food inflation and rising international prices of agricultural products only increase the import of food commodities prices. Moreover, our work is to analyze the agricultural vitality for this region. To do this, it is called in the first place to meet the Euro-Mediterranean agro business dynamics as well as emerging countries, secondly see the relevance of agricultural policies being implemented and finally an econometric investigation for Tunisia on agricultural competitiveness is required. From the study of reaction of the agricultural trade balance to a depreciation of the exchange rate, a change in national GDP and abroad, a price change on imports (including tariffs on imports) and improved factors of non-price competitiveness; we could determine the effect of openness on foreign trade under free trade area between Tunisia and the EU and within a framework of MFN with some new trading powers.
This study explored the individual experiences based on more than 1000 records collected from the 2012 visitors' books of Kigali Genocide Memorial Centre, 872 of which were analyzed through the lens of gender. There serve as memory which is a component of transitional justice in post-genocide Rwanda. The main method is the content analysis. The study used also quantitative technique in data entries and classification of themes. The analysis has pointed out who are the visitors, interpretation of their messages and their addressees. The emerged themes of comments are: prayers, lessons, recommendations, remorse and emotions of grief, healing and sympathy. Furthermore, gender and continent of origin have influenced the content of the messages. Based on these findings, the study identifies the need for further research in the field of memory transmitted by genocide memorial sites.
Environmental concerns require a certain dynamic to basic safeguarding ecosystems against any type of pollution. Studies can guide practice and the development towards better environmental management. This study has considered making a physicochemical characterization of samples collected during one year (11.01.2012 to 7.1 . 2013) at 8h, 10h, ,12h , 14h, 16h and 18h from the collection of effluent hospital revealed the following results: The temperature varies between 15.75
The purpose of the study was to examine the relationship of perceived organization support, affective commitment and organization based self esteem of public sector nurses in Pakistan. The research was conducted in twin cities Islamabad and Rawalpindi, Pakistan. The primary data was collected with the help of survey through personally administered questionnaires from 300 respondents in a non-contrived environment during January 2013, it was a cross sectional study. Both male and female respondents were included in the study. Results of this study revealed that perceived organizational support has a significant positive association with both affective commitment and organizational based self esteem. Meanwhile, organization based self esteem perform a mediation role between perceived organizational support and affective commitment.
The objective of this research is to evaluate the effect of feed of poultry on wheat processed with Trichoderma viride and Trichoderma harzianum. The results show that significant [p?0.05] increase serum AST in first treated group only compared with control group, but second groups shows non significant increase, significant [p?0.05] increase in ALT serum in two studied group compared with control group also there is significance [p?0.05] change found in bilirubin and total protein of serum in all group only when compared with control.The cholesterol, Triglyceride and LDL shows significant [p?0.05] increase in all treated groups when compared with control. HDL and VLDL appears significant [p?0.05] increased in the first treated group only the second group shows no significance [p?0.05] compared with control.
Surface photovoltage (SPV) method is a contactless technique for non-destructive characterization of Si wafers and monocrystalline Si solar cells, mainly for minority carrier diffusion length determination. The minority carrier diffusion length, L is a critical factor impacting the conversion efficiency and spectral response of the monocrysyalline Si solar cell and it is also essential for evaluation of the quality and transport properties of the P-type Si wafer. In 1961, A. M. Goodman showed that, under certain assumption, by making measurements of SPV as a function of wavelength, the minority carrier diffusion length can be determined. Therefore a simply steady state SPV method has been developed to determine the minority carrier diffusion length as well as lifetime of monocrystalline Si solar cells. In Bangladesh for the first time "Bangladesh Atomic Energy Commission (BAEC)" has set up a laboratory to fabricate and diagnosis of monocrystalline Si solar cell. This paper focused on the study of surface photvoltage (SPV) and determination of minority carrier diffusion length, L and lifetime, ? of monocrystalline Si solar cell. By calculating the experimental data obtained from monocrystalline Si solar cells measurements, minority carrier diffusion length and lifetime were derived and it was 81.5?m and 2.5?sec respectively.
Appeared in the present era processing fabrics with some chemical treatments for improving properties of functional or to enable some to gain new properties or superficial different, which is usually after the completion of the stages of the weaving or knitting, where intervention fabrics in the process of treatment in many ways followed in many cases, either the process of dyeing or printing. Fabrics to gain the same kind of aesthetic decoration without recourse to the printed other techniques that use other decorative to give in the end aesthetics acceptable and appropriate clothing for the consumer. May, therefore, research focused on the possibility to take advantage of these processors in the work of the special effects on fabrics and what happens it changes the properties of these fabrics in terms of aesthetics, the purpose of career and then employ them for women after such treatments. Is determined by the research problem in the study of the changes the properties of fabrics after chemical treatment, in order to benefit from the resulting impact on those fabrics and employment in the clothing to meet the requirements of the aesthetic and functional purpose of comparing the results of tests for the properties of fabrics before and after treatment to determine which properties can benefit from them and using them as clothing.In this reseach, Were identified fabrics under consideration by choosing the most widely in Global fashion trends for woman clothing and used among consumers in the market and appropriate clothing for the women's outer wear,we used eight types of fabrics (polyamide and cotton
Apart from traditional wired attendance systems or paper based attendance system a automated wireless fingerprint attendance system based on ZigBee technology is proposed. The system includes independent fingerprint acquisition module and attendance management module in computer. System realizes various functions such as information acquisition of fingerprint, processing, wireless transmission, fingerprint matching, and attendance management. Automatically considering topology of ZigBee network, the system uses wireless local area network. System comprises various wireless fingerprint attendance functions, which could be used for public/private institutes or schools.
Our project comprises of assessment of awareness about HCV modes of transmission & implementation rate of preventive measures to prevent hepatitis C in different literacy groups. We want to find out the reason of spread of hepatitis C either there is lack of awareness or there is lack of follow up of precautionary measures. In this regard, we designed a questionnaire according to WHO guidelines & got it filled from different education levels. We also gave the awareness about the disease to the general public. After the survey we analyzed & calculated the percentages of awareness about Hepatitis C & follow up rates of precautionary measures in the individuals. We assessed that the literacy group of primary level had lowest awareness with lowest follow up rates. And the literacy group of under-graduate level had maximum awareness & follow up. Thus there is a need of awareness about the disease at primary level in order to minimize the risk of getting Hepatitis C as the incidence of Hepatitis is increasing due to negligence in implementation of preventive measures.
The effect of two pesticides Paraquat and Fipronil on the soil and rhizosphere microflora of tea (i.e. fungi, actinomycetes and bacteria) was studied. The experiment was conducted over a period of 65 days and the observations were made at different interval of days (5, 20, 35, 50 and 65 days) respectively for both the rhizosphere and non rhizosphere soil. Paraquat and Fipronil had a transient negative effect on the rhizosphere and non rhizosphere soil microorganisms, however the negative effect was observed at the initial stage only. The dehydrogenase and phosphatase activity in the said soil also showed an inhibitory response at the initial stage but was able to recover with time.
Introduction On 8 February 2013, a cluster of influenza AH1N1 in a fishing boat docked at the port of Dakhla was reported to the Regional Health Directorate of Oued Ed-Dahab Lagouira. An epidemiological investigation was conducted to identify the source of infection, control the outbreak and prevent its extension. Methods: The investigation of this case grouped AH1N1 began on 12 February. It involved 26 fishermen aboard a boat docked at the port of Dakhla. Data were collected using an individual questionnaire. Results: The occurrence of cases occurred between 1 and 10 February. The age of cases ranged from 26 to 55 years with an average of 40 (+ / - 8 years). Depending on the date of onset of symptoms, the first case dates back to February 1, 11 days before the start of the investigation. Among the 14 cases, 2 were confirmed for the AH1N1 virus. The last case dating back to February 10, and the epidemic peak was reached on February 4. Cases were all presented with fever, cough and ache. The overall attack rate was 14/26 (53.8%). Attack rate vary by age and disease and was significantly higher in the age group of 36-45 years. Conclusion: This investigation allowed us to document the AH1N1 outbreak in a fishing boat and the importance of early implementation of control measures at the onset of the first case in a community.
In this article, we'll try to propose a modeling of the Moroccan stock market performance. To do this, the MASI, aggregate index representing Casablanca stock exchange, will be modeled from the method "ARIMA - BOX-JENKINS ', then by a GARCH model. This note is endeavoring to first present a brief overview of the theoretical framework of both models: ARIMA and ARCH, then an analysis of serial MASI, then searching of the ARIMA model most appropriate for the MASI(identification and validation of models to reproduce the series), and finally the choice of the most suitable GARCH model based on statistical criteria. The data available are 494 daily values of the evolution of the MASI, from 21/12/2009 to 18/12/2012. Software used are SPSS 17 and Eviews 6.
In this article, we defined the steps to create a web service based on an example that relates to the field of e-Learning. In addition, it cited the components and the basic functionality of a web service. In determining the concepts on which is based the web services namely SOAP and WSDL (a description in XML Schema web service) and UDDI, these three elements constitute the life cycle of use of a web service architecture in a distributed client / server.
Herbal medicines are the most widely used especially in rural areas to solve problems of human and animal health Saharan average. This paper reports the results of the chemical and biological studies of the root bark of Cochlospermum planchoni used by farmers in Benin in the treatment of gastrointestinal diseases of animals. Results obtained, it appears that the root bark of C. planchoni is rich in secondary metabolites such as flavonoids, polyphenols, tannins, anthocyanins, leucoanthocyanins, mucilages, saponins, sterols and terpenes. Regarding the extraction yield, the binary water-ethanol (50/50) allowed to have a better (23.2%) extraction yield this of plant. As for the quantification of the polyphenols content, it is practically insensitive to the nature of the extraction solvent on crude extracts of the root bark of C. planchoni. According to the tests of antiradical activity, both fractions ethyl ether and ethyl acetate (IC50 = 1?g/ml) showed a more interesting radical scavenging activity than that of quercetin (IC50 = 3?g/ml) and BHA (IC50 = 4, 8?g/ml) which are antiradical syntheses. The results from the test of antibacterial activity show that the fractions of ethyl acetate, diethyl ether and butanol are more active than of the crude extracts of C. planchoni on the four bacterial strains used in this study.
Child vulnerability has been a growing agenda in everyday life. Child trafficking, child labor, physical abuse and sexually abuse are the issue in our ears in these days. This area has been neglected by the researcher due to its methodological difficulties, the only data that are eventually used are from the police station which again only few cases are reported. The research used a cross sectional design with sample size 100. This counted 70 for children, 15 for Focus Group Discussion (FGD) and 10 key informants. Open ended interviews were carried to parents and the key informants. A statically package for social science (SPSS) version 11.5 was used for data analysis especially for the quantitative analysis. It has been noticed that the society only perceive CSA as anal or vaginal penetration. The issue like non-contact sexual abuse like, abusive language (100%) and pornography (82.9%) were found normal among the respondent. The result also has shown that much effort by the stakeholders is placed on adult to child sexual abuse (ASCA) than child to child sexual abuse (CCSA) internet has also been the source of information to children about sexual images. Most of the children are vulnerably in the age of 10-15. There is a need to review the family, legal and local government responsibility in collaboration and to discuss the weakness in each institution.
In present paper we tried to study the slum settlement, slum population & land ownership of slums in the Nanded city. Slum dwellers live in the difficult social and economic conditions that manifest in different forms of deprivation
Irhambi/Katana situated in the territory of Kabare, province of the South-Kivu (R.D. Congo) is among the main region supplier the city of Bukavu in agricultural product. Our objective is to identify while valuing the sources of deterioration of the observable or measurable earths by the scientists and the farming environment and to put them in relation with the indicators recognized and used by the agriculturist, concerning the quality of the soil of Katana. The survey that lasted 12 months is achieved according to a methodological gait that is inspired by the inventory approach. This inventory consisted to visit the intervention sites (villages) by a transverse walk (transect walk) while following Horizontal axes to identify the sources of deterioration of the soil. The level of appreciation of these sources of deterioration made itself by free observation with simple and open questions by people of the village met for enlightenments on the state of deterioration of the soil. Our results show that the erosion (60%) to eat the herbs abusively (50%) constitute a problem of management of the soil in Kajuchu; the domestic garbage threa ten the terrestrial environment in Mwanda (45%). The source of soil deterioration identified in the present work will be an indicator privileged to allow farmers to decide the opportunity to exploit or no their soil.
The increasing of human activities surroundings and the fashions of culture the man's will to minimize the effects of the natural variability by an increasing control of resources and of the production conditions and to maximize the productivity valued of way simplified in outputs to the hectare. The goal of this survey is not to hold forth on the definitions, but to present a critical reflection on the variability of the perceptions of the role of human in the working and the dynamics of the ecosystems in view of an environmental draft on the farming environment. Work consisted by visiting of the intervention sites through a transverse walk. The environmental problems are enormous left on all vital aspects of the population of Irhambi/Katana.
Application of plant extracts have become an available alternative in sustainable vector control strategy due to their less toxic, easily available and non persistant nature. In the present study, leaves, flowers and seeds of Moringa oleifera Lam. are evaluated for their larvicidal activities against Anopheles stephensi (L). The larval mortality was observed at 24hrs and 48 hrs of time exposure. Highest larval percent mortality was observed to be found in the seed extract of Moringa oleifera Lam. plant with 100% mortality at 100 ppm of concentration. LC50 value was calculated against different concentrations. The lowest LC50 value was observed in the M. oleifera Lam. seeds followed by flowers and leaves i.e. 15.17 ppm, 23.99 ppm and 38.99 ppm respectively after 24 hrs of exposure time and 12.62 ppm, 20.46 ppm and 25.11 ppm. respectively at 48 hrs of exposure time. The plant extracts also exhibited some developmental deformities in larvae and pupae. The obtained data indicates that phytochemical derived from M. oleifera Lam. seed extracts are effective mosquito vector control agent.
This study examined variables that influence the acid-extraction of pectin from Steam Distillated Orange Peels using two different acids; an organic acid (citric acid) and a mineral one (sulfuric acid). The effects of these acids on extraction of pectin were investigated by response surface methodology. Extraction parameters which are employed in this study are temperature of extraction (X1: 50
Reserve estimation is the fundamental study in the field of petroleum engineering for economic analysis of a reservoir. If a considerable reserve of gas or oil is in place and the pressure is also high enough, then a reservoir can be considered economically viable to go on production. In the early life of the reservoir mainly during or just after exploration; volumetric calculation is the key to estimate reserve. However, it is sometimes invaluable to estimate reserve during production life of the reservoir. Considering this aspect, we have tried to exercise a graphical and reliable approach to estimate reserve. Production data, well data, fluid properties, formation properties were used for this task. It has been found that, total Gas Initially In Place (GIIP) is about 1.63 Tcf among which about 1.3 Tcf is recoverable with a recovery percentage of 80. In addition, total remaining reserve is calculated to be about 773 Bcf. All seven wells of Rashidpur Gas Field are estimated individually and summed up. The full study is a software approach and several typecurves have been exercised using a software "FEKETE F.A.S.T. RTATM. Since all the typecurves have showed approximately same result, we can be certain about the accuracy our estimation.
This work aims to investigate the influence of patients' gender on the repartition of cancer types and on death according to cancer types. It consists in a retrospective study based on 3915 cases of males and females common cancers, diagnosed and treated in Al Azhar oncology centre of Rabat between 1994 and 2004. Results showed that males display a significantly higher risk for cancer of larynx, lung and bladder, with relative risks of 5.5, 4.5 and 2.3 respectively, whereas females have a significantly higher risk for thyroid cancer, with a relative risk of 6.3, and cancers of gall bladder, liver, bone, colon-rectum, Hodgkin lymphoma, soft tissue and non Hodgkin lymphoma. As far as death is concerned, gall bladder cancer displays a death risk 4 times higher in men. Also, non Hodgkin lymphoma and larynx cancer in men are significantly associated with death, then they constitute risk factors of death in men. On the other hand, cutaneous cancers and bone cancers show higher death risk in women, with relative risks of 2.5 and 2.4 respectively. Nevertheless, we found no significant association between cancer type and death in females. In conclusion, anti-cancer strategies in Morocco and elsewhere should take into consideration the gender difference in cancer risk and death risk for common cancers, and fit their priorities to the gender of target population.
The aim of this work was to evaluate the contamination of chicken meat marketed in Rabat, Morocco by Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus). This pathogen was isolated from 300 samples of chicken meat collected during the period from June 2011 to December 2012. The overall prevalence of S. aureus recovered from the 300 samples analyzed was 16.66% and the average load of contamination was 2.67 log10 CFU/g. While this prevalence was higher in traditionals slaughterhouses (27%) compared with that found in supermarkets (8%). The results of this study revealed that the degree of compliance with good hygiene practices in traditionals slaughterhouses has a significant impact on the hygienic quality of chicken meat. To improve the safety and hygienic quality of this meat, the implementation of good hygiene and continuous microbial surveillance is an absolute necessity to protect consumer health.
Lactating adenoma is a benign tumor of pregnancy and lactation, found most often in the third trimester of pregnancy and less frequently during lactation. Clinically, it presents itself as a unique and discrete mobile mass. It is a rare benign tumor which the diagnosis requires pathological confirmation. Usually it disappears spontaneously. Chirurgical treatment is offered for aesthetic problems related to the size of the adenoma. The authors report a case of lactating adenoma discovered at eight months of the post partum. Through this case, they discuss the clinical, radiological, histopathological aspects and various therapeutic modalities of this tumor.
Genital tuberculosis of women is part of extra pulmonary forms of tuberculosis. It is an uncommon disease in developed countries, but remains endemic in developing countries. The causative agent is, in most cases, Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Genital tuberculosis is a cause of infertility. The definitive diagnosis is made by biology or histology. Because this affection is paucibacillary, these tests may be falsely negative; In fact, diagnosis can then be focused on radiological, endoscopic and nosological arguments.