To compare the ability of endodontists to determine the size of apical pathological lesions and select the most appropriate choice of treatment based on lesions' projected image characteristics using two dimensional and three dimensional images. Study Design: Seven subjects were selected. Radiographic examination of symptomatic study teeth with an intraoral periapical radiograph and Radiovisiography (RVG) revealed periapical lesions equal to or greater than 3mmin the greatest diameter. Cone-beam Computed tomography (CBCT) images were made of the involved teeth after the intraoral periapical radiograph confirmed the size of lesion to be equal to greater than 3 mm. Three observers (endodontists) viewed the periapical, RVG and CBCT images. Upon viewing each of the images from the two imaging modalities, observers (1) measured lesion size and (2) made decisions on treatment based on each radiograph Results: No significant difference was noted in the treatment plan selected by observers using the three modalities. Post-operative radiographs did not shows any significant difference Conclusion: Lesion size and choice of treatment of periapical lesions based on CBCT radiographs do not change significantly from those made on the basis of radiographs.
Background: Agricultural pesticides may play a profound role in selection of resistance in field populations of mosquito vectors. The objective of this study is to investigate possible links between agricultural pesticides use and development of resistance to insecticides by the major malaria vector Anopheles gambiae from cotton field. Method: Susceptibility to 4% DDT, 0.05% deltamethrin, 0.75% permethrin, 0.1% bendiocarb was assessed using the WHO standard procedures for adult mosquitoes from cotton field. Tests were carried out with two to three days-old, non-engorged female mosquitoes. The An. gambiae Kisumu strain was used as a reference. Knockdown effect was recorded every 5 min and mortality scored 24 h after exposure. Mosquitoes were identified to species and molecular form by PCR-RFLP and genotypes at the knock down resistance (kdr) and, acetylcholinesterase mutations were determined in surviving specimens. Results: During this survey, full susceptibility to bendiocarb was recorded in all samples. WHO diagnostic tests showed high frequency of resistance in An. gambiae to permethrin (ranging from 3% to 4% mortality), deltamethrin (13% to 22%), DDT (1.01% to 2%) in the seven selected areas. The Kdr gene seemed the main target- site resistance mechanism detected at the rates ranging from ranging from 65 to 71%. The frequency of ace-1R gene was found but at very low frequency (< 0.1). Conclusion: This investigation of malaria vector susceptibility to insecticides revealed a strong resistance to pyrethroid insecticides (permethrin and deltamethrin). This Pyrethroid resistance may seriously jeopardize the efficacy of of IRS and LLINs on which, most African countries including Benin, rely to reduce malaria transmission. The current findings will help for decision making in the National Malaria control program particularly in the choice of insecticide to use during campaigns of Indoor residual spraying in this part of Benin.
Youths, aged between 15 and 24 years, in secondary schools in Kenya, have been facing challenges such as drugs and substance abuse; negative peer pressure; unemployment and societal negative perceptions among others. This has led to the youth being labeled as source of society's problems rather than its potential asset. Various interventions have been established such as talent nurturing programs, revival of youth polytechnics, entrepreneurship trainings and youth mentoring programs. In Kenya, mentoring is a relatively new concept though studies done in developed countries have shown that mentoring has resulted to youth empowerment. However, little has been documented about mentoring relationships in Kenya; hence this study established the influence of type of mentoring relationship on youth empowerment. A sample of 107 youth was randomly sampled from the purposively selected secondary schools with mentoring programs. Majority of the respondents were involved in more than one type of mentoring relationship at any given time. Those involved in traditional mentoring which is an informal type of mentoring relationship were 98.1%; they were also in formal type of mentoring relationships; peer and reverse mentoring were common at 91.6%; team mentoring (78.5%); situational mentoring (69.2%); group mentoring (57.0%); flash mentoring (56.1%) and E/tele mentoring (44.9%). Despite the youths being involved in various mentoring relationships, only traditional, peer mentoring, team mentoring, group mentoring and flash mentoring resulted to youth empowerment. There is need for interventions in which the policy makers develop a framework for mentoring programs as a key component in the school curriculum.
The main objective of this study is to assess the level of contamination, in trace elements (cadmium, copper, zinc, lead, nickel), of amaranth and lettuce grown on the market gardens of Marcory and Cocody and on the experimental plot of the University Nangui Abrogoua in the city of Abidjan (Ivory Coast). On the 3 sites, each species accumulate metals differently. Concentrations of metals in plants are influenced by the level of their presence in soil and the atmospheric depositions. The leaves of lettuce accumulated more Zn than those of amaranth on the 3 sites. On all the sites, the leaves of both species are unfit for human consumption because having contained lead, zinc and nickel above the recommended norms.
On-farm experiments were conducted to evaluate two jab planters for planting maize in the forest zone of Ghana in 2014 major season. One of the jab planters was imported from China; and we fabricated the other. The experiments were conducted at 3 farmers' fields (sites) and the design was a factorial with sites as replications. Factor A was method of land preparation (ridges and no-till with stubble mulch) and factor B was planting device (Chinese jab planter, Local jab planter and cutlass). On the average, it took about 9 hours, 11 hours and 23 hours 37 minutes to plant one hectare of maize with the Chinese Jab planter, local jab planter and cutlass in that order. Consistently, there were more hills with maize seedlings on the ridges than on the no till plots. At one site, pests removed maize from the entire no-till plots, but removal was very low on the ridges. There was no significant (P>0.05) difference in yield among the treatments studied. Some farmers in Ghana now broadcast maize and cowpea seed due to scarcity and/or high cost of labour for planting. Economic analysis showed that it is about 100% cheaper to plant with the jab planters than with cutlass. The jab planters could be promoted to reduce drudgery, time and cost of planting maize.
A prospective study of 215 children with febrile seizures was conducted at Lwiro hospital in Eastern of DRC, from 1 January to 31 December 2013.The proportion of febrile seizures among all admitted patient was 6%. The peak age of these patients was 12-17 months. There was a family history of febrile seizure in 32.7%. The sex ratio was 0.9.The mean temperature on admission was 38.8
The prevalence of pregnancy after breast cancer is increasing, since breast cancer occurs in 10-15% of cases in patients under 40 years. This literature review aims to make an update for defining a multidisciplinary management of a patient with a desire for pregnancy after breast cancer.
Islamic finance is called ethical because it encourages the investment in the socially responsible sectors. It prohibits all investment in illicit sectors and supports the sharing of profits and losses. In this study we investigated the x-efficiency of 25 Islamic banks and 25 conventional banks over a period of 7 years from 2004 to 2010 and we made a comparison between them. However, we should mention that the choice of banks in our sample is not arbitrary. It derives from the world ranking of Islamic and conventional banks in 2004 based on the size of their capital. Our work resulted a score of x-efficiency cost and income respectively of 0.94 and 0.74 for conventional banks and 0.98 and 0.81 for Islamic banks. In essence, Islamic banks are more efficient than conventional banks in the period of crisis and non-crisis period.
The knowledge of the physicochemical characteristics of Inaouene surface water constitutes a means of investigation for the assessment of the risks of pollution and the contamination status of these surface waters. The study initially focused on the physicochemical bacteriological study and the content of some heavy metals in the River waters. The first results revealed relatively high levels in nutrients, DCO, BOD5, calcium and magnesium. The content Cu, Cr and Pb is superior than relative standards, which would be due to the craft activities of the city of Taza as well as to the domestic liquid discharges on this city. The bacteriological investigation revealed a large concentration of these waters in coliforms and faecal streptococci. This allowed concluding that the quality of the Inaouene surface waters is much degraded.
The present retrospective study carried out in Miti Murhesa health area, DR Congo from February 2013 to July 2014 aims to reduce the morbi mortality of pygmy children. It includes only Buyungule, Cibuga, Cirharhangwa and Muyange sites. These specific objectives are to identify the factors which block the vaccination to pygmies, to determine the vaccinal coverage rate to pygmies to (EPV) Enlarge Program of Vaccination and the prevalence of the measles in pygmy populations. This study stands up only to determine the vaccinal state of pygmy children living in the four sites from 0 to 59 months; the study focuses in Miti Murhesa health zone where we find so many pygmies especially in CHOMBO health area. We have realized that pygmy children are not vaccinated, and this is justified by the vaccinal coverage rate of 21,31% with a prevalence due to measles of about 19% in those sites. We have specified in this study the different factors which block the vaccination to pygmies: The ignorance, the fight of injection, cultural belief, and low Instructions level
Children's enrollment and school attainment are critical issues as it is at such a stage of their development that children acquire competencies that determine their future. Therefore, understanding the determinants of enrollment and school attainment is important, especially in rural setting where communities face existential challenges. This paper investigates the factors of children's enrollment and school attainment in a rural environment using a probit and ordered multinominal logit models. The sample size is 1,151 children from randomly selected households in the Plateau district in Benin (West Africa). We found that children living with their parents, in large and endowed households (assets-based metric) are more likely to be enrolled and achieve higher grade. Also, girls are observed to be disadvantaged in comparison to boys in terms of schooling and grade attainment. Both parents' levels of education present positive significant effect on grade attainment. By contrast, the number of children of 6-11 years old and under five both lower the probability to be enrolled and to achieve higher grade with significant effect on boys. Even though the woman's participation to the schooling decision-making process spurs the enrollment, it has no significant effect on grade attainment. However, the woman's income
Tuberculosis (TB) is a major global public health problem resulting in a considerable morbidity and mortality worldwide. Ethiopia ranks 8th among the 22 high TB burden countries. Establishing an appropriate and improved intervention strategy to prevent and control tuberculosis requires the presence of evidence based data on the genetic diversity of its causative agent. The current research work, therefore, was to differentiate strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolated from pulmonary tuberculosis patients who own cattle in North Eastern and North Western parts of Ethiopia using molecular techniques. Sputum samples were collected from Acid Fast Bacilli (AFB) positive pulmonary tuberculosis patients and cultured on Lowenstein-Jensen (LJ) medium containing glycerol and sodium pyruvate. Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) was extracted from each positive culture, spoligotyping and single nucleotide polymorphisms were performed to further differentiate strains of M. tuberculosis, after deletion typing PCR confirmed that all the isolates were Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The mean age of study participants was 35.7 years (18-63 years) + 13.24. The majority (55.7%) were from North Gondar zone. Spoligotyping revealed that (47/50) 94% had interpretable patterns and 3 lineages namely; East-Africa-Indian (57.4%), Euro-American-African (EAA lineage- Lineage 4) 38.3% and Ethiopian (lineage-7) 2/50 (4.3%). Lineage 7 was registered in North Wollo zone only. In this study 8 clusters (with cluster size ranging from 2-8), 8 unique and 10 new patters were recorded. Spoligotype International Types (SIT) (21, 25, 26, 35, 53, 109, 149 and 289) was found as clusters and of this SIT 25 (7) and SIT 289 (8) were the predominant ones. Our study proved that 3 Mycobacterium tuberculosis lineages, namely; the ancient, intermediate between the modern lineages as well as modern were identified. Besides, considerable clustering was seen, which indicates the presence of current TB transmission in the study areas.
E shopping is a system that permits a customer to submit online orders of products which they desire to buy .In e shopping system helps in serving both walk-in-customer and online customers. In this project we are using augmented reality for e shopping which will help in better human interaction with the products which the company is serving online. In this concept we will be setting up virtual dressing rooms for the fashion industry and digital entertainment applications aim at creating an image or a video of a user in which he or she wears different garments than in the real world. Such images can be displayed, for example, in a magic mirror shopping application or in games and movies. Current solutions involve the error-prone task of body pose tracking We suggest an approach that allows users who are captured by a set of cameras to be virtually dressed with previously recorded garments in 2D. By using image-based algorithms, we can bypass critical components of other systems, especially tracking based on skeleton models. We rather transfer the appearance of a garment from one user to another by image processing and image-based rendering. Using images of real garments allows for photo-realistic rendering quality with high performance.
A carbonaceous adsorbent prepared from hulls of Vitexdoniana by H3PO4 treatment was investigated for its efficiency in methylene blue (MB) and of methyl orange (MO) adsorption in aqueous solution. The characterizations of materials are carried out by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), pH (6.2) and the iodine index measurement which showed that our powder activated carbon is primarily made up of meso and macro pores. The influence of major parameters governing the efficiency of the process such as, solution pH, sorbent dose, initial concentration, ionic strength and contact time on the removal process was explored. The Times of balance of adsorption are obtained to 40 and 50 minutes respectively for the MB and MO. The outputs of elimination of the molecules of the MB and MO to this balance are respectively to 85.92% and 46.60%. The variation of pH showed that the maximum of adsorption of the MB is with pH=10 and for MO, the maximum of adsorption is with pH=3. Four theoretical adsorption isotherms namely Langmuir, Freundlich, Temkin and Dubinin -Radushkevic were used to describe the experimental results. The models of Temkin and Dubinin- Radushkevic describe better the adsorption of the methylene blue. The model of Langmuir is that which corroborates, better than others, with the experimental results in the case of methyl orange. The reaction of adsorption of the two dyes is endothermic and the mechanism of adsorption is chemical. The pseudo-first order kinetic models, pseudo second order, Elovich and intra particulate have been applied to the experimental data and that which is appropriate is the kinetic model of pseudo second order.
Despite past efforts to prevent genocide and systematic episodes of worldwide human rights violations, such atrocities have continued to persist. After the Holocaust, the United Nations put in place the Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide and vowed 'never again'. Thus preventing genocide became a collective, as well as an individual responsibility. In Rwandan culture, memories are associated to individuals or places based on social construct safeguarded both by oral tradition and writing. This paper specifically explores genocide prevention strategies involving memory and commemorations. This research uses a phenomenology paradigm because it highlights the group remembering, and assesses how genocide memory and commemoration are lived by people. Data was collected through document analysis and subsequently analyzed using content analysis. Research findings have highlighted the role of memory in post-genocide period as one of the approach used to prevent genocide in the future.
This paper examines the complex linkages and impacts of land degradation and primary livelihood activities in Ghana, specifically the Talensi District. Though a global challenge, land degradation is a major concern in the District. This is because the processes of land degradation are closely related with the operation of primary activities, which are livelihood sources for people in the District. The study explored the type of livelihood activities affecting land degradation and the impact of land degradation on these activities in that complex interrelationship. Based on the nature of the study, a mixed research strategy was employed in the gathering, analysis and presentation of data. A sample of 150 respondents were randomly sampled and issued with structured questionnaire and semi-structured interview guide for collecting data. Participant observations were also conducted and official statistical data analyzed. The data analysis and presentation involved both inferential statistics and qualitative interpretations of field data. The research findings indicate that agriculture; hunting; illegal mining and wood fuel production relate with the processes of land degradation. Crop farming exhibits a strong interrelationship with land degradation because it is the major livelihood of people in the District. It is argued, that, land degradation has caused low crop yields because of loss of soil fertility. The impact analysis therefore indicates that, there is 'enhanced degradation' of land because of people's struggle to meet their livelihood sources affected by land degradation.
Artificial neural networks (ANNs) have recently been introduced in the microwave area as a fast and flexible vehicle to microwave modeling, simulation and optimization. The models are fast and can represent EM/physics behaviors it learnt which otherwise are computationally expensive. In this paper a neural network model is developed for a Pseudomorphic High Electron Mobility Transistor PHEMT (ED02AH-6x30), a transistor of 6 gate fingers, each with a width of 30
With the increasing popularity of cloud computing, many vendors have entered the software as a service (SaaS) market to provide new services and applications. Although cloud computing services make new demands and seek added value through the Internet, SaaS is still in the early stages of development, and is subject to build a cloud environment so the development is limited. However, the adoption of cloud computing services still remains very low in Taiwan. Research has been carried out to explore issues related to the cloud computing services, but there is still a lack of research in this field and research of cloud computing services remains extremely limited, thus offering insufficient evidence as to how effective adoption and successful diffusion of advanced information systems is explicitly excluded in the context of cloud computing services. Therefore, this study intends to explore the identified factors affecting the adoption of cloud computing SaaS in Taiwan by developing a comprehensive research framework. This study adopted technology acceptance model (TAM) to explore the relationships between constructs and their effect on users' intention to use SaaS. Data was collected using a self-administered survey to test the hypotheses. This study used SPSS to compute descriptive statistics. The proposed model was then estimated using the partial least squares (PLS) regression technique and SmartPLS 3.0 to analyze the measurement and structural models. The results of the analysis supported all hypotheses. Some recommendations and identify limitations of this study were provided for future research.
Cutaneous leishmaniasis is one of the infectious diseases that affects public health and represents a real threat especially in developing countries. The disease is transmitted by the bite of certain species of sandflies and occurs predominantly in warm, humid and tropical climate. Finding the source of cutaneous leishmaniasis and identifying factors that promote its spread could help to a good prediction of the epidemic in time. The aim of this study is the construction of a statistical model that reproduces the number of affected cases using climate factors influencing the presence of sandflies. Given the extensive development of the Generalized Linear Models and their performance in modeling count data as well as their adaptation to the problem of overdispersed data, we present the utility and the basic foundations of Poisson and quasi-Poisson regression models. Thereafter, we build a forecasting model that could predict the number of monthly cases of the cutaneous leishmaniasis from climatic factors during the period 2008-2011 in the province of Msila which is one of the Algerian provinces heavily affected by the epidemic in question. In our case the temperature and trend factor were retained in the model. Poisson regression gave a good result after eliminating the effect of overdispersion.
The diversity of constraints and opportunities faced by businesses, especially, economic and financial globalizations, the interdependence of economies, regulatory and technological changes and the internationalization of production systems, opens the door to new environmental challenges which currently does not only represent additional constraints but also new opportunities, even new business. Environmental governance is a hot topic for researchers in science and environmental management. The implementation of this governance in the company ensures effective and sustainable value creation process complies with all internal and external parties involved, and in compliance with legal regulations, internal regulations and ethical principles. Environmental governance is one of the major concerns of the group's leaders. For practice, they have adopted organizational measures recommended by the overall company policy. In this work, we are interested to the environmental practices and the role assigned to the management in order to analyze the environmental governance of OCP Jorf Lasfar. This analysis concerns its environmental policy based on the Environmental Management System according to ISO 14001 standards.
This survey carried out from September 2009 to September 2013 at Maluku, upstream Kinshasa city at the entrance of the Malebo Pool (Congo River, Kinshasa, DR Congo) on three common fish species selected according to their food-chain position. We focused on the contamination in Lead and cadmium of Distichodus fasciolatus (herbivore), Mormyrops anguilloides (carnivore) and Schilbe mistus (carnivore)(Pisces). We analysed fish heads and flesh according to their size (juveniles and adults). Results revealed that Schilbe mistus was the most contaminated and Distichodus fasciolatus the least contaminated. Adults were more contaminated than juveniles, and heads than flesh. Compared to previous study at Kinsuka, we are proud to conclude that the Congo River ecosystem at Maluku is safe and fish can be eaten without any fear as contaminations are lower than WHO standards. However, the herbivorous species appeared less contaminated than the secondary and the tertiary species (carnivores and omnivores, respectively).
This paper reports the results of food-chain contamination by the cadmium and the lead, two common heavy metals in the Malebo Pool (Kinshasa) at Kinsuka outlet downstream the Congo River. The herbivorous species showed lower contamination than carnivores and omnivores, i.e. Distichodus fasciolatus < Mormyrops anguilloides < Schilbe mistus From each fish sample, heads were more contaminated than in the other edible parts. This allowed us to forbide the consumption of the heads of fish from unkown origins.
Objective: This study aims to compare the physicochemical quality of honey Ziziphus sp (Sider) and Acacia sp (Samar). Material and Methods: physicochemical analyzes were carried out of pH, acidity, electrical conductivity, and humidity of 46 samples of honey of Ziziphus sp and 24 type of Acacia sp consumed in the United Arab Emirates (UAE). Results: The physicochemical analysis confirmed the similar pH values (Ziziphus sp = 4.18
The maximum power point tracking (MPPT) plays a very important role in obtaining the maximum power of a solar panel because it ensures optimal operation of a photovoltaic system, regardless the conditions of irradiation and temperature. In this paper, we will introduce, a technique for improving and optimising the performances of a control system consisting of a photovoltaic panel, a buck converter and a load. This control is carried out by implementing two techniques of tracking the maximum power point (MPP). The first one, is based on the fuzzy logic control Takagi-Sugeno type ("TS fuzzy"), whereas the second uses the "Perturb and Observe" algorithm (P & O). Simulations of different parts of the system have been developed under Matlab / Simulink, enabling a comparison between the performances of the two controllers studied: "P&O" and "TS fuzzy". Both algorithms of command MPPT associated to these techniques are tested under the weather conditions of Agadir city located in the South of Morocco. So, the results obtained under various operating conditions, show a significant improvement in the performances of MPPT control of a photovoltaic system using the fuzzy logic controller.
Tropical forests contain large amounts of carbon. Facing the intensive deforestation and degradation of remaining forests, policies developed reforestation programs often including invasive alien species. We analyzed the diversity of plant species in the forest of Angu
The 10 approval lakes of the city of Yamoussoukro have been a regular bird monitoring from December 2011 to December 2013. During this period, the method of listening points allowed inventory of 101 species divided into 13 orders and 36 families with Spot Index of Abundance of 5988 individuals. This bird is characterized in terms of abundance, by one dominant species, 13 regular species, 36 rare species and 51 accidental species; at the habitat, 53 species of open areas, 40 wetland species, six generalist species forest and two mixed species habitat; at the bio geographical origin by 60 resident species, 15 species and 26 species of Palearctic mixed origins. Considering the achievements of previous studies, we have reassessed the overall species richness of lakes at 111 species and 50 species of water birds. These lakes, although in urban areas, are proving of great interest for the conservation of birds, particularly water fowl including some ecological parameters are now better known.
The paper investigates the design process and the analysis of a two degree of freedom compliant mechanism for nano scale positioning applications. In this research, the flexure based mechanism possesses a decoupled characteristic in x-and y motions and compact structure in size. Moreover, the mechanism's workspace will be amplified via using a lever amplification mechanism. In order to achieve an optimal size, a multiple objective optimization based on response surface method and kigring regression model are carried out. Besides, the effect of design variables on each of the output response of the proposed mechanism will analyzed as well. The proposed 2-DOF compliant mechanism size of 186 mm ? 186 mm possessed the workspace of 130 ?m ? 130 ?m in the x-and y axes. The confirmation experiment using a simulation in ANSYS revealed that the error between the predicted result and the actual value was about 1.6%. It means that there is a good agreement between two results. It is also clear that the proposed mechanism has much lower error than that of previous studies in the literature review. Ultimately, the proposed mechanism is expected to further applications in practice positioning and manipulator systems.
The peace cannot reign there where is not justice. In the development countries, the implantation of justice palace in an entity is a guarantee for the protection of people and their possessions, but it is not the case in the under-development countries. The objective of this survey is to look to know the impact of the Big Process Courthouse after the bringing together of people who need to be establish in their justice. The impact of that courthouse in the fundamental conflict resolution is negative, it following the corruption of justice agents and their collaborators and the increase of the fundamental conflicts.
The experiment was carried out to investigate the effects of probiotic on growth performance, hematological (TEC, Hb, PCV, ESR) and biochemical (Cholesterol, Uric acid) parameters in broilers during high environmental temperature. A total of 30, at 7 days old (Cobb-500) broilers were randomly divided into 5 groups (n=6). Heat stress broilers were held at 35
April 9, 1947 dam in Morocco is known for its waters intense rate of pollution and its considerable anthropogenic activity. Unfortunately, no former studies were made to investigate its real pollution degree. In this work, we present a method for mapping the vulnerability assessment and the risk of pollution of surface water stored in this dam. For this, we introduced a vulnerability index called IV considering three different parameters which are slope, drainage density and the lithology. The index IV serves to characterize the transfer of a pollutant from the upstream to the downstream of a watershed. This index is the product of these three parameters. The superposition of these parameters through GIS software gave us a map of contamination vulnerability in the watershed. This map shows three vulnerability states: areas of high (72% of basin area), medium (25%) and low vulnerability (3%). Using this map, we can establish a zonation of areas that should be protected to reduce the high rate of contamination in this the dam.
The study on the biology and ecology of the ''warbler Acrocephalus: Acrocephalidae, Passeriformes was conducted from March to September 2010 in the Basin of Bukavu on Lake Kivu. 33 specimens of birds were caught with mist nets trapped in aquatic macrophytes. The observations with the naked eye and using a pair of binoculars have identified the reproductive behavior of the studied species. Stomach contents were analyzed to highlight the eating habits of the species. It was established that the species of the genus studied have a mainly insectivorous diet. They can complete their prey secondarily by Gamelidae crustaceans, mollusc, gastropods and insect eggs. The reproductive period extends from March to July with a peak in June. The nests are shaped like a hanging basket on aquatic macrophytes. The number of eggs is usually two in each nest. The morphometric data revealed that sexual dimorphism is not pronounced in these species.
The aim of this study was to evaluate the microbiological quality and mycotoxic presence in peanuts and highlight the eating habits, distribution channels, and health stores in different areas of the city of Fes. The results of this study show that the majority of consumers buy peanuts in bulk from the nearest grocer whose purchases are casual in Ramadan and especially during religious festivals. The analysis showed that the health stores and equipments require a deep review to avoid contamination. The microbiological analysis showed that wholesalers and retailers represent the highest non compliance compared to supermarkets; however the percentage of compliance in all samples does not exceed 50 to 60%. The Samples analyzed did not contain aflatoxin B1, which allows us to think that the samples are not contaminated with fungal species secreting aflatoxin. This work has also helped to develop a basis for rapid microbiological tests on liquid medium.
Tourism has become agent of change for sustainable local development in different parts of the world. It is supporting the economic growth and is driving force for poverty alleviation program of many developing nations. In Simien Mountains National Park (SMNP) of Ethiopia, tourism is the main motivation to conserve its biodiversity and aesthetic beauty. It has shown better conservational efforts and created environmental awareness amongst the local community though the economic reward tourism brings. The sector is becoming the main means of livelihood in adjacent towns. It is also supporting the livelihood of traditional farmers in and around the park by generating extra income. Different employment opportunities are created for the community, especially to the young. The local community understands the value of their culture and tends to preserve it. Tourism in the park is establishing a long-lasting productive base to allow the local communities and service providers to enjoy a better standard of living. This paper has outlined how tourism is contributing to the sustainable development of the study area.
Today, most synthetic dyes used in the field of textile finishing are among other reactive dyes water-soluble and vat dyes. The use of these dyes produced a large amount of colored effluents visible and undesirable to human health and the environment. In this study we evaluated the importance of membrane technology in the purification of some existing dyes in wastewater from step textile finishing. First, we quantified the retention capacity of the colored solutions (Indigo / Red cibacrone), using an asymmetric membrane, we synthesized in the laboratory and is based on two physical copolymers polysulfone (PSU) and poly
In this paper we present as a first step the synthesis of an epoxide resin hexafonctionnelle following two steps. During the first stage, we performed phosphorylation of diphenylamine ethylene, followed by a second stage, which has led us to change after a new hexafonctionnelle resin. The microscopic structural characterization has been confirmed using the Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) proton and phosphorus. The epoxy resin is then cured with methylene dianiline (MDA) (HGEDAPT / MDA) and deposited on the copper. Finally we studied the impact of this new coating hexafonctionnelle epoxy resin on copper in an aggressive environment of 3% NaCl. Thereafter, we conducted a new formulation by adding an inorganic filler (zinc) in the protective matrix E1 (HGEDAPT / MDA) and E2 (HGEDAPT / MDA / Zn). The stationary and transient electrochemical studies are very interesting the value of their stationary efficiencies are respectively 92% and 97% and transitional 93% and 98.5%.
Encryption is a cryptography method that makes it difficult to understand a document for any person without the decryption key. Our contribution in this paper is to introduce a new concept of encryption to secure a document by using a pair of keys. Generally the security of a cryptosystem relies on the secret encryption key but not on the algorithm. This has led many scientists and researchers to develop multiple encryption algorithms that are differentiated by their suppleness, complexities, resistance to the attacks and their quick execution. Thus, we develop a new dynamic encryption algorithm based on the use of two keys, static and dynamic, in different sizes. The static key is combined with a vector product to encrypted data while the other dynamic key will be added as an additional jamming, which is only a chaotic vector that changes values after each use. Our immaculate algorithm will be tested and simulated in MATLAB to visualize and verify the results so that to deduce its effectiveness of resistance to cryptanalysis attacks.
The purpose of this study has been the exploration of the impact of Self-Directed Learning on adult learners' Life Satisfaction using their attitudes, willingness and perception as intervening variables. It examines ways in which adults learners' perceptions, attitudes and willingness match with the level of happiness and satisfaction that they contribute to their survival. Through deductively hypothesizing the research ideas, analyzing the data and specifying patterns, the study employs a sample of 100 college and university level students from 5 institutions of higher learning. A self-administered survey questionnaire was implemented and scores of the participants' observation were statistically recorded and analyzed. The prediction of Life Satisfaction from Self-Directed Learning with the three subscales using linear regression analysis yielded statistically significant result of R2 = 0.293 (variation); F=48.42(model strength); and p < 0.01(significance). The result suggest that, any positive changes in learning that are focusing on Self-Directed Learning and life-long perspective have the potential to show the way to improved life satisfaction of adult learners. The result will also allow for structures of intervention that indirectly influence perceived satisfaction through activities that encourage engagement, thus improving quality life
Last subprime financial crisis of 2007 did return to the stage the issue of banking risks, particularly liquidity risk. This risk must be currently managed by more sophisticated methods and more attention. The main objective of this research is to analyze the liquidity of Moroccan banking sector, because, ultimately, all the proposed routes are articulated around it. Thus, monetary policy tends to naturally control the increase in the volume of money available to agents nonbank sector to make it compatible with the rate of change in the overall supply of goods and services. This article is based on a retrospective analysis provides some answers of the various underlying causes of bank liquidity in Morocco.
In this paper, we outline the bridges that connect the area of GIS knowledge representation and its querying languages. Our work is in fact grounded in a research framework which we had founded to hang out with a pretty appropriate GIS query language that is adapted enough to this kind of information systems having a very particular aspects. Such aspects are unfortunately not yet fully exploited by the existing solutions. In our study, we were led to consider the existing systems and standards for the representation of GIS information, and we quote in this case GML and ESRI. We have reached at the end of this study to the conviction that it is impossible to build a query language dealing with our basic aim if we ignore the representation of the GIS database to query. Convinced of the robustness of the XML representation, but aware of his extremely verbose and difficult to read character, we had then to take inspiration from XML technology while correcting this verbosity problem and the underlying complexity. We present then in this paper a new formalism that is able to interest, engage and influence the business of geographic information. Our formalism "G-Brackets" has to respond strongly to our initial aims which can be summarized in the following goals: - A solid and hierarchical formalism with the Manner of XML technology. - An object oriented representation. - A knowledge based representation according to first-order predicates logic, ready to be requested by an inference engine able to go beyond an ordinary SQL engine. - In the end, a simple and less verbose symbolism that is readable and able to separate between the data model and its semantics. Such pattern has constituted for us a real extension of the MVC design pattern that we named MVX pattern.
To describe the epidemiological characteristics of anemic children hospitalized in pediatric service at the provincial hospital El Idrissi Kenitra in Morocco, a prospective cross-sectional study was conducted between February and the month of May 2011. During this period study, a total of 43 anemic children was hospitalized. The male sex is the most affected with 60% of cases, with a highly significant difference (p <0.001. The sex ratio (M / F)) is 1.5 for the male. The average age of the patients was 5.8
Location management (LM) is a necessity in highly dynamic and large scale mobile network. It is one of the major problems of mobile networks that should be taken into account to enable communication systems provide Quality of Service (QoS) and meet the subscribers demand. Most existing location management schemes such as location update scheme, paging scheme are still faced with the problem of reducing cost, excessive traffic, resource utilization and low quality of service. In this work, a multi-step intelligent paging scheme was developed to monitor and estimate mobile station mobility to address the problems faced by the existing system and to enhance the Quality of Service of the GSM network.
The present study was carried out to investigate the pathology of avian aspergillosis in commercial broiler chickens at Chittagong district. A total of 912 sick and dead chickens were collected from 20 commercial broiler farms and diagnosed for avian aspergillosis on the basis of clinical signs, symptoms and postmortem findings. The suspected birds were collected for necropsy examination and mycological culture. Gross lesions of multiple hard creamy to yellow colored, circumscribe plaques throughout the lungs surface and consolidated lung with necrotic areas were observed. Microscopically, the typical nodules consisted of caseous necrotic center were present. Identified the Aspergillus spp according to their color of colony growth on Potato Dextrose Agar media. The overall incidence of avian aspergillosis was found 6.14%. Among five Upazilla, significantly (p<0.007) higher and lower incidence was found in Patenga and Sitakunda that were 9.25% and 3.43% respectively. It was observed that highest incidence (8.22%) in rainy and lowest (3.16%) in winter but moderate (5.16%) in summer season. The disease was significantly (p<0.050) higher (8.27%) in age between 6-10 days and lower (4.11%) in age between 0-5 days. It was also found that incidence of avian aspergillosis was significantly (p<0.042) higher in flocks reared on sawdust litter (7.69%) as compared to rice husk litter (3. 46%).
This article explores in depth the technological innovations by the Top Managements of banks in the Tunisian banking sector. The framework of this research is based on an amalgamation of four theories related to the decision of adopting technological innovations: The Theory of Reasoned Action (TRA), the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB), Technology Acceptance Model (TAM), and Diffusion of Innovation (DI). The result of our qualitative study highlights four variables which influence the attitude of the Top Managements towards the adoption of internet banking: Relative advantage, Perceived Ease of Use, compatibility and Perceived risk.
In Lubumbashi and its hinterland, somme food plants which are generating natural colourings used in traditional medicine were found This is the case of Hibiscus Sabdariffa from which some analyses have been completed in this study namely: - Moisture and total ash determination in leaves and flowers, - Chemical matter research, - Colouring extraction in water, methanol and ethanol - Biological test of extracted colourant and thermodegradation of colourants. However, the thermodegradation assessment has been studied by exposition of differents extracts got from study at different temperatures and moments, and the absorbance reading done successively at 262nm for aqueous extracts and at 268nm for both methanolic and ethanol extracts
This work aimed to make a phytochemical study of nine vegetables (Adeniagummifera, Bidenspilosa, Celosia trigyna, Crassocephalumpicridifolium, Cleome monophylla, Fagarachalybeum, Solanumnigrum, Polygonumsalicifolumand Ipomoea Aquatica) consumed in Haut-Katanga and assess their antioxidant activity. The phytochemical study showed that each specie contains at least three groups of substances including tannins (88.8%), anthocyanins (88.8%) and flavanoids (77.8%), saponins (77, 7%), alkaloids (44.4%), cyanogenic glycosides (44.4%) and terpenoids (33.3%). The evaluation of the antioxidant activity showed that vegetables studied contain substances which are able to inhibit the action of free radicals as DPPH. Indeed, all the extracts inhibited DPPH with at least 19% during 10 or 30 minutes of incubation. Furthermore, evaluation of the effect of temperature has shown that antioxidants had reached a maximum concentration at 70
Research on the growth and the development of young companies in general, and their performance in particular, attracts the interest of many researchers and many research works have been undertaken and published on the matter. However, the results obtained up to now are not up to the efforts made or the results awaited.(
Mangaluru being a fast developing city faces the challenges of dealing with the solid waste generated. The calculation of the quantity of waste generated especially in the households and the manner in which the residents and the local government respond to it becomes crucial in facing this challenge effectively. Present study shows the average solid waste generated by Mangaluru is 226 tons per day with the per capita waste generation equaling to 0.4524 Kg per day. The household per capita waste generation equals to 0.2095 Kg per day. Though the total per capita waste generated in the city is not alarming, it is almost equal to the total per capita waste generated by the State of Karnataka and India in general. As we move from the outskirts of the city to the central part of the city there is an increase in the production of the solid waste. It is observed that in the outskirts of Mangaluru, the waste is mostly fed to the animals and used as manure, and thus less waste finds its way to the community dumpsites. Since the major part of the household waste generated in the city is biodegradable, by using eco-friendly technologies like vermicomposting in Mangaluru 50-60 tons per day of compost could be prepared from household waste alone. The goodwill of the people to cooperate in the proper management and disposal of the household waste needs to be utilized and at the same time strengthened by adequate awareness programs and facilities. Survey shows that the combined action of the municipal authorities and the residents of the wards is necessary in the entire process of management of solid waste.
The watershed Sidi Salah, located in the north of Sfax (Tunisia), Knew an important water and soil conservation installations. These installations present certain operating anomalies that make them unable to well manage the hydric erosion phenomenon. This work aims to identify those anomalies and to characterize the responsible factors in order to promote the sustainable management of water and soil at the level of the watershed. The study was based on the photo-interpretation of the satellite images with high resolution, the field observation and the chemical analyses of the soil samples taken in various sites of the watershed. The results allowed us to reveal some anomalies as the loss of embankments and the destruction of the masonry installations. The responsible factors are mainly naturals, related to the turbulent water flows and the soft lithology of the soil rich in gypsum and limestone.
The chemical screening has showed that 17 edible and non-edible mushrooms studied contained saponins (100%), tannins (82.4%), anthocyanins (70.58%), coumarins (29.5%), flavonoids (23.5%) and steroids (17.6%). However, alkaloids, terpenoids and quinones have been identified in fungi studied. All of the extracts have inhibited the action of bacteria studied, but the most active extracts were those of Amanita rubescens (0.3125mg/mL), Schizophyllium commune (0.625mg/mL) and Trichaptum abietinum (0.625mg/mL) on S. aureus and Stereum hirsitum (0.625mg/mL) on S. aureus and S. pneumoniae. Moreover, all of extracts have got bacteriostatic effect (87.5%) on the tested germs except Ganoderma lucidum extract on S. aureus, Lactarius angusters on S. sonnei, Schizophyllium commune on S. sonnei and S. aureus, Trametes gibbosa on S. sonnei et de Trichaptum abietinum sur S. sonnei which have bactericidal effect against the same germs studied. Moreover, all the extracts showed antioxidant activity except extract Trichaptum abietinum.
The effect of salt stress on antioxidative activity was studied in two species of halophytes Atriplex: halimus and canescens. The plants were exposed to 100, 300 and 600 mM l-1 NaCl for 30 days. The parameter of oxidative stress induced by salt, malondialdehyde (MDA) and the activity of peroxidase (POD) are determined. The results show that in terms of lipid peroxidation, the two species are very little or not affected by the salt for all concentrations applied. This reflects a better protection of cell membranes against oxidative damaging effects of salt. However, in terms of peroxidase activity, variability of responses is observed. This variability is a function of the salt concentration, the organ and species.