Khulna is the third largest thriving city of Bangladesh and surrounded by picturesque countryside, winding rivers, and a host of development centers. Since partition of British India in 1947, the city has been growing up as an important complex of trade, commerce and industries. This paper aims to relate the historical transformation of the morphology of the concern city by analyzing the spatial expansion. History reveals that the city arose as a market town on the bank of river Bhairab. At the very beginning of the paper, the Integration core has been tried to identify by analyzing the Master Plan of 1961. After identifying the initial urban core, the Master plan of 1993 & 2009 has been analyzed respectively by using Space Syntax, tool that simulates the likely social effects of urban designs, which has been done with axial analysis. It has been observed that the main Integration Core was initiated by the side of the river bank area as the river transports were the main catalysts for the City. Then with the time it shifted to the Dak-Bangla more/node, and now it has been found that the main vibrant nodal point is the Shib-Bari node.
To the best of the our knowledge, no methodical reports comparing antibacterial effect (in liquid and vapour phase) of the Thymus vulgaris L. essential oil (TVEO) are available. In the present work, we investigated the antibacterial activity of TVEO in order to deduce the opportunity of using TVEO as an antibacterial drug. The extraction of TVEO was obtained by steam distillation. Chemical composition of the TVEO was determined by Gas Chromatography. A total of thirteen compounds were identified. Carvacrol (83.8%) was the major component, followed by cymene (8.15%) and terpinene (4.96%). Antibacterial action of the TVEO against 23 clinically isolated bacterial strains was determined by using agar disc diffusion and vapour diffusion methods at different doses. By disc diffusion method, TVEO showed potent antimicrobial activity against Gram-positive bacteria more than Gram-negative strains and antibiotic discs. The Diameter of Inhibition Zone (DIZ) varied from 25 to 60 mm for S. aureus, B. subtilis and E. coli. However, the results obtained by both agar diffusion and vapour diffusion methods were different. Significantly higher antibacterial effect was observed in the vapour phase at lower doses. S. aureus and B. subtilis were the most susceptible strains to the oil vapour. Therefore, smaller doses of EO in the vapour phase can be inhibitory to pathogenic bacteria. There is growing evidence that TVEO in vapour phase are effective antiseptic systems and appears worthy to be considered for practical uses in the treatment of human infections or as air decontaminants in hospital. TVEO has considerable antibacterial activity deserving further investigation for clinical applications. Also whilst the mode of action remains mainly undetermined, this experimental approach will need to continue.
The extension of orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) with Multiple input multiple output (MIMO) in Wireless communication is nostrum to fading. This brilliant combination has potential to expedient high data rate requirements and high performance over various impugning channels i.e. Time selective and Frequency selective. This paper presents the Nakagami Multiple input multiple output (MIMO) fading channel simulation and the comparison of BER performance of the frequency domain equalizers i.e. Decision feedback and maximum likelihood detection (ML). The result is provided for two transmitter and two receiver, 16 QAM modulation. The simulation result shows that the high diversity gain stability can be acquired by using the domain equalizers for SFBC-OFDM in Nakagami frequency selective fading channel. The implementation of domain equalizers for SFBC-OFDM system for the arbitrary values of m minimizes the intersymbol interference (ISI). Ml is the best coding for minimizing the error probability.
The supply of Niamey in foodstuffs is made by products cultivated in the gardens of the city, vegetables were imported by the inside of Niger or through their import from the bordering countries. The vegetable sector is a chain which contains producers, retailers, intermediaries; public and private services, wholesalers as well as exporters. In the marketing of vegetables we find two seasons which are, among other, season price increase and the price decline.
Azo dyes constitute the largest family of synthetic dyes. They are widely used in the textile, dye stuff and pharmaceutical industries. The uncontrolled and undesirable discharge of the azo dyes into the environment may represent a serious ecological problems and health effects. The oxidation of azo dyes (e.g., Photo-oxidation, Oxidation by ozone) leads to its degradation. To determine the reactivity and the active sites of azo dye reactive Orange 16 (RO16) , we calculated its electronic and optical properties by using DFT and TD-DFT methods at B3LYP/6-311+G(,p) level in solvent (IEF-PCM model). The results showed that RO16 is polar and high soluble compounds in water. The Fukui indices showed that the N11 is the favoured site of nucleophilic attack (e.g, ozone). A good correlation was obtained between the predicted and experimental absorption bands of RO16 (R2=97%).
Objective: This study was done to assess the appropriateness of drug information on prescribing in Pediatric age group given in a popular formulary, CIMS and IAP. Methods and Material: We collected detailed information of 51 drugs (Anti-infectives, NSAIDS, Drugs acting on respiratory system and Vitamins) which are commonly prescribed in pediatric age group from Current Index of Medical specialities (CIMS) (April-July2012) and Indian Academy of Pediatrics (IAP) Drug formulary (2013) 30th edition. WHO model formulary for children 2010, was used as standard reference. We compared appropriateness of drug information which is given in CIMS and IAP with WHO model formulary for children. Results: In our study, it was found that indication was inappropriate for 52% drugs in IAP and 73% drugs in CIMS , regarding contraindication 36% drugs in IAP and 43% drugs in CIMS was inappropriate, Precautions was inappropriate for 77% drugs in IAP and 88% in CIMS, Drug dosage was not mentioned appropriately for 75% drugs in IAP and 85% drugs in CIMS, Relevant information in pediatric patients in presence of renal and hepatic impairment was not mentioned for 86% drugs in IAP and 100% drugs in CIMS, adverse effects were not mentioned properly for 77% drugs in IAP and 95% in CIMS, interactions were not mentioned properly for 75% drugs in IAP and 83% in CIMS and ancillary information was inappropriate for 39% drugs in IAP and 70% in CIMS. Conclusions: This study highlights the inadequacy of popular Indian formularies CIMS and IAP in context of pediatric prescribing. Thus, there is imminent need of a pediatric national formulary with due focus on guidelines for pediatric prescribing.
The effects of the diet fat type on some biochemical, growth and semen characteristics were studied in 32 males Muscovy ducks distributed into 4 comparable experimental groups of 8 birds. During a period of 12 weeks, each of the group was randomly fed one of the rations including the control diet (T) or one diet containing either soya bean oil (S), pig fat (G) or palm oil (P). Life weight of group G was significantly (P<0.05) lower as compared to other groups. The carcass yield and percentage of liver relative to life weight was similar (P>0.05) among groups. Diet containing Pig fat induced the lowest (P<0.05) heart percentage while Soya bean oil induced the highest. The highest (P<0.05) testis proportion (0.59%) was registered in control group and the lowest (0.16%) with Palm oil which also induced the highest (P<0.05) gizzard proportion. Pig fat induced the significantly (P<0.05) higher intra testicular protein as compared to the others treatments. Control group recorded the significantly (P<0.05) lower intra hepatic protein rate as compared to the pig fat group. The intra testicular cholesterol rate remained comparable (P>0.05) among treatment groups. For the hepatic cholesterol rate, value obtained with palm oil was significantly (P<0.05) higher than that of the control group. Sperm volume induced by pig fat was significantly (P<0.05) smaller than that of other treatments groups. Semen characteristics (concentration, motility, viability and pH) were not statistically (P>0.05) different among groups. The type of dietary fat except pig fat may therefore improve growth and reproduction performance of Muscovy duck.
Infilled steel frame structures are known to perform better as compared to infilled concrete frames under seismic loading. In comparison with masonry infilled reinforced concrete (RC) frame structures, very little research has been done on masonry infilled steel frames structures. Contribution of masonry infill in the positive performance of the infilled structures is widely recognized but no codes provide the clear and detailed guidelines on the design of infilled frame structures especially infilled steel frame structures due to the complex and unpredictable behaviour of masonry during an earthquake event. This study aims to provide a detailed insight into the composite behaviour of steel frame structures with unreinforced masonry infill under seismic loading. Time history analyses have been performed on masonry infilled steel moment resisting frame structures and structural performance has been evaluated in terms of global structural performance parameters of fundamental time period, maximum roof displacement and base shear and local parameters of interstorey drift ratios, structural member forces and infill stresses. The effect of masonry infill on the performance of infilled steel moment resisting frames has been investigated by varying the number of bays, number of storeys, percentage opening in the infill wall, location of the opening, type of openings, number of openings, infill strength, outer frame strength and infill thickness. The results of this research will help to understand the complex behaviour of masonry infilled steel frames for different variations mentioned above.
In general practice, buildings can range from small residential houses to large commercial plazas. Size of the structure may change at base with the type of building and availability of area. Bay analysis has been performed to analyze the effect of variation in number of bays on infilled frames. Four three storey models (Bare and Masonry infilled) with number of bays varying from one to four have been considered in this study. Non-linear static analysis or pushover analysis has been performed in Perform-3D and capacity spectrum method of ATC-40 followed by seismic vulnerability assessment framework proposed by Kyriakides (2007) have been used to derive the vulnerability curves for all models considered in this study. Results of seismic vulnerability assessment have been used to determine the effect of variation of number of bays on the seismic vulnerability of masonry infilled steel and RC frames. Vulnerability curves of bare frames have also been compared with the vulnerability curves of infilled frames for both steel and RC frame structures to determine the percentage decrease in the seismic vulnerability of masonry infilled frames as compared to bare frames.
An enquiry was made about different modes of breeding of cattle, the species parasitizing the bovines, and the organs preferred by ticks from June 2012 to November 2012.In total 1439 ticks were collected from 159 cows, on the abdomen and leg, the dewlap and encolure, ano-genital, tail, ear and face. Five species of ticks were collected succemvely with the following frequency: Rhipicephalus appendiculatus (46, 8%), Rhipicephalus appendiculatus (21, 3), Boophilus decoloratus (17%), Amblyomma variegatum (14, 8), Haemaphysalis Leachi Leachi (0, 13) as well as the knowledge of their preferable organs on the bovines. The use of rearing in absolute stalling was displayed here and there, which exposes them to ticks and others deseases.Finally the knowledge of acaricid products and their use proved to be of much avail in the farm.
Virtualization is a powerful technology that facilitates better use of the available data center resources using a technique called Virtual Machine (VM) consolidation which involves gathering of several virtual machines into a single physical server. To address the problem of high energy usage, it is necessary to eliminate inefficiencies and waste in the way electricity is delivered to computing resources, and in the way these resources are utilized to serve application workloads. This can be done by improving the physical infrastructure of data centers as well as resource allocation and management algorithms. VM consolidation involves live migration, which is the capability of transferring a VM between physical servers with a close to zero down time is an effective way to improve the utilization of resources and energy efficiency in cloud data centers. VM placement and VM migration act as a backbone to the VM consolidation process. Issues such as heterogeneity and scalability of physical resources, volatile workloads and migration cost make the VM consolidation process difficult. This paper presents a comprehensive survey of different VM consolidation challenges such as host underload detection, host overload detection, VM selection, VM live migration and VM placement algorithms. The paper discusses these VM consolidation challenges and presents a comparison between different state-of-the-art VM consolidations algorithms.
Northern Cameroon includes the Cameroonian Sudano-sahelian and Sahelian which are the most sensitive areas to climate change because of their proximity to Sahara which is the centre of climate dynamics. This work is the result of more than twenty years of direct fieldwork observations and surveys carried out on the peasants with respect to: - The perception of climate change and the degradation of the environment; - The strategies adopted in order to face the said changes. The objective is to show that in these dry areas where rural activities are still heavily linked to natural conditions, the general drainage of the landscape jeopardizes day after day the livelihood of the populations. Hence, they diversify new experiences in their daily activities in order to insure their survival.
This article aims firstly to show how the quality standards, understood as a convention, plays a key role in reducing uncertainty and promotes the definition of coordination procedures. Secondly, it explains how standards can be playing a role of "barrier to entry", also how an updated normative level allows an economy to improve its external competitiveness. This impact of quality standards is empirically verified for the Moroccan case using an econometric model testing the impact of quality standards on export growth of processing industries. The estimated model shows a significant positive effect.
In recent years, attempts have been made to develop drugs for treatment of dementia and attention deficit disorders to improve memory and learning. Some nootropic agents (eg: Piracetam) are widely used but the resulting chemo phobia associated with them and other similar agents has made their use limited. So it is worthwhile to explore medicines from the traditional system in the treatment of these cognitive disorders. Stress is a broad, ambiguous, and often poorly understood concept. In its most simplified Sense, stress is what one feels when life's demands exceed one's ability to meet those demands. The objective of the study is to study the effect of ethanolic extract of Taxillus tomentosus for nootropic and antistress activity in experimental animals. It has been documented in traditional system that Taxillus tomentosus plant belonging to family loranthaceae effective in nervine disorders, acts as a nervine tonic. In a survey of ethnobotanical literature, numerous plant preparations have been used in the treatment of age related cognitive disorders in human beings in European countries; so in present study is to evaluate the same on Taxillus tomentosus alone by using various screening models in rats. However, this plant has not been scientifically investigated for the same. Therefore, the present study is designed to evaluate effect of whole plant extract on learning and memory.
Qiyas as a method of discovery and excavation of Islamic law has been formulated with very well by Imam Shafi'i still be an intellectual debate among scholars. Ibn Hazm was one of the scholars who refuse the use of Qiyas to find and dig in the legal texts. The refusal of Ibn Hazm on Qiyas due to the results obtained with the formulation of the laws Qiyas method still can't give legal certainty. This refusal is influenced by al-Shafi'i's refusal on Istihsan. The refusal of Ibn Hazm on Qiyas is part paved the way for the development of Islamic law in the contemporary world today. There are at least two models of the development of Islamic law to do, namely the development of Islamic law that is still based on and grounded in the discovery and excavation methods of the old law that has been generated by previous scholars of Islamic law and the development of an entirely separated from the product of thought scholars' earlier. Two models are equally important in producing the formulation of Islamic law that is able to adapt to changing social, cultural, political, and economic as well as advances in science and technology today.
The main aim of this study was to analyze factors affecting competitiveness of Kenyan cut flower in the international market. The study used descriptive case study design with a purposive sample size of 126 senior managers in the flower farms in Nakuru County. The study used structured questionnaire as the main data collection tool. Data was analyzed using descriptive statistics and information presented in frequency tables and charts. The study used factor analysis to establish the most important elements of the Porter's five force factors that are adopted in the flower industry in Kenya. The study found out that competition of Kenyan Cut in international market was affected by the following factors; activities along supply chain which were extremely many and also challenging; actors along the supply chain which were; difficult to manage, situated diversely in terms of physical distance, different laws, diverse requirements, expensive to manage and were also unpredictable; lastly international standards which were not consistent. Some of the recommendations put forward to make Kenya Cut-Flower Sector to be more competitive in the international market were; the players in the cut flower industry should develop systems that can help them identify actors in the cut flower supply chain their locations and their roles in the transmission of both the supplies and goods. This will help in making the actors more responsible and make these transmissions faster. The players should review the laws in cut flower sector in all the countries involved in the business and harmonize them as a way of making the Kenya cut flower more competitive in the international market. Third the cost associated with the diverse and unpredictable actors should be normalized through the flower councils and other associations.
Ebola is a severe viral disease that spreads in West Africa countries, whose a search of an effective Drug is a necessity. The VP30 protein is known as an essential activator of transcription for Ebola virus. In another, Oleuropein, Kaempferol, and Quercetin are a bio-active components, originally from several plants, and which are known by their ability of inhibiting viral transcription activators such HIV. In this context we tested in silico by molecular modeling the ability of these substrates to inhibit VP30 by Building in the active sites, and the application of new pharmaceutical compounds, although direct manipulation in vitro or in vivo is limited by the terms of Biosafety - it is reserved for laboratory level BSL-4 - which slow the search process. The Oleuropein, Kaempferol, and Quercetin components are linked with the active sites of VP30 with a free energy score estimated near -8Kacl / mol and an average distance of 1.8 angstrom. We conclude that Oleuropein, Kaempferol, and Quercetin components may be effective treatment for Ebola Virus and essentially Kaempferol which has very ambitious Pharmacodynamics and kinetic owners, the things that make the component to be a candidate to be an effective Drug. Other experimental studies in vitro and in vivo are required to confirm.
The science and practice of medicine and its primary source plays an important role in identifying the new molecule of drug through both synthetically and from that of natural origin. Most of the developing countries have adopted traditional medical practice as an integral part of their culture. Historically, all medicinal preparations were derived from plants, whether in the simple form of raw plant materials or in the refined form of crude extracts, mixtures, etc. The aim of this study was to evaluate the Cytotoxic Activity of Clerodendrum inerme (Family: Verbenaceae) and Caesalpinia crista (Family: Leguminosaceae), two widely distributed shrubs of the Sundarbans mangrove forest. A general cytotoxicity of all the extracts of C. inerme and C. crista were determined by Brine Shrimp Lethality Bioassay where the chloroformic extract of bark of C. inerme has the lowest LC50 value of 5
Electromagnetic waves can be emitted into the open space by an antenna; it is called free propagation of waves, a process that is widely used in telecommunication systems . When the frequency and / or the power increases, the use of transmission lines is very limited by the appearance of higher order modes that occur as soon as the transverse dimensions of the structures used are no longer negligible compared to the wavelength and also by increasing dielectric losses in the insulators which also often causes an important attenuation  in this case, it becomes necessary to use structures called generally "waveguide" for the transmission of this electromagnetic energy. It's about a hollow conductor in which electromagnetic waves are propagated by successive reflections on the internal walls. The metal waveguides are the basis for the design of many microwave devices such as filters, transformers, adapters, polarizers.... In this chapter we'll have a detailed overview on the use of waveguides (filters in general), their characteristics, advantages, disadvantages compared to other guiding structures.
The study investigated into the effect of pictorial reading strategy on the learning of proverbs and riddles with view to elucidating the need to uphold making children to be well- grounded in their first language. The study adopted quasi- experimental pre-test-post-test design. Three intact classes of Primary Six pupils were assigned to two experimental and one control groups. The treatment took a period of six weeks. Data were subjected to inferential statistics of Analysis of Co-variance (ANCOVA). The results showed a significant effect with the pre-test level,(F(2, 164) = .837;p> 0.05) and the post-test,(F(1,164)=12.668; p<0.05; R
Physically weak, senior and disabled citizens use manual wheelchairs to move around places. The electrical wheelchairs provide them this required support for movement. It is difficult to control manual wheelchairs on sloping roads and hence the use of electrical power assisted wheelchair is advantageous, which can be controlled by braking. This paper proposes a new braking control algorithm to control these wheelchairs on downhill road and during its process, it is able to regenerate some power which can be stored in a charge storing device like a battery or super capacitor.
Analysis of the business life cycle is a tool for sustainable development, which is increasingly adopted in the public and private organizations. The critical question for the manager is: Where has our company been now? So the management of the business life cycle is to practice this approach in different departments and business of the company. On the other hand, a new approach was developed to support the development and ensure the viability of the company. This is the concept of strategic scanning pulled behind the concept of intelligence from military theories. This notion has spread to be adapted to the context of the company in its logic of environmental monitoring. In this article, we will try to present in a first part the business life cycles and some cycles judged most outstanding. Among these lifecycles, we will mention materials lifecycles, lifecycles of technologies and social life cycles. In a second step, we will discuss the concept of strategic scanning. Finally, a presentation of the approach to strategic scanning is required followed by the presentation of the relationship between business lifecycle and strategic scanning throughout all stages of the life cycle of the company.
Morocco signed a range of preferential agreements with more than fifty partners. However, the balance of trade with them, benefits to the partners of Morocco against the interests of Moroccan firms. Similarly, the conclusion of new trade agreements such as that with Canada or UEMOA will degrade the trade balance of Morocco and will worsen its deficit. The present paper aims to show the problem of inconsistency between trade policy of Morocco and its sectoral policies: agricultural, industrial and fisheries; since for foreign trade policy, a tariff reform based on the reduction of tariffs was implemented while the effort to promote and diversify the industrial and agricultural supply has not received the same necessary logical care. The causes of incoherence relate in particular to the existence of a dislocated economic sector, disintegrated and weakly competitive. In other words, The lack of competitive firms, able to satisfy, at competitive rates, domestic demand, to able to satisfy, at competitive rates, domestic demand, to compete internationally, to create employment for young people and promote social progress. The existing mechanisms of action as sectoral plans implemented since a good ten years have failed to boost economic growth and to achieve the objectives of intended development. The role of the state at this time should focus on two points: first to support financially businesses and second, to support the cost of poorly studied and less thoughtful trade openness. This is based mainly on free trade with powerful and competitive markets.
Since it taken down to the Prophet on Muhammad, the Qur'an has always been challenging the creation of the human brain, even at a certain level, the Qur'an has stated that human intellect are not able to diving the content the Qur'an thoroughly. By The method used in this research that is a descriptive research method knowen that All Scripture that also known as the Apocalypse that mentioned in the Qur'an and degraded to the prophets, are not a human creation, but they really are the creation of God, which was created to bring a human into the space of peace and harmony that accordance to their fitrah. The similarity degree of the substance, the mission is evidence of the truth authentic of oneness of God who since it created humans, God keep one and God is to be worshipped.
This work studies how people describe emotions with language and how computers can simulate this descriptive behavior. To capture these intuitions about how people describe emotions, we study two models that use interval type-2 interval fuzzy sets (IT2 FSs) for representing the meaning of emotion word is represented by IT2 FSs on valence, activation and dominance scales. In the second model, the meaning of emotion words is represented by answers to an open ended set of questions from the game of Emotion Twenty Questions (EMO20Q). The notion of meaning in the two proposed models is made explicit using the Fregean framework of extensional and intensional components of meaning. Inter- and Intra-subject uncertainty is captured using IT2 FSs learned from internal approach surveys. Similarity and subsethood measures are used for task of translating one emotional vocabulary. The experimental data collected include dialogs between humans and computers and web-based surveys, both using crowd-sourcing on Amazon Mechanical Turk. For future work, we propose a research agenda that includes a continuation of work on the emotion domain as well as new work on other domains where subjective descriptions are established through natural language communication.
The evolution of e-learning technology has pushed pedagogy actors to renew its teaching modes. However, the quality of these new forms of teaching depends on their capacity to be provided with pedagogical contents and learning paths adapted to the current e-learning context (collaborative, socioconstructivist, etc.). This paper highlights some of the major issues faced in implementing pedagogical contents adapted to the actual context of e-learning. The aim of this research work is to propose a reference model for production of e-learning contents adapted to the socioconstructivist learning context. Thus, this work proposes to develop a Socioconstructivist Model of Collaborative Learning Design (SMC-LD) of e-learning contents, which is articulated around the two main aspects of production of learning contents: "design" and "development". At the level "design", SMC-LD suggests a collaborative design process based on the concept of life cycle. At the level "development", SMC-LD proposes a process for educational modeling, upstream of SCORM and IMS-LD standards, describing a pedagogical content using scenarios and activities. The modeling process is facilitated by an author tool to produce interoperable and reusable learning objects. To validate its applicability, SMC-LD is implemented with Java and XML technologies and is experimented in real teaching conditions. The results found are satisfactory and encourage us to pursue this research. Teachers have appreciated the collaborative learning design approach to produce e-learning contents. On the other hand, the model has brought important educational benefits at the learners' performance.
Door closing mechanisms are used in all building venues using air conditioning systems to reduce thermal losses. One of the closing mechanisms is the torsional type. The visco-elastic characteristics of the closing mechanism may exhibit certain sort of nonlinearities from its linear characteristics. The dynamics of the door with nonlinear characteristic with positive and negative deviation from the linear characteristics of the door closing mechanism are studied. The system dynamics are defined by a nonlinear ordinary second-order differential equation which is solved using Runge-Kutta 4 technique through the MATLAB environment. Two types of nonlinearity are considered depending on the deviation from the linear characteristics of the closing mechanism. One type reveals dynamic behaviour similar to that of overdamped linear dynamic system while the other type reveals dynamic behaviour similar to that of underdamped linear dynamic system. The second type has large effect on the door dynamics where the maximum deviation in the door dynamic response may exceed 700 % from the linear characteristics of the door.
We have carried out this study in order to establish the impact of MECRE-KAVUMU in CRSN/LWIRO agent's life who, as other agents in DRC are unable to keep out their daily needs because of the thinness of their salary. Thus, they are obliged to search for other survival means and above all look for debts. The presence of MECREKA is welcome by everybody and seems to be a solution to this problem.
Therapeutic efficiency of virgin olive oil components, like antioxidants, has been proved. Moreover, the adulteration of virgin olive oil by the refined olive oil is a known fraudulent practice in non formal markets in some developing countries. In Morocco, there is a need of non expensive and fast tool to quantify the adulteration of virgin olive oil by the refined one. That is why we used a coupling between Fourier transform middle infrared spectroscopy, as a non expensive analysis technique, and Euclidean distance and hierarchical ascending cluster methods. Virgin olive oil was extracted from ''Picholine'' cultivar olives in Tadla Azilal area, in Morocco. Fourier transform middle infrared spectroscopic parameters of prepared mixtures of virgin and refined olive oils have been used to determine the adulteration. The result of the Euclidean Distance concerning such an adulterated virgin olive oil has allowed the quantification of the adulteration percentage. The results of the hierarchical ascending cluster could provide a fast classification of virgin oil oils. Thanks to its rapidity and relatively low cost, coupling between middle infrared spectroscopy and chemometric methods would be an efficient tool to ensure authentication and traceability of virgin olive oil.
In this paper we consider a problem of spatial allocation of agents "Technicians" with multi competences, for maintenance of distributed equipment requiring multi skills tasks. The objective is to ensure optimal partitioning of resource allocation taking into account the multi competences constraints and resources displacement. The approach to the problem is performed using the techniques of cellular automata and Voronoi diagrams. We first consider a simplified case of seven equipments and tree technicians with two competences. An algorithm is proposer for the considered case, and a simulation is presented. The technician displacement is not treated in this paper. A generalization to m equipments p technicians and n competences is proposed.
In this work we have developed a software for the simulation of the number of theoretical plates in a continuous distillation column, based on the equations of vapor-liquid equilibrium and mass balance in the different sections of the column, by an iterative calculation tray by tray. Using an interactive graphical interface, the software can determine the compositions of the vapor and liquid fractions and temperature on each plate, and the liquid and vapor flow rates in the two sections of the column, it can even represent these balances graphically to determine the number of theoretical stages using the McCabe and Thiele method. The compilation results for the distillation of a binary mixture of benzene - toluene (F = 11.84 Kmol/h; Xf = 0.444, Tm = 91.5
In this study we estimate the risk of water erosion in coastal watersheds between M'diq and Fnideq located in northern Morocco, through using a new approach based on spatial cartography. Precisely, the methodology adopted here integrates a Geographic Information System (GIS) with the universal soil loss equation (USLE). The field data includes three major components namely, lithology, degree of slope and vegetation density. Each of these components is represented by a separate layer, in which 1 to 5 value expresses its lateral variability degree. The final map of water-erosion risk is obtained by the sum of superposed indices, separately assigned to three thematic layers (facies, slope and vegetation cover), and multiplied by the percentages of the contribution of each factor to determine the percentage of weighting. . Secondarily, a complementary table translates the cartographic values of each layer as percentage values expressing the impact exerted by the corresponding risk factor throughout the studied area. The risk map is deducted after validation of these weightings on the field by choosing checkpoints distributed throughout the watersheds of the site. This method would allow for the tracking and of course monitoring of water erosion on a larger scale and to better direct the administrations concerned to the priority of installations.
The groundwater's exploitation located in the bedrock is one way indicated to provide water to population. Indeed, the aquifers of the fissured base constitute excellent water tanks. This article aims to determine the sites favorable to the establishment of drillings to good flows in the department of Dabakala. The methodological approach used is the combination of various geophysics methods and remote sensing. A card of morpho-structural alignments was established. This one highlighted two families of fractures hydraulically active of N70
A compact, low-profile, coplanar waveguide fed elliptical patch UWB antenna is proposed in this paper, and then imposed on human body environment for Wireless Body Area Network (WBAN) applications. A comparison of performance of the designed antenna is done in free space and modeled layered human body tissue phantom in terms of reflection co-efficient, radiation pattern and voltage standing wave ratio (VSWR). The antenna is designed in such a way that it can give good performance over free space as well as over modeled human tissue phantom without any prerequisite. The antenna provides a wide usable fractional bandwidth of more than 143% (2.39-14.43 GHz) with substrate permittivity ?r =3.38 which is a RO4000
In order to determine the morphometric characterization and molecular identification of cattle in Bangladesh, three districts, i.e., Pabna, Bogra and Jhenidah were selected. In each district, 15 outstanding different crossbred and local dairy female cattle's (cows) blood samples (total 45) and raw data were collected to carry out the study of molecular and morphometric characters respectively. These characters were observed to identify the genetic resources of cattle in the selected regions such as eye color, coat color, horn pattern, age, breed types, conception rate, litter size, milk production, lactation length, heat period and gestation period. The quantity of DNA were found to 198.30
Urinary schistosomiasis and geohelminths are endemic in Cameroon and continues to pose public health challenges especially in inhabitants of rural areas. This study was conducted in an attempt to re-assess the epidemiological data (prevalence and intensity of infection) of the prevalence of urinary schistosomiasis and geohelminths among school children in Kekem, local government areas,West- Cameroon. The study was carry out in 4 schools and, in each of the selected schools, stool and urine samples were collected from 180 school children. Single Kato-Katz technique was employed to determine presence of geohelminth; urine filtration technique was employed to determine presence of Schistosoma haematobium eggs in urine. An overall prevalence of 1.7% for urinary schistosomiasis was observed among the 180 children examined. No significant difference in prevalence was observed between school, sex and across age group examined (p>0.05). The prevalence rates of urinary schistosomiasis in each school were 6.5% in Kekem 44; 2% in Mbafamand 0% in Mboebo and Plateau B. This shows that there is a significant decrease, due to previous treatments which took place in this area. This provided the positive intervention of the schistosomiasis control. An overall prevalence rates of Soil Transmitted Helminths were 17.8% for Ascaris lumbrico
A series of 2-(5-(6-Bromo-2-methyl-4-oxoquinazolin-3(4H)-yl)-4H-1,2,4-triazole-3-ylthio)-N-(substituted benzylidene) acetohydrazides (5a-5l) have been synthesized via condensation of 2-(5-(6-Bromo-2-methyl-4-oxaquinazolin-3 (4H)-yl)-4H-1,2,4-triazole-3-ylthio)acetohydrazide (4) with different aromatic aldehydes. Cycloaddition of thioglycolic acid with 5a-5l yielded 2-[5-(6-Bromo-2-methyl-4-oxoquinazolin-3(4H)-yl)-4H-1,2,4-triazol-3-ylthio]-N-(substituted benzylidene)-4-oxothiazolidin-3-yl) acetamides (6a-6l) while compound 5a-5l on treatment with chloro-acetylchloride in the presence of triethylamine are converted into 2-[5-(6-Bromo-2-methyl-4-oxoquinazolin-3(4H)-yl)-4H-1,2,4-triazol-3-ylthio]-N-(3-chloro-2-(substituted benzylidene)-4-oxoazetidin-1-yl) acetamides (7a-7l).The structure of all the newly synthesized compounds have been confirmed by elemental analysis and spectral studies (IR, 1H-NMR and mass spectroscopy).Compounds 5a-5l,6a-6l and 7a-7l have been evaluated for their anti-inflammatory and analgesic activity and were compared with the standard drug phenylbutazone. The most active compound of this series is 2-[5-(6-Bromo-2-methyl-4-oxoquinazolin-3(4H)-yl)-4H-1,2,4-triazol-3-ylthio]-N-(3-chloro(2,6-dichloro benzylidene)-4-oxoazetidin-1-yl) acetamide (7g).
Cancer is a potentially fatal disease caused mainly by environmental factors that mutategenes encoding critical cell-regulatory proteins. The resultant aberrant cell behaviour leads to expansive masses of abnormal cells that destroy surrounding normal tissue and can spread to vital organs resulting in disseminated disease, commonly a harbinger of imminent patient death. There are many kinds of cancer, but they all start because of out-of-control growth of abnormal cells. This complex genetic disease is caused primarily by environmental factors. The cancer-causing agents (carcinogens) can be present in food and water, in the air, and in chemicals and sunlight that people are exposed to. Since epithelial cells cover the skin, line the respiratory and alimentary tracts, and metabolize ingested carcinogens, it is not surprising that over 90% of cancers occur in epithelia. The causes of serious ill-health in the world are changing. Infection as a major cause is giving way to noncommunicable diseases such as cardiovascular disease and cancer. In 1996 there were 10 million new cancer cases worldwide and six million deaths attributed to cancer. In 2020 there are predicted to be 20 million new cases and 12 million deaths. Part of the reason for this is that life expectancy is steadily rising and most cancers are more common in an ageing population. More significantly, a globalization of unhealthy lifestyles, particularly cigarette smoking and the adoption of many features of the modern Western diet (high fat, low fibre content) will increase cancer incidence. According to the latest studies of galaxies on the food that there is a relationship between certain types of food and the spread of cancer, and also there are foods contribute to the reduction or prevention or even a cure, for example, fat and alcohol contribute to the emergence of cancer of the stomach and intestines, while vegetables and legumes and fiber reduces of its occurrence, and this is what we will discover through this humble research.
The Niger Delta region is notorious for oil and remains the most exploited region. As a result, pollution from anthropogenic sources is on the increase. Heavy metals mercury (Hg), lead(Pb), cadmium(Cd), iron(Fe), copper(Cu) and zinc(Zn) were studied in four species namely Austropotamobius pallipes, Penaeus notialis, Tympanotonus fuscatus and Archachatina maginata at two different periods of three months interval. The samples were analysed using atomic absorption spectrophotometer and triplicate results obtained were analysed using ANOVA. Hg and Pb were not detected (<0.0001ppm) in both study periods and species examined. Zn, Fe, Cu and Cd were detected in all species but were all below maximum allowable limits of international guidelines. Thus, all four seafoods studied are safe for consumption. However, there is need to monitor seafoods coming out from the region from to time.
Polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) and polyvinyl acetate (PVAc) are the polymers of great interest because of many desirable characteristics. They can be used for many purposes. One of the major uses of these polymers is they can be used to produce adhesives for paper converting, packaging and laminating. The purpose of this work is to develop a suitable process for producing PVA based adhesives. In this work, both polyvinyl acetate and polyvinyl alcohol adhesives were prepared. Adhesives were prepared by the polymerization and alcoholysis of vinyl acetate monomer (VAM). Different performance tests were conducted after preparing these adhesives. In this study it was found that better quality adhesives can be prepared from polyvinyl alcohol. Different performance tests were conducted on the adhesives prepared. It was found from the performance tests that polyvinyl alcohol adhesive is the best adhesive that can be used for lamination. Drying time for polyvinyl alcohol was found 12.9 minutes which was better than polyvinyl acetate adhesives. Moreover, pull-off test shows that maximum allowable pressure for PVA adhesive is higher than PVAc adhesives and the value is 195 psi.
In this paper, we focus on the importance of interaction between adverse genetic mutations, and clinical risk factors in the development of ischemic stroke, knowing that this disease is multifactorial common that is affected by a number genetic mutations and environmental factors. The apolipoprotein E4 allele (APO e4), Factor II G20210A prothrombin (blood clotting protein), and Factor V genotypes were examined in 165 patients with ischemic Stroke group and 165 Control group, at the Laboratory of Human Genetics and Molecular Pathology, University Hassan II- Faculty of Medicine in Casablanca and the department of neurology at the campus teaching hospital of Casablanca and Rabat. Logistics regression models and bivariate correlation analysis with Karl Pearson's method were used to estimate the role of co-occurrences of the clinical risk factors and genetic mutations in ischemic stroke. The presence of the APO e4 is dominant in Stroke group than Control group and its association with hypertension, smoking and cholesterol increases the risk of ischemic stroke. FV mutation in association with hypertension or diabetes mellitus reveals a strong correlation in ischemic stroke. We found no significant relationship between the ACE D / D, FII, MTHFR 677TT genotype and clinical factors. In some combinations, pairing of adverse genetic factors, which alone confer non-significant risk, with clinical risk factors can greatly increase the risk of having an ischemic stroke.
In this study, we test whether investor learning, herding, and prospect theory explain the variation of beta across different return regimes and return frequencies. Empirically, we use quantile regressions to analyze beta change on the French financial market from January 2000 to December 2012. For daily data, we find a larger estimated impact of systematic shocks on extreme quantiles of firm's returns as compared to intermediate quantiles. The beta pattern is probably symmetrically suggesting that whatever the type of shocks have similar effects. This finding can be explained by herding behavior and investor learning. These behaviors lead to beta- increasing in the extreme returns case. For monthly data, beta evolves asymmetrically across return regimes with a greater impact of the market in the lower tail of returns distribution. This finding provides strong evidence in favor of prospect theory explanation. Overall, constant beta estimated by ordinary-least squares overestimates the systematic risk of stock in normal times and underestimate the risk in extreme conditions or financial crisis.
Different forms of Intimate Partner violence are experienced in various cultures and affect people across societies irrespective of their economic status. Similar experiences have also been reported in Kenya as shown by the results of this study whose focus was to determine the forms of Intimate Partner violence among women in the informal sector in Nakuru Municipality, Kenya. The study employed ex-post facto research design to undertake inquiry into the occurrence of Intimate Partner Violence (IPV) while simple random sampling was used to select 176 participants who were victims of intimate partner violence and had registered the violence in the five rescue institutions. The researcher administered questionnaire and focus group discussions were used to collect data. The study found out that women experience different forms of IPV which included physical, economic, sexual and verbal. Each of these forms of IPV was further investigated using descriptive statistics and the findings revealed that about 62% of physical cases of violence were due to slapping while in economic violence monitoring expenditure was most common at 52.3%. Regarding sexual violence and verbal violence the study revealed that 61.4% of women experienced forced sexual violence and 58.5% experienced name calling respectively. The findings revealed the most common cases of IPV in each form of violence which should therefore constitute areas of intervention in undertaking measures to reduce its occurrence.