This article describes an approach based on artificial neural network to identify waterflooded zone of continental clastic reservoirs. For the logging sequence of waterflooded zone matching the characteristics of the continental oilfield, the application of artificial neural network algorithm is able to distinguish water layers, oil reservoirs and dry layers among reservoirs of waterflooded zones. The output vectors of the network represent the fluid types. Thus, better results are supposed to be obtained than traditional methods in the crossplot plate after network training. Distribution becoming non-uniform and contact between grains being loose were found after microscopic observation in the waterflooded zones. It has revealed that the waterflooded characteristics are of great significance, and it has also proved the accuracy of identification from another perspective.
Landfills are the classical solution for waste disposal. During the last years there has been a growing concern about the effect of landfills in public health, because leaching water can contaminate nearby aquifers. The conversion of the open dumps characteristic of many cities around the world to controlled and sanitary landfills is a critical step for protecting public health and the environment. Landfill is not just a place where waste is disposed, but it is a technological plant designed, realized and managed to obtain a minimization of negative effects. Sanitary landfilling is a fully engineered disposal option that avoids the harmful effects of uncontrolled dumping by spreading, compacting and covering the waste on land that has been carefully engineered before use. Geophysical surveys are increasingly filling this need, by responding to vertical and lateral variations of the fill material. The non-invasive geophysical methods which measure a different physical properties, specifically Electrical Resistance Tomography (ERT), Frequency-Domain ElectroMagnetic (FDEM) and Infrared Thermography methods (IT), could overcome a problems of the landfill in study. The combined use of these geophysical methods therefore allows to better characterize the properties of the land and to map the subsurface in landfills and their surroundings.
The Question Answering Systems (QASs) use method of information retrieval and Information extraction to retrieves documents that contain special answers to the question. One of the existence problems is finding the desired information from this very high variety. For this reason, it is necessary to find ways for organizing, classification and retrieving of information. Question classification plays an important role in providing a correct answer on QASs because giving a bunch of formulated questions to provide the correct answer from among the many documents will be highly effective. The aim of classification is selecting suitable label for questions based on the expected response. In this paper, we investigate the effect of automatically classifying questions on machine learning algorithms. In this paper, we will explain different types of algorithms and compare and evaluate them and next we will investigate the existence algorithms' weakness and advantage in question classification. As a result, in the past most classification was done based on sets of words that many studies show that to maximize the efficiency of the classification of algorithms we require semantics and in the questions we should looking for feature that be close to the meaning of questions. A great deal of research proposed to analysis and to classify emotions and to extract knowledge from them and to classify them using semantic and linguistic knowledge but it still requires a lot of research and development.
The nature of terrorism is fundamentally psychological. Similarly, psychological profiling is widely accepted in detecting crimes in both law enforcement operations and the study of criminology. However, there is a need to transfer its appearance from old traditional criminal environment to the context of counterterrorism. This research argues that most prevalent method of interrogating suspects to achieve distinction between guilty and innocent is to establish a set of psychological attributes and factors. This paper proposes that terrorist's profiling is value-added intelligence that may add a new dimension in counterterrorism to identify the individual behind a terrorist act. It is important to constructs a terrorist profile before designing a paradigm that should determine the probability of terroristic trends within the individual as well as certain perceptible qualities with which an observed suspect can be likened to. This article proposes a personality-guided model of interrogation with different categories to steer clear of oversimplified thinking about individual terrorist or groups. The objective is to adapt the style and content of questioning to obtain a clear overall picture of the suspect's knowledge with appropriate interviewing and interrogation methods. This profiling will provide thorough understanding of the ideology that drives terrorism and more awareness of the likely means and likely targets used by terrorists. This paper is a shift in direction
In 1927, the limestone desulfurization process was first applied in the Barthes and Bansside Power Plants (total 120MW) beside the Thames River in UK to protect high-rise building in London. Up to now, over 10 desulfurization processes have been launched and applied. Based on the desulfurizing agent being used, there include calcium process (limestone/lime), ammonia process, magnesium process, sodium process, alkali alumina process, copper oxide/zinc process, active carbon process, ammonium dihydrogen phosphate process, etc. The calcium process is commercially available and widely used in the world, i.e. more than 90%. Flue gas desulfurization processes, survey made by the coal research institute under the International Energy Agency shows that the wet-process desulfurization accounts for 85% of total installed capacity of flue gas desulfurization units across the world. The wet-process desulfurization is mainly applied in countries, like Japan (98%), USA (92%), Germany (90%), etc. The limestone-gypsum wet desulfurization process, the most mature technology, the most applications, the most reliable operation in the world, may have rate of desulfurization of more than 90%. Currently, the flue gas desulfurization technology used at thermal power plants at home and abroad tends to be higher rate of desulfurization, bigger installed capacity, more advanced technology, lower investment, less land acquisition, lower operation cost, higher level of automation, more excellent reliability, etc. This paper briefs current situations and trends of flue gas desulfurization technology also append short descript of different type of FDG and their category.
To prevent from the hazards of mountain torrent disasters, today's monitoring and early warning system is widely used in mountain areas to keep alert from the rainstorm. Mountain torrent disaster caused by the rainstorm and is one of the most important reasons, resulting in transportation blocks and mass casualties. Mountain torrent disaster occurs frequently depends on the weather of mountain's country. It can be distinguished and predicted by monitoring and early warning system to provide the safety reference in disaster presentation and reduction. This paper presents the analysis and key management of monitoring and early warning system of mountain torrent which mainly includes monitoring system and early warning system of water and rain information. In order to achieve better effect of disaster prevention and reduction, establish an organization system of mass observation and mass prevention and enhance training propaganda. The monitoring system of water and rain information mainly includes network layout of water and rain monitoring station, information acquisition, information transmission and communication networking and configuration of devices. Early warning system of mountain torrent is composed of platform-based early warning system of torrent defense and early warning system of torrent mass observation and mass prevention. And also appended short description of publicity and training includes popularization of knowledge about disaster prevention; preparations of disaster prevention, maintenance and operation of monitoring and warning facilities, publicity and rehearsal of proposal.
Study on the interlayer has developed associated with in-depth exploration and development of oil fields, which is an indispensable part to characterize reservoir heterogeneity. This study relates to a comprehensive research method of interlayer in rhythmic layering in continental low permeability reservoirs. During the process of waterflooding development, distribution characteristics of interlayer in the single well, plane, cross-well, and well group should be analyzed based on identification and genesis of interlayer. And thus the three-dimensional model of interlayer could be constructed in order to reveal its spatial distribution characteristics in continental reservoirs. Practice in continental oil fields has shown that the type and distribution of interlayer play an important role in controlling remaining oil. Mastering the distribution rule of interlayer can better explore the distribution of remaining oil. Through in-depth analysis on the interlayer, better development results could be achieved by taking different measures to trap the potential. Also, utilizations of interlayer results for the analysis of injection connectivity could facilitate petroleum engineers to adjust the injection layers, and thereby increasing the efficiency of oil field development.
Laboratory-scale experiments have been conducted to test the effect of FLUFF tea compost and mix it with zeolit as carrier base for Solubilizing Phosphate Highland Bacteria (BPF) and Azotobacter vinelandii as Nitrogen fixing lowland bacteria (BPN). The experiment was using a randomized block design, two factors, three repeated. The first factor is the carrier base (100% FLUFF Tea Compost; 90% FLUFF Tea Compost + 10% Zeolite; and 75% FLUFF Tea Compost + 25% Zeolite) and the second factor is the kind of inoculant (100% BPF; 100% BPN; and mix of BPF 50% + BPN 50%). The water content from FLUFF Tea Compost was 59,8% with pH after 2 days incubation was 6,3-6,7. The respons were total bacteria and temperature on 4, 8, and 12 days after incubation. The results showed that the total bacteria from the carrier base and kind of inoculants have significant on 4 days after incubation, but not significant on 8 and 12 days after incubation. The A3B3 (75% FLUFF Tea Compost + Zeo25%) & (BPF 50%+azoto50%) was the best treatment, but if compare from before, A3B1 (75% FLUFF Tea Compost + Zeolite 25%) & (BPF 100%) have the highest average percentage during observation. The temperature was stable, it means that the decomposition proccess was not occur. From the data, we can tell that the BPF highland more adaptable than BPN lowland on FLUFF tea compost. The BPF and BPN have synergy growth on each carrier base treatment.
Soil degradation is becoming the major problem of Moroccan soils in semiarid areas. This deterioration is due to poor soil management through recurring tillage practices that cause a decline in soil organic matter and degradation of their structural state. This study aims to characterize the impact of tillage, residue management and cropping systems on the aggregate stability and the accumulation of organic matter in a Calcixeroll soil. Three tillage treatments were compared: conventional off-set disking, no-tillage system with two levels of residue: NT100 = full surface residue cover and NT50 = half surface residue cover, along with three rotations: continuous wheat, fallow
Equilibrium constant has many applications in solving problems in reservoir engineering and petroleum processing. Various correlations are available for estimating K- values for heptanes plus fractions. These correlations can be classified into simple and complicated. However these correlations are not able to predict K values adequately for a wide range of conditions. They lose validity in specific range of pressure and temperature and exhibit some error. In this work neuro-fuzzy modeling techniques (ANFIS) is developed to predict K- values for heavy fractions. A large collection of K- values data points (more than 1340 data points) were extracted from experimental 570 PVT reports using the principal of material balance are used in developing the neuro- fuzzy model. 80% of the data points were used to train ANFIS model and 20% of data sets were used to validate, and test the model. Statistical analysis (average absolute percent error, correlation coefficient, standard deviation, maximum error, minimum error, etc.) is used for comparison the proposed model with empirical correlations. Graphical tools have also been utilized for the sake of comparison the performance of the new model and experimental data. Results showed that the new hybrid neural fuzzy model outperforms some available empirical correlations.
This work consists in studying various possible valorizations of the rural biomethanisation applied to the bovine dejections. The follow-up of the adopted digester related to: the estimate of the qualitative productivity (% CH4, % CO2, % H2S and % H2; LCV and HCV) before and after conditioning. For the analysis of the gas composition and the estimation of the calorific values, we had recourse to the technique of chromatography in gaseous phase (CGP); analysis of certain environmental parameters (SM and BDO5), in order to establish the corresponding assessments of depollution; possibilities of agronomic valorization except ground of the residues of the biom
In present day business and consumer environment, a robust voice identification system is needed to reduce false positives, and true negatives. In this work, a modified voice identification system is described using over sampled Haar wavelets followed by proper orthogonal decomposition. The audio signal is decomposed using over sampled Haar wavelets. This converts the audio signal into various non-correlating frequency bands. This allows us to calculate the linear predictive cepstral coefficient to capture the characteristics of individual speakers. Adaptive threshold was applied to reduce noise interference. This is followed by multi-layered vector quantization technique to eliminate the interference between multi-band coefficients. Finally, proper orthogonal decomposition is used to evaluate unique characteristics for capturing more details of phoneme characters. The proposed algorithm was used on KING and MAT-400 databases. These databases were chosen as previous extraction results were available for them. In the present study, the KING database were trained with three sentences, and tested with two. On the other hand, the MAT-400 database were trained with two seconds of random voice signal, and tested with other two seconds. Results were compared with vector quantization and Gaussian mixture models. The present model gave consistently better performance on speech collected through mouthpieces, but gave comparatively poor performance on audio collected on telephones. The better performance is obtained at the cost of higher computational time.
To find out impacts of tax structure system in Vietnam on GDP and progressivity, models employed are Fixed-Effects and Two-Stage Least Squares, together with the regression model of tax progressivity. Data's source is from Vietnam General Statistics Office. It is cross-sectional time series over the period 1997-2010 for different 61 provinces in Vietnam. Findings present that Vietnam's tax policies are progressive, their integration policy impacts on the economic growth positively. In addition, the result is proved there is a significant relationship between the state budget and GDP. As a result, the budgetary expenses must be paid attention strictly. Because coefficients of value-added tax and corporate income tax are positive and significant, an increase in value-added tax or/and corporate income tax causes an increase in GDP. However, this view for a long-term is a negative impact on the economic growth, because the country can lose competitive advantages to attract foreign development investment, if keeping high tax rates. Note that several inadequacies in policies need reforms in both policies and tax structure system, in which corporate income tax must be focused, because of mobilization of financial outside the state is unstable. Currently, tax policies in Vietnam combine so many goals in each form of encouragement while the policy objectives are conflict, which makes difficulties to carry out. Existing lack of harmony among the taxes in the tax policy can cause a main reason of a decrease in the revenue target of the state and in regulating macro economy.
The purpose of this paper is to determine the relationship between the Green Lean Six Sigma (GLSS) and the Management Innovation (MI) to be implemented in the Malaysian Automotive Industry. This paper tries to examine how the GLSS can contribute and have a positive impact on the development of MI to achieve better performance in the automotive industry. In addition, by applying the advantages of innovation in an industry, they are able to ensure they have a competitive advantage factor. There are several elements that can be selected to support the GLSS and MI practices in the automotive industry. The relationship between structure MI and GLSS is proved by the use of Structural Equation Model (SEM) as recommended. Since this is a concept paper, most of the literature from the previous survey taken as a basic guide for this study as well as the construction of models of the relationship between the GLSS and MI is made. Next, the hypotheses can be generated based on the model of the proposed research and literature review. It has been shown that the MI which acts as an intermediary for the Malaysian automotive industry can continue to perform to make the transformation GLSS practice management system in the Malaysian automotive industry more efficiently and effectively in line with the industry to be the best among the competitors in other countries.
This work concerned the study of the influence of the drying parameters on the water loss of the fresh carrot coming from the area of Adamawa. This study was undertaken in a drier designed and produced in a tropical environment. Drying was carried out at various temperatures 45; 50 and 55
The present work aims to study the importance of the hydrological Meskat system and its landscape insertion through the olive groves of Sousse region. The inventory of the anti-erosion works reveals that the management of watersheds by the Meskat system was performed on approximately 44 000 ha, so, 40.5% of the supported area of the region by the erosion control structures (108 500 ha). This is an architectural and hydraulic heritage with a good quality rural landscape. This work aims to minimize the soil losses, to capture the surface runoff, to increase the soil fertility and to improve the crop yields. The current landscape of Meskats is an old as well as a current farmer's work. There is a richness conceded by the ancestors to their descendants. But this heritage is, in some cases, badly preserved. It should be noted that if, in the past, olive-tree left to the reconquest of the lowest parts of the hills to take advantage of the runoff, in the present, the urban population is looking for a natural landscape, is leaving to the reconquest of the hills (impluviums) to enjoy a world of pleasant views over the surrounding agricultural landscape, which risk the peril. However, the Meskat system remains the essential component of the territory organization, of the olive oil production and of the suburban and rural landscapes in Tunisian Sahel.
The calcination of phosphate consumes the fossil energy and generates greenhouse gas emissions. This later owed not only on the consumption of these energies, but also in the decomposition of carbonates and in the combustion of the organic matter. The energy consumption and the emission of gases require an optimization of the calcination depending on the residence time and temperature of calcination. These walking parameters influence the chemical reactivity and the solubility of finished product. To assist in that, we have studied the evolution of the main components of the control in the calcination (Corg, CO2, P2O5, CaO), the specific surface area and density of the ore according to the time and temperature. This treatment was performed in the laboratory in a fixed bed. The different analytical techniques that were applied are: sieve analysis, quantitative study by ICP, the mineralogical characterization by X-ray and differential thermal analysis coupled with thermogravimetric analysis. The obtained results show that mechanisms relative to the heat treatment of the phosphate are multiple and are strongly influenced by the nature of the matrix and the parameters of the treatment. The obtained product answers well the trade profiles and the requirements for use under the conditions of a temperature approximately of 800
Gamma-ray densitometry or nucleonic gauges have been widely used in industries to improve the quality of products, optimize processes and save energy and materials. Compared with common time-consuming and expensive chemical analyses, the proposed method is relatively fast and more reliable. Density measurement is normally based on the absorption of gamma radiation as it passes through the process material. The absorption which is proportional to the changes in material density indicates product density as the measuring path is held constant. In this study, a number of Monte Carlo simulations have been performed using the MCNP-4C code to optimize the arrangement of gamma densitometer. The dimensions of the proposed system have been chosen to coincide with the industrial specimen of gamma densitometer. The geometry of source to detector in different angles was investigated and optimized angles were chosen. The simulation as well as experimentally measurements has been performed for 4 different fluids including water, gasoline and diesel engine oil used with iron and PVC pipes of 4 inches diameter. The gamma source and detector have been a 137Cs and NaI(Tl) scintillation detector. Our experiments and simulations results show that the transmission mode present, better results than the scattering one in densitometer. The single detector response of the detector located at 180
This study examined the relationship between communication practices (formal and informal) and quality service delivery in Uganda's local Governments. The study findings are derived from a sample of 212 Local Governments in Uganda. Service delivery recipients - Heads of department and sectors comprised the unit of inquiry whose responses were aggregated to Local Government level, which formed the unit of analysis. Questionnaires were used to collect data from the respondents. Data analysis involved running correlations and regressing communication practices (formal and informal) on quality service delivery. The findings revealed that both formal and informal communication practices positively and significantly predicted quality service delivery in Uganda's Local Governments. The major study implication is that Local Government authorities need to focus and reform communication practices for delivery of quality services to the people. The study was however, limited by the fact that it relied only on cross-sectional research design and only utilised a single methodological approach. The study offers empirical evidence on the sparsely investigated public sector. The evidence indicates the immense role of both formal and informal communication practices on quality service delivery in the Uganda's Local Governments.
Radioactive ray safeguard is a physical impediment which is placed between radioactive source and the protected object in order to decrease the amount of rays' radiation in the protected area. Different materials such as lead, iron, graphite, water, poly ethylene, concrete, or rubber can be used for protection against nuclear radiations. In safeguard's common designing, two types of Gama and Neutron radiations are usually considered. The weakening amount of Gama radiations is proportional to the mass and atomic number of the safeguard's material. Covering Neutron source varies with regard to the source power and its application. However, what is always true is having the least dose with the least dimensions outside the safeguard. The dose of the safeguard's outside partition is resulted from quick, slow and thermal neutrons, and also from the source's Gammas and secondary Gammas. Neutrons use retarding and neutron-absorbing materials in order to reduce the dose. Due to the weak mechanical characteristics of the pure elastic composites, fillers are used to strengthen and improve their characteristics. Strengthening the elastic material is often defined through increasing the characteristics such as hardness, module, refraction energy, solidity, tear resistance, tensile solidity, lassitude resistance, abrasion resistance. In this paper, rubber shielding materials with boron carbide and tungsten as impurities have been fabricated. The optimum boron carbide contents (5% weight percent) have been evaluated using the Monte Carlo code, MCNP. The gamma attenuation coefficients for different boron carbide and tungsten contents have been measured for a number of rubber shields with dimensions of 1
The printed antenna is one of the best antenna structures, due to its low cost and compact design. In this paper, we present a new approach to improve the radiation effectiveness and the performance of antennas by miniaturization of the size. Indeed, we have studied the performance of ultra wideband antenna which consists of a ring-shaped patch. This study was made for the whole frequency band of UWB ranging from 2.5GHz to 9.4GHz and the geometry of the antenna and the results were obtained using the simulation software CST Studio microwaves. The detailed design and the results are shown and discussed in this paper.
The present study was conducted to investigate the effect of Na-alginate and hydroxyl propyl methyl cellulose (HPMC) polymer combination of Aceclofenac floating pellets. The Aceclofenac pellets were prepared with two different grades of HPMC polymers in the ratio of 2:1, 1:2 and 1.5:1.5 respectively while the amounts of Na-alginate used in the formulations was 3.50, 5.25 and 7.0g. Prepared pellets were evaluated by Particle size and Morphology, Contraction ratio, Moisture content, Friability Test, Swelling study, Buoyancy time and floating time of the pellets were examined on the basis of polymer concentration. The contraction ratio of the particle was highest when pellets were prepared with 1.5% Na- alginate solution and the polymer ratio was 1:2 (BX, BY, BZ). In case of Buoyancy of Pellets, When Alginate concentration was 1% and HPMC K4M & HPMC K100LV ratio was 2:1 then, the Aceclofenac pellets were not floated for long time. When the concentration of Na-Alginate increased to 1.5%, 2%, then all pellets were floated. In case of swelling study, CY, BZ, CZ showed highest swelling of approximately 8% when Na-alginate concentration was (1.5 % , 2%, 2 %) and BY and CY batches showed lowest swelling of 2.9% at 4hrs when Na-alginate concentration was 1.5 %. Friability values for each formulation were recorded in table the values of the preferred formulas are within acceptable limit. Thus, the selection and use of suitable polymers in appropriate ratio is very important in designing floating pellets of Aceclofenac.
In this research article we have proposed a new analog MPPT regulator with the high efficiency DC-DC converter for the photo voltaic and high efficient z- source converter for the variable speed wind energy systems. The both renewable energy output power is connected in parallel with the diesel generator and whole system provide the efficient hybrid energy systems to given the electrical power to the external grid. The MPPT regulator provides the control signal for the DC-DC converter and tracks the maximum power from the solar panel. In which here a logic truth table based perturbation and observation (P & O) algorithm used for the maximum power point tracking (MPPT) and hybrid bridge resonant DC-DC converter is giving the constant output voltage equal to the DC bus voltage by changing the proper modes. The parallel configuration is selected for the energy transformation from the solar panel, wind power and diesel systems to the load. The design includes a bidirectional inverter along with a dc-dc converter capable of interfacing a battery bank with the AC bus. The goals of the project included the implementation of two modes of operation: a battery discharge mode where current is being fed into the AC bus and a battery charging mode in which current is pulled from the grid and put into the batteries. A secondary goal of the design was to ensure that the current being injected into AC bus was at or near unity power factor by utilizing a hysteresis current control method.
Mongolia has been facing an onslaught of rural migration to the urban areas with negative consequences. Traditionally the country's economy was based on a survival livestock herding. Nowadays, the country's economic prospects are bright due to rich and abundant mineral deposits. Some researchers believe Mongolia will be the next Dubai. However, the general panorama of the country is not completely brilliant. In Mongolia's growing cities migrants have erected rural nomadic felt tents, known as a ger. The traditional ger are sustainable structures very well adapted for a nomadic society but, when they are located in high-density, unplanned, informal settlements they create many issues. These informal urban areas lack sanitation, adequate vehicular access and other basic services. The traditional use of wood and coal for heating contributes to heavy air pollution, especially in winter. This paper presents some of the findings of more than 100 householder surveys, held in the summer of 2011, related to housing conditions in four informal Ger districts of Ulaanbaatar. This paper describes some aspects of ger households, discusses how quickly the Ger districts are growing and explains their relation to the increasing problems of the city. Finally it concludes how Mongolia needs to develop and grow according with sustainable parameters or its pristine nature and cultural values such as the vernacular architecture will be lost.