Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of respiratory symptoms as motive for emergency room visits by pediatric patients, describing the major clinical syndromes. Methods: Study population is composed of children aged 1 month - 16 years who presented at our emergency room with respiratory symptoms, over a 5-year period (from September 2008 to December 2013). Results: The first year of life age group was most affected by respiratory problems. During the first 4 months of life, male patients represented the larger number of pediatric emergency room visits for respiratory problems. Bronchospasm emerged as the most frequent (36%) respiratory problem. Conclusions: We describe the epidemiological profile of pediatric patients presenting at an emergency room with respiratory symptoms, finding a high prevalence of access to pediatric emergency room for upper and lower respiratory infections.
The study was designed to estimate output supply and inputs demand elasticities of rice crop in Gujranwala, Punjab, Pakistan. Data was collected from 100 respondents using proportional allocation sampling technique. The study utilized normalized restricted translog profit function approach for data analysis. Results indicated that the farmers were price responsive. Rice own price elasticity was 1.873. The output supply elasticity of rice with respect to education, land, fertilizer price and irrigation cost were 0.169, 1.274, -0.873 and -0.953 respectively. Irrigation demand elasticity with respect to education, land, fertilizer price, irrigation cost and output price were 0.144, 1.142, -0.783, -1.842 and 1.780 respectively. Fertilizer demand elasticity with respect to education, land, fertilizer price, irrigation cost and output price were 0.023, 0.792, -1.650, -0.851 and 1.851 respectively. Lastly the elasticity of profit with respect to education, land, fertilizer price, irrigation cost and output price were 0.200, 1.101, -0.832, -1.136 and 1.920 respectively. It is recommended that government should provide consistent electricity with stable rates, so that, they irrigate their fields through electric tube wells and ultimately their cost of irrigation decreases. The study also suggests that government should stabilized fertilizer prices to encourage its application. Furthermore government should raise procurement price of rice to encourage its supply this in turn will also increase profit of the farmers.
Sensitivity tests were performed according to the World Health Organization protocol (WHO) for three essential oils (Citrus aurantium (bitter orange) Citrus sinensis (orange) and Pistacia lentiscus) and four chemical insecticides (Malathion Temephos Fenthion and Fenitrothion) used as a positive controls. Essential oils have shown an interesting larvicidal activity against Culex pipiens, with an interesting lethal doses (LD50= 35 ppm and LD90=70 ppm) in the case of Citrus aurantium essential oils and (LD50= 64 ppm and LD90 = 120 ppm) using Citrus sinensis while the LD50 and LD90 were, respectively, in the case of Pistacia lentiscus 62ppm and 160ppm. Chemical insecticides, used as a positive control, showed a significant larvicidal activity. The larvicidal activity of essential oils could have a great interest in the domain of vector control. This is because of problems caused by the use of chemical insecticides (environmental pollution, resistance, hazards to human health).
Objective: study was conducted to determine the prevalence and incidence of Giardia lamblia parasite between human and cows in Basrah province with comparitives. Design: During research collected 1344 stool samples from human and 1049 stool samples from cows from September 2012 to May 2013. All samples collected in sterilized cups, then examined under microscope by conventional microscopic methods and concentration methods. Results: In human, 405 cases were infected 30.1% and 322 positive cases have been recorded in cattle 30.6%. The study was shown that all age groups are susceptible to the disease. Also in this study recorded different ratios of giardiasis during months of year. Conclusion: The study recorded high prevalence of giardiasis in Basrah province. Giardiasis was widely distributed throughout the months of study. Many factors could affect prevalence of giardiasis in human as socio-economic status, overcrowding, level of education, sanitation, contact with animals and types of water source.
In this paper we consider learning and forgetting effect of workers for flexible flowshop scheduling problem with sequence dependent setup times. The objective is to minimize the weighted sum of maximum completion time and maximum tardiness. The learning effect occurs when operator's (workers) skill increases after repeating similar job causing the decrease of processing time. On the other hand, forgetting effect occurs when an operator relearns the process after an interruption for a batch setup, machine maintenance or operator condition recovery, causing the increase of processing time.
The objective of this study is to identify the constitutional, obstetrical, nutritional, pathological and socio-economic factors associated with the birth of newborns small weight at the maternity hospital Sharif Idrissi in the region of Gharb chrarda Bni Hssen. retrospective study was based on the recording of the data collected from the records established systematically after each delivery over a period of 01/04/2011 to 30/09/2011. risk factors that were found significantly associated with hypotrophy: the age below 21 years (43% vs 12%), less than the 155 cm size (21% vs 10.5%), antenatal care (18% vs 8%), hypertension (30% vs 10%), malnutrition (30% vs 11%), anemia (27% vs 11%), from the rural (33% vs 11.5 %), birth interval less than 18 months and the birth interval greater than 60 months (13%, 38% vs 5%), the term imprecise (42% vs 9% is attained). Finally the below 21 years age were mostly primiparous women. Against by the higher age than or equal to 35 were multiparous, compared to the reference class (age between 21 and 34 years). The risk factors identified in this study should be sustained in the prevention of delayed intrauterine growth control. Overall, the improvement of living conditions and proper monitoring of pregnancy coupled with better health and nutrition education is the guarantee of a regression of this situation to the Gharb region.
In this work, we eliminated models colored solutions (indigo and red cibacrone). For this we used respectively the adsorption method using A500 anionic resin as an adsorbent and by the ultrafiltration process using a synthetic semipermeable membrane made of polysulfone and titanium dioxide as filler. From the results obtained, we observed that the values of the rate of decolorization by adsorption treated colored solutions were registered in 92% and 80% respectively for red cibacrone couples / anion resin A500 and indigo / anionic resin A500 a part. And in the case of ultrafiltration the results were recorded by 90% and 74.42% respectively of patterns of red colored solutions and indigo cibacrone other.
The purpose of this work is to synthesize a new nano-functional epoxy resin in two steps. The phosphorylation of urea was done in the first step. However, during the second one, which has led us to change a new nano-functional resin after it's changing, the Microscopic structural characterization was obtained not only by using spectroscopy Fourier Transform Infra-Red (FTIR), but also by Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR). Indeed, the characterization of the synthesized product gotten confirmed the final chemical structure of the macromolecular. Finally, the viscosimetric characterization was performed by using the Ubbelohde capillary viscometer.
The objective was to study the episiotomy and perineal tears in the service of Gynecology Obstetrics Health Centre Cherif Idrissi Kenitra the Gharb region. Analytical study on a sample of 327 women delivered. In this section, we have used standard statistical methods such as: chi-square test, calculating the coefficients of bond and to determine the factors that influence directly or indirectly on the practices of episiotomy, we adopted the analysis of logistic regression. This study has evaluated the rates and risks associated with the use of episiotomy and perineal tears. Respectively, an episiotomy 41.28% and a rate of perineal tears of 3.6%. In univariate analysis, four risk factors were associated with the occurrence of perineal tears; primiparity (8.1% vs 1.9%), the presentation of posterior release (21.4% vs 2.6%), episiotomy (5.9% vs 1.6%) and macrosomia (9 5 vs 2.5). Against by five factors were found as risk factors associated with the use of episiotomy, primiparity (60.5% vs 2%
The objective of this study was to investigate the sex-dependent kidney morphology of male and female guinea pigs using light microscope and different immunohistochemistry techniques. Hamatoxyline and Eosin (H&E) and Periodic Acid Schiff (PAS) staining techniques were performed for the general histological observations. Immunohistrochemistry was performed to detect renin positive site, expression of Cyclo-oxygenase -2 (COX-2) and Nitric Oxide Syntheses (nNOS), Number of renin, COX-2, and nNOS positive sites were counted and tabulated. Both Light microscopic examination and immuno-histochemical study reveals distinct differences between the male and female kidneys. Parietal layer of Bowman's capsule was consisted of a single layer of simple squamus epithelium in female, but in male, it was composed of a single layer of simple cuboidal epithelium. PAS-positive brush border and vacuoles of different shapes and sizes were appeared in the proximal straight tubules (PST) and collecting ducts in female guinea pig. Whereas in male, vacuoles were not detected in the PST epithelium and collecting ducts. Strong staining intensity for PAS-positive brush border in the PST and collecting ducts was observed in the outer medulla of female guinea pig kidney, but the reaction was observed poor in male. Neural Nitric Oxide Synthase (nNOS)-positive reaction was observed in PST epithelium and collecting ducts in female kidney, but male kidney revealed nNOS-negative reaction for PST and collecting ducts. Renin, COX-2 and nNOS-positive sites were detected in the juxtaglomerular cells (JGCs) cells and macula densa cells of both male and female kidneys. When counted, total numbers of glomeruli, renin, COX-2, and nNOS positive-sites were higher in female, when compared to that of the male. However, number of glomeruli, areas of renin, COX-2 and nNOS-positive sites reveals no significant differences between male and female species (P<0.05).
The aim of this study is to examine sources of gender disparity and the factors that contribute to this gap in labor force participation in Cameroon. From the theories associated to labor market discrimination and making hypothesis regarding labor force participation, our methodology uses models developed from theses hypothesis Based on economic theories explaining gender gaps and using the data from the third Cameroon household consumption survey, econometric methods have been used to decompose the various gaps. We find the following results: 1) the participation rate is a function of age, job training, education and locality of residence; 2) gender discrimination is one explanation of the unexplained gender gap in labor force participation; 3) the total gap between male and female workers, accounted for by the mean probability of labor force participation is 4,09% ; the decomposition shows that this gender gap explained by individual characteristics is 36.56% while Discrimination part is 63.44% of the total gap. The factors that contribute significantly to this difference are: age, years of education, job training, marital status and place of residence.
Population pressure and land scarcity hindered the development and food security in Bangladesh. To feed the enormous population, farmers increased crop production using chemical fertilizers, pesticides, herbicides which created environmental pollution and health hazards. Therefore, an experiment was carried out as organic farming to investigate the growth performances of Taro plant (Colocasia esculenta) in aquaponics system (T1), hydroponics with tap water (T2) and in soil (T3). The healthy and equal sized Taro seedlings were used in each method and tilapia was used as experimental fish. Water quality parameters were recorded weekly, fish and vegetable growth was monitored fortnightly and soil quality was measured monthly. Two sample t-test was conducted for morphological parameters and coefficient of variation (CV) was measured for biochemical elements to find out the best performed method. The growth of Taro plant was significantly different in various systems. The highest growth was found in T1 followed by T3 and T2. The mineral contents in the soil were significantly higher than the other systems. Taro plant growth was significantly higher in T1 as waste water continuously supplied nutrients to the plants, hence, the system can be replicated anywhere in the country irrespective of geographic location and weather to overcome the environmental pollution.
This study was carried out in September 2010 to analyze & access the efficiency, effectiveness, affordability and sustainability of community based integrated water supply, sanitation & hygiene development in very deprived & poor semi-urban community of Lahore Pakistan. There were 6 hamlets under jurisdiction of these services in which 4 hamlets selected as a targeted population. Structured interview technique was used for data collection and 100 households were conducted interviewed about existing situation & services of the project and probability simple random sampling technique was used for interviewing the local community. Focus Group Discussion & personal observation approach was also practiced for collection more concise data about interventions in local area while total 20 Focus Group Discussion session conducted and 5 in each hamlet with equal women participation. WASH services developed on the philosophy of component sharing model which have two major component Named External & Internal. External component of the project was designed and funded by the Government of Punjab whereas internal component was completed by the community on self-help base. Women were engaged in this project and they influence on their family members to take part in the project by financial and men power. A local water & sanitation community organization (WASCO) was organized and after the project development all the infrastructure was handed over to the WASCO that was running the project successfully.
This study majorly focuses on review of policies & standards developed by Islamic Republic of Pakistan for provision of safe drinking water, adequate sanitation and hygiene to its citizens. This study was carried out to extract key knowledge & information about institutional framework their liabilities and key challenges which restrict field of WASH development in country. Policies and principals subsisted and had reviewed to judge about governmental activities for WASH development and its implementation. Resource constraints, political instability, literacy, rapid population growth, rural-urban migration and urbanization are key challenges for WATSAN development. It is suggested to refine policies, take severely action in its implementation, public awareness and use of media for socialization of local communities about WASH importance should be adopted.
A study was conducted in Northern part of Atlantic Sahara coast (SW of Morocco) with the aim of assessing change of suspended sediment concentration (SSC) with time in sea surface from Landsat data with 30 m spatial resolution in order to understand the sand encroachment in the continental area. We must be report that is the first study of SSC monitoring in Southwest of Morocco using earth observation satellite (EOS). The methodology adopted in this research is simple and based on using band ratio (Green/Blue) for two images Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) from the years 1987 and 2005. A step of classification was necessary, so unsupervised classification using K-means algorithm was applied on both band results from band ratio. After that, the statistical data result from classification was compared to determine the SSC and sand change with time. The results show that the sand increase in continental surface was in relationship with SSC decrease in coastal area. The SSC variation in surface sea indicates that sand input be decreased in next year's.
Due to the increase in the demand of raw materials in the construction industry, there has been a serious depletion in the naturally available raw material in construction industry. In this regards, the non-biodegradable environmentally hazardous Electronic and Electrical waste arising from various Industrial and Domestic appliances was considered as an alternative raw material for the present research. The current study not only offers a solution to the ongoing crisis in effective safe disposal of E-Wastes, but also resolves the issue of dearth of raw materials. The present study targeted effective utilization of E-Waste Ceramic as a potential aggregate in SDBC Grade-2 Mix. The research subsequently investigated the probable changes in physical and strength properties of the mixes casted using Marshall Method of Mix Design, and conclusions were later drawn depending on the comparative result analysis for the best percentage replacement of aggregates by E-Waste ceramic as proposed for a roadway of width 3.75m for soil CBR of 4%. The study herewith hence postulated the best possible percentage replacement by weight of total mix and also conducted an approximate construction cost comparison.
The development of communication channels is an indispensable tool for any policy planning and development of a country. The highway linking Tlemcen El Taraf a distance (1216 km), serving the main centers and focuses almost (70%) of the total population, affecting (24) wilayas. This report concerns the impact on the environment for the motorway section Bouira is part of Lot Centre. The aim of our study was to evaluate the impact of the introduction of this book on the various components of the environment. The initial problem of this work focuses on the environmental impact that reflection on the physical and natural environment, and see it still levels across the region can benefit?
Cameroon's painting is characterized by a multitude of genres with common and diverse features. By choosing to take a look at this whole creation of the visual arts on the Cameroonian painting, which has a large and varied corpus of works art abounding sometimes disturbing, this study is a contribution bearing light on genre issues, themes that eagerly arises in the iconography of the visual arts in Africa. It aims to study the significance of the images created, identification and classification of the themes developed and processed in modern painting in Cameroon. When analyzed with interest, it follows that artist primarily painters, decorators and image creators have continued to assert itself in recent decades in plurals genre. This study presents attractive works of art provided with intrinsic values through which visual artists have not only cared to answer questions of composition, color or shape, but also the commitment to give their creations significant functions. The heritage of the art of painting in Cameroon includes masterpiece that are of aesthetic importance. The pictorial illustration is plentiful and treats various subjects showing a continuation of the ancient past as it was passed down to the present time through memories of everyday life, beliefs and mythology of contemporary life.
Granulosa cell tumors of the ovary are rare, and included in the sex cord-stromal tumor category. They have a low malignancy potential and generally have a good prognosis. They are the most frequent hormone-secreting tumors of the ovary and may lead to suggestive clinical symptoms. Some biological markers (serum inhibin B and AMH) may be helpful for diagnosis, though their sensitivity is not perfect. Preoperative imaging diagnosis remains challenging due to the wide variability in morphology and lack of epidemiological data in the literature (small patient populations). From a review of the clinical of one case of granulosa cell tumor of the adult and a review of the literature, we will describe its clinical, paraclinical, therapeutic and prognostic.
This study was carried out to assess the types, sources, seasonality and marketing practices of feed, and the feeding practices of dairy cattle. Irrespective of locational and seasonal variation, basal diets like commonly natural pastures (grasses, legumes, herbs, shrubs and trees foliage) and recently crop residues (straws of teff, wheat, maize and sorghum, haulms of haricot beans) were available in lowland. Straws of barely, vines of sweet potato, and by-products of banana and Enset were exclusive to mid-highland along with above mentioned. Industrial by-products apt for enhancing dairy cattle productivity were commonly purchased during prolonged dry season and drought outbreak of both agro-ecologies. Standing hay (Kallo) and collected pods of acacia trees in lowland, and piled hay and crop residue in mid-highland area were means of feed conservation. During the dry season, adult cattle of lowland and mid-highland area were, respectively, walking an average of 7.75 km and 4.5 km in search of drinking water. Calves, lactating cows and bulls were the first, second and third locally prioritized categories of dairy cattle for supplementation. It will be paramount to quantitatively estimate the annual production potential, and wisely utilize the prevailing feed resources and design the strategy to avail water for boosting the dairy cattle productivity. Irrespective of apparently high purchase prices, empirical investigation of its relative benefits and effectiveness of supplementing dairy cattle with industrial by-products in the Borana zone was revealed to be crucial.
Outlier mining is concerned with the data objects that do not comply with the general behavior or model of the data, such data Objects, which are either different from or inconsistent with the remaining set of data. Studying the extra ordinary behavior of outliers helps uncovering the knowledge hidden behind them and providing an approach to the decision makers to make profit or improve the service quality. Hence, mining for outliers is an important data mining research with numerous applications, including credit card fraud detection, criminal activities in E-commerce, unusual usages of telecommunication services, Weather Forecasting etc. Moreover, it is useful in digital and customized marketing for identifying the spending behavior of customers with extremely low or extremely high incomes, or in medical diagnose for finding unusual results to various medical treatments. Some data mining techniques discard outliers as noise or exceptions. While in some applications, these exceptions are considered more interesting than regularly occurring ones like in terrorism attack. Challenges in outlier detection include finding appropriate data models, the dependence of outlier detection systems on the application involved, finding techniques to distinguish outliers from error or exception, and providing justification for identification outliers. Outliers can be detected through N-gram technique but this technique is using a large storage space to store metadata and data dictionary. There are a number of compression models e.g. Content tree weighting method, LZ77, LZ78, LZW that are used in compressing text & image. Burrows
Introduction: Methanol is a commonly used organic solvent that, because of its toxicity, can cause metabolic acidosis, neurologic sequelae, and even death, when ingested. It is a constituent of many commercially available industrial solvents and of poorly adulterated alcoholic beverages. The management of acute human methanol intoxication needs methanol dosage. The aim of our study is to validate a method in the order to determinate the amount of blood methanol, using gas chromatography with flame ionization detection (FID), after a Headspace sampling. Methods: We used butanol as an internal standard. The validation procedure was performed according to the guidelines of the French Society of Analytical Toxicology and the French Committee of Accreditation (COFRAC; LABGTA04). Results: Our method is specific and linear at the range amount from 0g/L to 1 g/L. the coefficient of correlation was 0.99868. The intra- and inter-day precision and relative bias were less than 15 %. The limit of detection was 0.060 g/L. In the same conditions, limit of quantification was 0.09 g/L. The storage's and transport's samples were at +4
This document performs profile analysis of income inequalities in Cameroon, between 1996 and 2001.It concerns origin determination and the components of inequalities in Cameroon. The study is structured around the new subgroup decomposition of the Hirschman-Herfindahl index. The economic and empirical pertinence of this indicator holds on its tridecomposition into three components: the within group's, the between group's net and the between group's transvariation. Inequalities are evaluated by grouping and lead to differents interpretations. The selected data for analysis are from the two Cameroonian Surveys to Households ECAM I and ECAM II. The dependent variable (total expenses per head), the independent variables (sex, place of residence and standard of living) and also the method (simulator H-H) have a particular interest in our work. The analyses results indicate that households present a very strong inequality of expenses on considered period. Heterogeneity is very important between groups while, homogeneity is quite considerable within the different groups. The contribution of the transvariation (or overlapping) to the total inequality revealed itself to be incontestable and varies depending on the dependent variable studied. Households directed by women are more victims of disparities. The Inequality is a characteristic of a semi-urban zone, and it is principally a phenomenon relative to poor households. This reflection calls for measures to fight, which must be focus on between groups inequality and on the subgroups of population the most underprivileged.
The definition of a process of conditioning by cementation of solid radioactive waste has required many works intended research optimize the composition of matrices and improved their resistance. In this work, we introduced the polymer (epoxy Novolac resin) and / or epoxy Novolac composite material in a nuclear application to assess its impact. Following a research study on the management of ion exchange resins, radioactive waste generated by the Triga Mark II reactor CNESTEN, this study is an add-in to improve the compressive strength of the matrix conditioning the ion exchange resin by the introduction of the epoxy Novolac polymer and to evaluate its impact on the die packaging.
In this paper, the electronic and the structural (lattice constant) properties of CaH2, in orthorhombic phase, with Pnma space groups, are calculated using density functional theory. The Kohn-Sham equations were solved using the full-potential linearized augmented plane wave (FP-LAPW) method. Generalized Gradient Approximation (GGA) and GGA+U approximation were used as exchange-correlation potential with the suitable choice of Ueff = U
Grilled meat is consumed in Benin, exposing many consumers at the risk of poisoning. Dioxin found in grilled meats sold in Cotonou are up to 20 times higher than those recommended by the World Health Organization (1pg I-TEQ/g). The risk of dioxin contamination in meat is higher in the center of Cotonou. Doses are linked to environmental factors, the neighborhoods activities, and exposure to volatile organic pollutants. The results of this study encourage an analysis of chemical and microbiological hazards in order to ensure food security.
Bromatological toxicities frequencies and probabilities of toxicological levels for ochratoxin A in flour (wheat, corn) and Drinks With Alcohol, especially samples of wine brands (Baron de Valls, Don Simon Sangria, Le Pichet, Bonita, JP. Chenet) reveal a large public health risk for consumers in Cotonou and Porto-Novo. According to European Commission's Regulation 1881/2006, meal should not exceed 3 ng/mL or3.?10?^(-6)g/l or?3.10?^(-3) mg/l or 3.?10?^(-3) ppm. Unfortunately, corn flour has the highest average content of ochratoxin A which is 4.716 ng/mL with a probability of 0.5%. Wheat flour, has the low average of 1.6287 ng / mL with a probability of 0.5 % . In the same regulation, wines must not exceed 2ng/mL of ochratoxin A. It follows that the average content of ochratoxin A in descending order can be found in " Le Pichet " (1.635 ng / mL with a probability of 26%) ; « Sangria » (1.1359 ng/mL with a probability of 1 %) ; Bonita (0.4059 ng/mL with a probability of 0.5 %). « Baron de Valls "and "JP Chenet" not hold ochratoxin A. Corn flour, wheat, and wines such as Sangria, Bonita, especially Pichet are unfit for human health and regulars measuresmust be taken to ensure people safety.
The Triassic aquifer is an important hydrogeological entity in the Southeast of Tunisia, for satisfying drinking water and irrigation. For efficient and rational management of water resources and monitoring the chemical water quality of the Triassic aquifer, a geographic information system has been developed on ArcGis to elaborate a spatial, complete and well-structured database. This allows updating of the information and development of thematic maps, such as those relative to geology, hydrology and piezometric map of the study area. An attempt was made to study the chemical quality of the water table of the Triassic sandstones through the calculation of the index of water quality which has shown that 64% of the water of this sheet is good while 36% is poor.
In this work, we carried out theoretical calculations to determine the structure of the hydrogen phosphate anion (HPO42-) in the free state and its structure and position when intercalated between layers of the zinc and aluminum layered double hydroxide [Zn-Al-HPO4]. We hypothesized that the anion might be intercalated either by forming strong bonds with zinc, or by means of hydrogen bonds with water molecules, and we performed a number of different calculations to determine which of the two hypotheses was correct. We used the DFT B3LYP/6-311G ab initio quantum method to calculate interatomic and interlayer distances, vibration frequencies and enthalpy of formation of the hydrogen phosphate anion in the free state and in the various models proposed, as well as the force constant of the Zn-O bond in the different chemical structures. Results obtained by DFT B3LYP/6-311G were compared to those obtained by experiment and by using the semi-empirical methods AM1 and PM3, and it was shown that results obtained by DFT B3LYP/6-311G correspond more closely to experimental results than those obtained by the two semi-empirical methods. Finally, we established that the hydrogen phosphate anion HPO42- is intercalated between the two layers of the layered double hydroxide [Zn-Al-HPO4] by means of hydrogen bonds with water molecules, while the phosphate anion PO43- is bound to zinc atoms.
Identify parameters from maternal restrictions intrauterine growth and fetal macrosomia. Also from the birth weight and fundal height risk cesarean section. We have highlighted the limitations of growth and fetal macrosomia in mothers from its ranks obesity according to body mass index (BMI) and uterine size and the effect of BMI blood pressure and edema in the uterine height. Small birth weight and macrosomia are then at risk both from either the health of the child or her mother in case of big weight. While clinical identification of these two anomalies early growth should guide the pregnant woman to a specific treatment for the future delivery is not complicated or child, or for his mother.
Micronutrients deficiencies are of great concern in the far north Region of Cameroon and can be fought through the promotion of local food resources. Among them are Moringa oleifera leaves which are rich in proteins of good quality, vitamin A, vitamin C, iron and zinc. Our study aims to determine the nutrient composition of local traditional sauces involving Moringa leaves. This was done through the identification of the various recipes, their implementation and the processing of samples prior to biochemical analyses. The contents in moisture, ash, proteins, lipids were determined by standard AOAC methods. Iron and zinc contents were determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry and vitamin C, phenols and phytate by spectrophotometric methods. The results show pH levels ranging from 7.25 to 8.63, lipid contents varying from 39.00 to 58.30 g/100g DM and proteins content varying from 13.25 to 29.48 g/100g DM. Iron and zinc levels were also important, ranging respectively from 5.86 to 25.47 mg/100g of DM and 0.37 to 3.30 mg/100g of DM. The vitamin C has not been detected in the sauces and the levels of total phenols and phytates were very low (less than 1g/100g of DM). Although the traditional Moringa sauces studied are good sources of nutrients like proteins, iron and zinc, their high pH levels and cooking method that destroy all the vitamin C might compromise the bioavailability of these minerals.
This study analyzes the different levels of risk linked to the choice of management of agricultural calendar for maize production in southern Benin. For this purpose a series of simulations of potential yields of the variety DMR-ESR-W of maize was carried out with the model SARRA-H V3.2 by shifting of an decade (10 days), from February to November, the automatic search of the sowing date between 1971 and 2010. Thus, it has been possible to show the seasonal dynamics of the percentage of successful sowing, of potential yield and of grain desiccation date depending on the sowing date. It appears that the maximums of percentage of successful sowing and of potential yield are obtained when it sow at the start of the rainy season. However, considering biotic constraints on the choice of the sowing date, it appears that the sowing date becomes: the first half of May for the long rainy season and the first half of September for the short rainy season. However, between the dates of onset of rains (early April) and sowing date (early May) for the long rainy season, there is a lag of about one month, which raises the question of the relevance of adopting varieties maize 90 days for long rainy season as an Adaptation.
Background: Florfenicol (Ff) is a synthetic antibiotic with a broad antibacterial spectrum and high therapeutic effectiveness that was specifically developed for veterinary use as well as, doxcycline is an antibiotic synthetically derived from oxytetracycline. Methods: In the present study, the in-vitro efficacy of Ff and doxcycline against Salmonella entertidis and Escherichia coli (Serotype O78) pathogens was determined using disc diffusion technique and Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs). In the other hand serum and tissue residual levels of Ff and doxcycline after intramuscular (i.m.) administration of 30 mg/kg and 250 mg/kg orally respectively to 5 weeks old chicken were determined using microbiological assay method with Bacillus subtilis ATCC 6633 as a reference organism. Results: The results showed that both microorganisms were highly susceptible to Ff with lower MIC value than those of doxcycline. The peak concentration of florfenicol in serum was 5.34
TPPA stands for Trans Pacific Partnership Agreement (TPPA) and is also known as the Trans-Pacific Strategic Economic Partnership Agreement. It is a multilateral free trade agreement currently being negotiated by 12 countries, led by the United State (US). Malaysia is one of the parties negotiating in the TPPA. It aims to further liberalize the economies of the Asia-Pacific region, covering a broad spectrum of areas and has 29 chapter's altogether and some areas affect our public health, environment and courts system. The TPPA have their own advantages and disadvantages and this paper is to discuss the advantages and challenges of TPPA in general that Malaysia will be faced if Malaysia signed the TPPA and the likely impact of TPPA on health in Malaysia. The analysis result by UNDP showed if Malaysia does not join the TPPA, Malaysia would be at a disadvantage in terms of seeking bigger and better market access for Malaysian products and services. Analysis on the TPPA document showed if Malaysia signs the TPPA, it will have an impact on the cost of medicines and health matters. In conclusion, the government has to be very careful in dealing with TPP agreement to ensure the advantages in favor of Malaysia. Every action needs to be refined and addressed with care otherwise Malaysia has to bear all the cost in health sectors.
Geopolymers can be considered as inorganic polymers presenting good physicochemical properties. The principal advantage of these materials is their elaboration without a lot of energy spending compared to conventional materials. The choice of raw materials and the control of preparation conditions, represent important parameters controlling the rheological properties in the fresh state and physicochemical properties of consolidated geopolymers. Calcium carbonate powder is incorporated in a geopolymer formulation based on metakaolin. The rheological tests elaborated in different conditions allowed us to model their rheological behavior and follow the effect of carbonate introduction. Two models are observed, the Bingham model and the Herschel-Bulkley model. The introduction of calcium carbonates seems to have no effect on the evolution of the viscosity, while this latter has a remarkable sensitivity to the geopolymerization temperature.
Following the passage of Ghana Biosafety Act, 2011, (Act, 831) and the Plant Breeders' Protection Bills being currently under consideration stage in Parliament, there has been intense debate in many media platforms, on the safety and appropriateness of applying GMO technology in commercial agriculture. As such a lot of information is being chained out in the public domain with potential effect on farmers' prospective adoption decision. This paper presents findings of a study investigating factors predicting farmers' adoption intention from a survey of 305 members of Farmer Based Organizations in Northern Region of Ghana. A probit regression analysis was used in identifying factors which significantly predict farmers' adoption decision. The study found more than two
The rate of obesity has increased in Malaysia over the years and has become one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in the country. Nurses as role models have a professional responsibility to promote healthy lifestyle among the general population. This cross - sectional survey is aimed to determine the prevalence of obesity among female Registered Nurses in Malaysia, as well as to assess their medical and reproductive health statuses, eating patterns, exercise patterns, and stress reduction activities. Results revealed that most of the nurse-respondents were middle-aged, married, with more than 10 year experiences working as staff nurses in public hospitals. The BMI data shows that overweight and obesity is an actual and emerging issue among nurses. Out of the 1086 Registered Nurses, 50.6% were either pre-obese (33.5%) or obese (17.1%). Nurses and other stakeholders should address this problem promptly. There is indication of knowledge-behavior gap among the nurse-respondents' overall lifestyle patterns. Their knowledge in terms of proper dietary choices, rest, and stress reduction activities needs to be reinforced to promote healthier lifestyle. It is recommended that staff health especially the monitoring of weight be included as part of health promotional programs initiative of every organization together with a supportive environment. Attention must also be given to work-related conditions which has an impact on stress.
This Paper presents the Phase Disposition Scheme, which is topology independent. This scheme is used in Multilevel Inverters, interleaved parallel combination. Analysis on the other scheme which is Phase Opposition Disposition has also been performed. The best strategies related to the paralleling of inverters are evaluated, particularly those associated to current balancing between commutation cells of the same phase. Pulse width modulation (PWM) strategies and methods for multilevel converters are usually developed for series converters. In this paper it is shown that they may be applied to parallel converters using interleaving techniques, given that these converters also have multilevel characteristics. PWM methods based on carriers' disposition and on zero sequence injection are studied for parallel multilevel inverters. Analysis shows that the best method in terms of load current ripple is the phase disposition method. The current balancing between commutation cells of the same phase is comparatively superior with this method. Another objective on which work was done was to analyze these problems and to propose a solution to cancel current imbalance when using POD (Phase Opposition Disposition). The load was chosen to be a three phase induction motor drive and its parameters such as Stator Current, Speed and Electromagnetic Torque have been analysed as such.
The purpose of this paper is to examine the short and long run relationship between education variables and economic growth in per capita Real GDP in the case of Algeria's economy. Following a brief outline of the theoretical discussions on the nexus between economic growth and human capital formation through education, first we present some observations for the Algeria Country. The bounds testing approach to cointegration and error correction models, developed within an autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL) framework is applied to annual data for the period 1971 to 2011 in order to investigate whether a long-run equilibrium relationship exists between the major education categories and economic growth. The result of the bounds test indicates that there is a stable long-run relationship between primary school, university and economic growth. The estimated results show that primary school and university are positively related to the Economic Growth in the Long and short run. The paper concludes that the efforts to improve the quality of education in Algeria have significant contribution to the economic growth.
The percolation of the leachate from the waste from landfills is a source of pollution of the groundwater resources by infiltration, thus constituting a threat as important as the one linked to the enhancement of the water deficit. The measures carried out on the leachate from the landfill of Ouled Berjel (Kenitra) and having door on bacteriological analyzes, allow you to qualify the leachate as a source of contamination to potential anoxic and reducer. The results of the bacteriological characterization indicated a very poor microbiological quality of leachate. Indeed, higher 2,43.107 ufc / ml rate, leachate were recorded for total coliforms and faecal coliforms, considered tracers forefront of microbial pollution in landfills juice. What makes these highly toxic effluents and thus have a permanent danger to the health of the local population and the surrounding environment, and therefore require a specific treatment before being discharged into the receiving environment.
This study was conduct at the Centre de Recherche en Sciences Naturelles de Lwiro to evaluate the anthelmitic activity of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of Viscum congolensis and Galiniera coffeoides, two plants collected in Kahuzi-Biega National Park. The objective was to assess their activity against earthworms Alma emini. The aqueous extracts are efficacy than ethanolic extracts. Their concentrations varied between 2 and 0.2 mg/mL. These results were compared to positives control (Mebendazole, Albendazole and Decaris) and negative one (water). The detailed are necessary for the isolation, characterization and evaluation of the substances responsible of anthelmitic activity and the action mode of the substance identified.
This study investigated how an extended acceptance model will be used for monitoring sales transactions in a dairy farm. In achieving this, the researcher was guided by the set out objectives. First to investigate the hitches on the adoption of transaction system in a Dairy Farm, secondly to determine the tracking of sales through a Transaction Processing System and thirdly a Transaction Acceptance Sales Monitoring (TRASM) model was developed. The set out objectives were achieved through employing the questionnaire and observation methods under the methodology. The researcher used both open ended and close ended questionnaires to collect the views of the respondents. The researcher found out that costs incurred was the major challenge facing the adoption of TRASM and appropriate monitoring of sales would be done via milk appropriate milk production recording. In solving this, the researcher came up a Transaction Acceptance Sales Monitoring (TRASM) Model. In conclusion, the researcher was of the view that adopting the model would free the Dairy Farm from its effort by making their work easier. The researcher also gave room for further research on the same as research has no end, it is a continuous process.