Zinc sulfide ZnS have been synthesized in reserves cores micelles in PS synthesized by emulsion polymerization. The size and morphology of ZnS/PS particles have been characterized via XRD, TEM, IR, SEM and AFM measurement. The dielectric proprieties of ZnS/PS are synthesized membrane, obtaining a water-swelling percentage around 20% and filled with ZnS nanoparticules were studied as a function of particle coating. The complex permittivity was measured with a 7600 Meter dielectric spectroscopy analyzer at applied voltage of 1 V with frequency varying between 10Hz and up to 1 KHz at different temperatures measurements are performed in dry conditions.
The aim of this paper is to investigate and assess the role of geographical proximity on firm technological linkages. Our results suggest that the knowledge dissemination must be supplemented by otherfactor. The econometric analysis confirms the importance of the geographical proximity in the innovation process of french firms. Facors, such as, a larger mobility of skilled labor force, higher organization size and a greater absorptive capacity of innovative firms, may also play an important role in the this process. However, the inter-firms cooperation in french and their sectoral membership don't appear to be essential to increase their innovating capacity.
The globalization of the labor market has spawned new forms of mobility and expatriation such as individual expatriation. This communication is designed to expose the appropriate practices for better management of individual expatriates, in this case academics. A qualitative approach was undertaken with 10 "academics" expatriates in France from different nationalities. Their statements show that their host universities have no clear policies for the management of a foreign academic staff. The practices observed (injustice, discrimination, etc.) create counterproductive organizational behaviors and often lead to voluntary departures.
This study aimed at identifying the type of power relations in the inspector-teacher discursive discussion during an inspection visit. The data obtained from the critically analysis of a video-recorded speech of a discursive inspector-teacher discussion. The findings revealed that there were two types of power relations practiced by the inspector over his visited teacher, namely the power of authority and power of knowledge. These powers were usually accepted and rarely resisted by the teacher. Finally, the study recommended a training course for all inspectors of English to re-think of their inspecting job for helping teachers rather than terrifying them.
Polymer nanocomposites of polystyrene matrix containing 5 wt % of organoswy were prepared using the solution method with sonication 23 hours. CPBr is used to modify the SWY clay after suturing with surface with Na+. Polystyrene was synthesized through solution polymerization in the presence of potassium persulfate (KPS) as an initiator. The synthesized PS/oswy were characterized by XRD, FTIR, SEM methods. Frequency dependent complex dielectric function, loss tangent spectra of PS and PS/swy nanocomposites up to 5 wt %.The nanocomposite materials with low dielectric constant and loss tang compared to the pure polystyrene were obtained. The dielectric constant increase with the increase of temperatures.
The study of two Lower Carboniferous sections from the Oued Cherrat area (north-western Meseta, Morocco) revealed the existence of the conodonts in this area. Ten species and one subspecies from four genera (Lochriea, Gnathodus, Mestognathus and Pseudognathodus) have been determined, some of them reported from Morocco for the first time. Two conodont zonation have been recognized (Lochriea nodosa and Lochriea cruciformis) indicating for the first time the transition between the Upper Visean and the Lower Serpukhovian in this area.
Cadmium zinc telluride thin films were prepared by cathodic radio frequency sputtering from cadmium telluride and zinc telluride targets. The films deposited on glass substrates were annealed in vacuum at different temperatures (300
non-invasive fetal electrocardiogram (FECG) signal extraction from signals recorded at abdominal area of mother is a challenging problem for the biomedical and signal processing communities. In this paper, we improve the FECG extraction approaches which consist to find the relation-ships between the cardiac potentials generated at the heart level of mother and the potentials recorded on the abdominal area. We used an efficient signal processing method combining a hybrid learning algorithm based on the fuzzy adaptive resonance theory and the hybrid soft computing technique called Adaptive Neuro Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS) trained with modified Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) endowed with an initialization strategy to adjust the antecedent parameters of fuzzy rules. We implemented our algorithm and other algorithm on simulated signals, and we found that the proposed ANFIS with hybrid learning algorithm achieves superior performance in learning accuracy and allowed yielding best processing results to extract the FECG signal.
The aim of this paper is to performed the absolute calibration of a thermo-couple, by determining the electromotive force (FEM noted E) a thermoelectric couple for temperatures known T. These temperatures most time corresponding to state pure corps changes. This enables to trace the standard curve of the thermo-couple and construct models of the analytical function.
The objective of this paper of explaining in a simple way, the rotation of the earth from the relative trajectories of Foucault's pendulum on a rotating turntable, a pedagogical approach based on the history of science. University students with the opportunity to achieve and improve the understanding of the rotation helped plan cycle in which the pendulum oscillates in a rotating frame without external intervention, can only be explained because the earth insists on turning on itself, and for several billion years, en particular the existence of the effect of inertia forces. On the other hand a digital camera Sony 10 Megapixel Cybers hot shooting to take snapshots of the swinging pendulum has been used, is to transform the video taken by the camera in kinematic trajectory. This is possible using suitable software such as Latis-Pro, etc ... avemica. We opted Latis-Pro, more user-friendly, feature-rich processing and compatible with Excel, simulates the relative motion of the pendulum.
Four formulas of sanitaryware porcelain were studied. The influence of soda feldspar on the reduction of firing cycle is particularly highlighted. The samples were prepared and treated thermally at various temperatures and holding times and then characterized in terms of water absorption, total shrinkage and flexural strength. The results affirm that it is possible to reduce the firing temperature thirty degree Celsius (30
This study was conducted to estimate the water requirement of the plant Lippia multiflora MOLDENKE. (Verbenaceae), also known as the bush tea or Gambia tea. Seeds initially germinated, are transplanted into pots of 14.5 cm high and 8.5 cm in diameter, completed soil indoors. The treatment consists of 5 parts water, I1, I2, I3, I4 and I5, respectively, for 15, 30, 50, 70 and 100 per cent of the usable reservation made by spraying the plants, for 3 months. Weighing pots with plants were made before and after watering, to calculate actual evapotranspiration (ETa). The results show that actual evapotranspiration of Lippia multiflora, nursery ranges from 0.5 mm.d-1 to 2 mm.d-1. Plants with the irrigation dose, received I1, have a low ETR for the 3 months, followed by I2. Irrigation doses I3, I4 and I5 indicate ETR ranging from 1 mm to 2 mm per day. The crop coefficient in nursery phase is 0.32 for the month of May and 0.23 in July. Regarding the vegetative growth, the results obtained show that, it is the I3 or I4 irrigation doses which allow a homogeneous development of the plants. These doses are thus, considered the maximum evapotranspiration of Lippia multiflora. And Culture of Lippia multiflora, it is necessary to go through the nursery phase by providing 50 or 70 per cent usable reserves of soil for optimal growth.
Groundwater plays an important role in feeding springs and streams, supporting wetlands and land surface stability. In Finland, most water is held in the soil than the surface systems. Hence, Finland's water resources depend on groundwater and biogeochemical processes. The study of groundwater in peatland is important for maintaining ecological balance and conservation of water resources. The groundwater level is one of the key indicators of aquifer conditions and groundwater basins. It helps to interpret hydrogeology, groundwater flow, groundwater sustainability and land usability. The study tries to analyze ground water recharge on peatland catchments using hydrograph recession analysis. The equation for the hydrograph recession curve can be utilized to predict groundwater recharge during each recession period. The steps involved during recession curve analysis includes selection of analytical expression, derivation of recession characteristic and optimization of the parameters. While computing groundwater recharge with recession curve, the high variability of each recession segments creates major problem. Each segment shows the outflow process which creates short-term or seasonal influence. The variation in rate of recession which causes problems for derivation of recession characteristics. The computer software such as hydro-office, VBA macro excel and Matlab are used for recession analysis. The results obtained do not consider climatic influences. The results were then confirmed by using water balance model and statistical tests. The e-water toolkit is used for water balance model and statistical tests are performed using R-software. The rainfall-runoff data are used as input to the software used in each method. From the analysis, required output recession parameters are obtained for further calculation. These estimated recession parameters can be used to predict low flows (groundwater contribution to runoff) to understand catchment groundwater resources and as inputs for the rainfall-runoff model analysis. Hence, the objective of this study is to analyze groundwater recharge by studying the recession limb of the runoff hydrograph. The study work compares various recession analysis methods. It also tries to identify the better method by comparing groundwater recharge from different methods with groundwater recharge from unsaturated water balance model. Furthermore, the recession constants obtained from different methods are compared with the theoretical values. Statistical tests are used to identify the best method among recession analysis methods used in this study.
This paper measures the investor's sentiment in stock market. There are two indicators to measure investor sentiment either directly or indirectly, Closing price of stocks and traded volume as proxy variables (indirect method) were used for analyses. This study finds the connection between investor's sentiments, which depends upon the bullish and bearish market trends. After analysis, it is concluded that bullish and bearish trends in the stock market are appropriate measures for measuring the investor's sentiments as per results shown in this study.
The continuous growth of IP traffic in combination with other emerging high rate applications, such as high definition TV, video on demand, cloud computing and grid applications require more scalable and cost-effective networking infrastructure. To cope with this ever increasing bandwidth demand, we are moving towards more sophisticated communication systems, advanced modulation schemes, resources flexibility and more intelligent devices. While moving toward more agile networks flexible resources have clear edge on static resources in terms of reconfigure ability without manual intervention but this solution is not cost effective though. However high cost of flexible and intelligent resources has drawn attention toward hybrid environment where flexible resources join already existing infrastructure to meet bandwidth demands. This study is supported by simulative results derived from a sample optical network. The results give an insight of the spectrum resources utilization and efficiency benefits that can be obtained using hybrid transponder schemes in optical networks.
Motorbike collision affects the victim as well as other members of community and society around the victim, training of motorbike rider play vital role in this social event. Objective of the study was that to investigate and quantify the trainings among educated youth which responsible to reduce the road accidents of motorbikes. Methodology was consisted of the students of Bahauddin Zakariya University, Multan as universe with 500 sample size which was selected through convenient sampling and data was collected with the help of questionnaires. Greater proportion of respondents was without license of motorbike riding, greater proportion license holder got license without skill test, respondents had little awareness about road sigs, Personal Protective Equipments related motorbike riding and First Aid, 70.2% respondents had no book of traffic codes, 84.6 respondents had faced motorbike collision but greater part of respondents had no training of First Aid. Mostly respondent gave the opinion that motorbike collision effect on economic, education and family behavior, in spite of this 40.2% respondents said trainings for motorbike riders should no be compulsory and 45.6% gave opinion that there is no need to repeat the trainings and skill test. This research article suggest that traffic or road safety department should improve the law enforcement, licensing system, encourage monitor the riding schools with international standard and do campaigns about motorbike riding trainings for motivating to motorbike riders.
Oxidative stress is responsible for several diseases. This phenomenal has moved researchers into action in looking for new remedies «antioxidants». In this context, the study of the antioxidant activity of hydro-ethanolic extracts of eight (08) plants used in Algerian pharmacopoeia has been performed. These plants are from Laghouat region ((Atlas Sahara). The extracts from these eight plants were obtained by ultrasound assisted extraction. The quantitative estimation of flavonoids, flavanones and total phenols by the spectophotometric method showed that the eight extracts contain these compounds. The evaluation of antioxidant capacity by the method of free radical scavenging test showed that all of the extracts have a very good reductive activity, especially for Arbutus undo extract which presented a percentage of inhibition equal to 90% with an EC50 estimated to 0.006 mg/ml. On the other hand, the FRAP test revealed that the Zizyphus lotus extract has the best reducing power than those of the other extracts, but it remains relatively low compared to the ascorbic acid used as positive control.
In this work we have presented aims to study the calculation backwater curves for gradually varied flow with a free surface in open channels of non-prismatic profile with the use of mathematical methods, which allow drawing the line water to various sections, and specifying the general appearance of the different forms of the water surface. The proposal has many advantages and disadvantages, role being the knowledge of the construction works on the water level upstream the passage of a flood, to assess and reduce the risk of flooding. After the definition of modeling resolution, we need to apply the characteristics of non-prismatic channels. This project presents a study of mathematical calculation (Method Bakhmeteff) with different sections chosen because they are shorter and less complicated than other methods.
In the present study Scenedesmus quadricauda was grown in laboratory flasks and outdoor open raceway ponds using industrial flue gas as carbon source to achieve CO2 reduction from the flue gases along with biomass, lipid and FAME (biodiesel) yields. Three sets of experiments were carried out out of which two experiments were carried out in laboratory culture flasks using 6% flue gas-air mixture at a flow rate of 0.1vvm for a minute per every half an hour and per every one hour. The third experiment was planned in the outdoor open raceway ponds using 6% flue gas-air mixture at a flow rate of 0.1vvm for a minute per every one hour. The maximum algal biomass growth of 1.28 g/L, lipid yield of 0.20 g/L and fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) of 0.091 g/L were obtained in 6% flue gas concentrations aerated into culture flasks at 0.1vvm for every one hour. On the other hand the CO2 removal efficiency reached upto 75% along with SOx and NOx reductions upto 50%. Hence in the present study it was observed that the micro alga S. quadricauda utilized the flue gas-air mixture for CO2 reduction and in turn it produced biomass, lipids and FAME yields efficiently.
Contrary to the culturalist and the evolutionist point of view which says that the access to modernity implies the crushing of local knowledge in extensor, this article suggests to pay attention to the representations of the local communities for a better fight against the negative consequences of climate change. Hence, a fieldwork has been carried out on the peasants of the village called Louggol-Bam
The mix is proper to a mixture of heterogeneous elements or different character. Social diversity as the co or cohabitation in the same place people or groups socially, culturally or even of different nationalities. This leads us to consider the social mix as the co or cohabitation in the same place people or groups socially, culturally or even of different nationalities. The mix would be a cure for the ills of modern city, see generated by it. Taking the usual comments, whether from the press or urban studies and without prejudging their reality or can mention the contrast between rich areas and poor areas, difficult areas that go adrift, "ghettos" problems also raised by what would be a crisis of social bond, "divide", which would result in the increase in crime, the development of anonymity, individualism, exclusion. The urban sprawl, museification center are also discussed. Mainly mixed should ensure mixing of different social categories, brewing itself being a guarantor of social cohesion. In this way, the mix would be the guarantee of harmony in difference. So gather the diversity of social groups in the city is a concern that does not start today or even yesterday. This dream has lived the great utopian thought from Plato to Thomas More. The pioneers of modern urbanism designed projects for some forms of social diversity. That said, the theme of social diversity is mobilized as a central objective of urban policy. These policies are designed to cope with the rise of urban poverty analyzed in terms of social and urban exclusion. They are based on the model of a "balanced" society seamlessly blending social classes, ethnic groups and generations to ward crystallization pockets of poverty that would be problematic because at the basis of a culture of poverty, development insecurity or the establishment of an "underclass".
Contrary to the trapping and the reduction of carbon dioxide (CO2) and the other Green House Gas (GHG) strategies which are being implemented in developed countries, this article attempts to seize the process of adaptation to climate change from a purely African point of view. After a survey on the peasants in the village called Louggol-Bame in the Northern Cameroon region, the work presents a metaphysical option of overcoming the irregularities of the rain. On the one hand, the faithful of monotheistic religions
Education has aways been essential because it has contributed to the socio-economic development of society. The education of women and young girls in particular, given its impact on the mastery of fertility, the amelioration of health, the access to an employment of good quality is perceived as one of the keys of development. Education is thus at the centre of concerns of all nations. A sound example is the many international consultations about the issue in 2000 with the adoption of eight Objectives of the Millennium for Development (OMD) among which two are related to education. Of all those conferences, the one which has left a mark and which has made people become aware is the one of Jomtien in Thailand in 1990 on education for all for the year 2011. According to PONSER, (1994), Jamtien has raised much hope because from its recommendations, the great number of African states should adopt educational politics. In fact, this conference considered education as one of the main priorities for development and states were required to make primary education universal in 2000. In the first congress of the Mouvement Populaire de la R
The intention of this paper is to introduce a number of issues relating to World Cup football and international relations within the context of the 2009 qualifying match between Algeria and Egypt. Many scholars argue that World Cup football games may increase violence and incite nationalistic aggression in no time especially in countries where football as a sport is the most prevalent. By analyzing the complex series of dynamic scenarios and tension ratios that surrounded the Algeria-Egypt 2009 game, the paper sheds the light on the direct negative impact of football can have upon the political relationships of countries. The idea of establishing international football events to encourage peace between countries goes up in smoke when not only overzealous supporters but also both media and political parties get swayed by the game. The problems that occurred in both countries led to a decrease in diplomatic flexibility of both governments by stimulating radical nationalism on both sides. The Egyptian government failed to manage these controversial issues mainly by letting its media fueling Egyptians' anger. However, both governments acknowledge their common interests and are working on a process to establish a strategic partnership of mutual benefit in order to stabilize the relations between the two countries. Despite all the problems caused by the football game, the Algerian-Egyptian convergence is a principal factor in maintaining and forging a strategic partnership of mutual benefit between Algeria and Egypt in the future.
Environmental issues are meant to be operationalized through the formulation of actor-specific environmental actions plans, which define priority action that will convert strategy into practice. The Environmental Planning and Management (EPM) process which is an increasingly popularized strategy of solving the myriads of problems affecting the environment in contemporary world. The study examines the use of Environmental Planning and Management (EPM) process as a strategy of solving environmental problems in Bonny Island, Rivers State, Nigeria by investigating the perception of the general public on the state of the environment in the area, level of participation of people in compliance to existing environmental strategies, causes of ineffective environmental management in the area and assessing community satisfaction with existing environmental management approach using well structured questionnaires administered to sampled households. Questions were related to socio-economic characteristics of households, willingness to participate by the community in the EPM process, perceived level of environmental degradation in the area, level of compliance of oil and gas companies to environmental laws and the role of Government environment protection agencies in protecting the environment of the study area. The results confirm that the level of damage from oil exploration, gas activities, pollution and pipeline vandalizations is chronic and cumulative, which has resulted to the degradation of the environment, routine of facilities and compliancy to environmental management approaches are not regular, facilities and equipment were found be grossly inadequate therefore proper inspection can not be well carried out, the community expressed dissatisfaction with the existing environment approach which they attributed to the inability of fully implementing the environmental approach, the community indicated that given the opportunity they are willing to participate in evolving an effective environmental management approach. Recommendations were made for the effective and efficient application of the EPM process in the study area.
This study explores the relationship between the cost of capital and the quality of accounting information for a sample of Tunisian firms listed on the stock exchange of Tunis. We chose the determinants of the cost of capital according to previous literature. Our results show the existence of a negative association between the cost of capital and the quality of accounting information. Note also that the cost of capital depends positively on the debt, the return on equity, and volatility. The results of the study provide an important contribution to the understanding of the complex relationship between accounting information quality of Tunisian firms and the cost of capital.
The paper asserts the percent horizontal and vertical distribution of the main lithological components (the total organic matter, total carbonates and minerogenic clastic fraction) in the grab surface layer and core sediment samples of some fluvial - Danubian lakes. The study is corroborated on the analysis of 144 grab sampling stations and 6 Hydro-Bios sediment cores collected during 2010-2013. Evaluations of the above mentioned parameters considered in surface sediments, and in samples from distinct cores have been defined by Loss on Ignition (LOI) method. By using the total organic matter concentration results in the grab sediment, as a proxy, it was tried to be pursued the source of the organic matter input into the lakes during the recent period. Evaluating the mean areal distribution values of the total organic matter, the shallow water depth, and assuming the autochthonous input as a main contributing source, it was exhibited that the investigated lakes are over-supplied with organic material, passing through a continuous shallowing environments due to a strong siltation of the canals and streams. The assessment of the vertical distribution results reported a distinctive pattern with infrequent dominantly organic layers interposed with sequences of minerogenic clastic contents. These fluctuations indicate seasonal shifts that have repercussion on the depositional environment conditions on some moments in time. The results obtained by LOI method yields excellent, medium or small correlation between the variations in the investigated parameters.
The purpose of this paper is to measure and analyze the evolution of occupational sex segregation in Mexico between the years of 2000 and 2010, considering it as the expression of inequality between men and women in the labor market. Using the Encuesta Nacional de Empleo (ENE) and the Encuesta Nacional de Ocupaci
The study was designed to investigate the effect of different doses and different durations of ferrous gluconate drug administration on some blood criteria, using 36 males of rats. The animals were divided into four main groups (9 males for each group), the first group control and the other three groups were orally intragastric administrated with (50,75,100) mg/kg bw for three periods (4,6,8) weeks .The blood samples were collected to measure the haematological criteria that include Red Blood Cells count (RBCs) , blood haemoglobine (Hb),Packed Cell Volume(PCV),Mean Corpuscle Haemoglobine Concentration (MCHC), Mean Corpuscular Haemoglobine (MCH) and Mean Corpuscle Volume (MCV). Results of this study revealed, that ferrous sulfate administration causes a significant elevation for all haematological parameters which proportionally increased with the dosage levels and dosage durations. It was also observed a significant effect of interaction between different doses and periods on most haematological parameters except MCH and MCHC. All results compared with control group and between treated groups, and had no signefecant effect in ALT, AST, bilirubin, creatinin. The results suggested that the administration of ferrous glugonate drug in high dosing level and long durations may causes defect in haemopoesis especially erythropoiesis that indicated by increased blood parameters level rather than treatment of iron deficiency anemia because of iron supply increase.
Management of domestic sewage and runoff poses enormous problems in major cities of Benin. These waters are mostly dumped in the streets or gutters that drained them to make referrals for various rivers without any treatment, causing the chemical pollution of these. This study focused on the physicochemical characterization of household sewage and runoff from the city of Cotonou and the impact of the spill on their chemical quality of the channel of the city. Indeed, they are water troughs and water seeping from very heterogeneous and harmful to human body wastes deposited by residents on the banks of the channel. These wastes contain sources of phosphate, sulfate, chloride and nitrate from the decomposition of nitrogenous. The results of this work indicate the parameters analyzed for the following values: dissolved O2 (1.5 to 3.2) mg / L; BOD5 (165 to 940) mg/L ; COD (350 to 2250) mg / L; NO3- (1.1 to 3.8) mg/L ; NO2- (0,07 to 2,6) mg/L ; PO43- (1.0 to 3,6) mg/L.These values are very high and demonstrate the levels of physical and chemical pollution enough pronounced of the water of the channel. The quality of the channel's water is mortgaged. This raises a number of measures to clean up it.
Urinary schistosomiasis has been subject of numerous studies around the Taabo dam but the scanning aspect has never been studied. This study was therefore designed to determine the scan morbidity of urinary schistosomiasis among school children in six localities around the Taabo dam. A parasitological examination of urine and the scanner of bladder, ureters, kidneys, liver and spleen were performed in each school child selected. Urinary schistosomiasis was recorded at rates ranging from 1.67% to 68.97% indicating that it is no longer present at high levels in all localities around the dam. In this area, more than 65% of the infected had a mild infection and morbidity were mostly moderate with a scan severity index between 2 and 4. The majority of the 329 scanned school children presented abnormalities in the spleen (67.17%), bladder (40.43%) and liver (13.07%). Among the bladder lesions, mucosal irregularities were more frequent (27.36%), followed by thickening of the wall (14.89%) and weight (4.86%). They were found in all localities even in non-parasitized. Given the heterogeneity of the prevalence of parasitological and scan morbidity indicators, three strategies for reducing morbidity should be adapted to the epidemiological context of different homes.
This paper examines the degree of Exchange Rate Pass-Through (ERPT) to prices in 6 emerging markets that adopt inflation targeting (IT) framework in Latin America and Asia. To achieve this, we employ a modeling strategy that examines the short-run and the long-run fluctuations of the exchange rates pass-through into prices over the period from 1990:Q1-2012:Q4. The paper also finds robust evidence for a positive relationship between the degree of the ERPT and inflation. We conducted a comparative study between countries with hyperinflation and countries with moderate inflation. Estimations results confirm the presence of a positive link between prices and ERPT in emerging markets adopting inflation targeting strategy, while plausible theoretically, finds only weak empirical support in the absence of implemented of inflation targeting regime. The results show that ERPT has declined after IT framework.
This study examines water supply and sanitation situation in some selected areas of Kaduna metropolis. Primary data was collected from households residing in the area and. 366 copies of well structured questionnaires were administered to the households. Questions were related to the water supply and sanitation situation of households. Data collected were analyzed using descriptive methods. The study result reveals that majority of households in the study area use hand dug wells as their major source of water supply while privately owned boreholes; Kaduna State Water Board, water vendors and streams are other main sources. The risk of various sanitation related infections and diseases are high in the study area due to the poor methods of solid waste disposal. The implication of these poor solid waste disposal methods by the households in the study area is that; people who live close to waste dumps are exposed to various health risks. The paper recommends that the private sector be involved in water supply in the areas of fund mobilization for the construction, maintenance, rehabilitation and expansion of water supply and sanitation facilities in Kaduna metropolis as well as government agencies responsible for the provision of water supply and sanitation facilities should be adequately funded and equipped to carry out their services to the people in order to reach the goal 7 of the MDG 2015 target.
The quality management, safety and environment (QSE) is developing more in companies seeking to improve their economic and financial performance, taking into account the health and safety aspects and protection the natural environment. Based on an extensive literature search and cross on the topic of integrated management, where different models, strategies and integration techniques were highlighted, we found limitations and constraints in the implementation of these tools on field. This work aims to fill this gap by proposing a generic model for the integration of management systems.
Background: Obesity induces oxidative stress and inflammation, which may lead to arterial stiffness and hypertension. The relationship of white blood cell count (WBC) and anthropometric indices with arterial stiffness index (ASI) and blood pressure was evaluated in this study. Methods: Thirty male subjects aged between 35-55 years were selected in each of normotensive, prehypertensive and hypertensive groups. Their weight, height, waist circumference (WC) and hip circumference (HC) were measured according to the WHO guidelines. BMI, waist hip ratio (WHR), waist stature ratio (WSR) and conicity index (CI) were calculated. ASI was calculated from digital volume pulse recorded by photoplethysmography with iWorx-214 physiological interface system. The white blood cell count and differential was done. One way ANOVA followed by Post Hoc Tukey's Test was applied to determine the difference between the groups. Pearson's coefficient was calculated to study the correlation. Statistically, p value < 0.05 was considered significant. Results: There was statistically significant difference in WHR (0.000), WC (0.003) and ASI (0.000) between the study groups but not BMI (0.223). Amongst the anthropometric measurements, WHR and WC had positive correlation with the systolic and diastolic blood pressure. The WBC and absolute neutrophil count correlated significantly with WHR and WC but not with ASI and blood pressure. Conclusions: The central obesity is a more robust risk factor for arterial stiffness and blood pressure than BMI. The inflammation may be involved in pathogenesis of visceral obesity and arterial stiffness that may be determined by elevated white blood cell counts.
The leachate is a source of contamination of surface water and groundwater if not pretreated. Indeed, its complex structure and pollutant load makes treatment very difficult to meet the limits required by the standards. The study presented in this work aimed to develop techniques for treatment of leachate. Two techniques were studied. The first involves treatment by electrocoagulation with aluminum electrode, the second is a sand filter with a diameter between 0.44 and 0.55 mm. Initially, we characterized the sample in the rough. Thereafter, we followed the evolution of abatement of chemical oxygen demand (COD) levels, biological oxygen demand (BOD5), suspended solids (TSS). Secondly, we performed a comparative study on the germination of seeds of sorghum and Lucernes by use of leachate unprocessed or processed and at different concentrations. Treatment of leachate by electrocoagulation-filtration significantly reduced the intensity of their color that resulted in a decrease in pollution load of mineral and organic matter, especially in color, BOD5 and COD. This, allowed him to act favorably on the germination of seeds of sorghum and Lucernes. Leachate treated at different concentrations has no effect on the germination of Sorghum and Lucernes. The application of the raw leachate to inhibit germination of the total grain examined.
Innovation is a key success factor for enterprises and a factor in creating wealth for the country. Hence, it's very important to study its determinants. Although the financial and human resources in research and development (R&D) have been the subject of several empirical studies, the efficient use of these resources has been ignored and has not been recognized as a determinant of innovation. The present study attempts to fill this gap in the literature. Its purpose is to test the effect of R&D efficiency on technological innovation in 14 developing countries during the period (2000-2010). After estimating the R&D efficiency scores by the stochastic frontier approach, we estimated a linear regression model where innovation is explained by these efficiency scores. The results show that R&D efficiency levels have a significant positive impact on the international rate of innovation. The main conclusion from this study is that to innovate, countries need to increase not only the amount of resources for innovation activity, but also the quality of management of existing resources.
Process safety management (PSM) is the analytical tool which is used to prevent the unexpected release of toxic, reactive, or flammable liquids and gasses in various processes in industries worldwide. This regulation is promulgated by the U.S. Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA). In this paper, the challenges and necessities are investigated in implementing the PSM process in the battery industries of Bangladesh. This paper shows that implementing the PSM tool in this area would result in a safer work environment and will assure environmental safety as well as increased productivity. The basic problems that occur in the process of storage, manufacturing and handling of highly hazardous chemicals in battery industries are also discussed. A case study was made in Hamko Batteries Company Ltd. Khulna, Bangladesh to observe the effects of implementing process safety management. The observed result showed a significant reduction in the number of accident frequency and increased productivity of the company. The three basic relationship between man, machine and environment are discussed in an industrial situation to ensure safety. The main aim of this paper is to identify the obstacles and challenges that would take place in implementing the PSM method and the requirements of practicing PSM method in the battery industries of Bangladesh.
Marital satisfaction is a pertinent ingredient to the stability of any nation, given that the family is the basic unit of any nation. Too much marital dissatisfaction leads to family members being unstable socially which trickles down to societal problems hence to the nation. A higher level of satisfaction is seen as a measure of marital success. It is, therefore, important to study correlates of marital satisfaction in order to determine what variables could potentially predict the outcome of marital satisfaction. The purpose of this study therefore seeks to establish the correlates between levels of education in relation to marital satisfaction. Literature on the objective above was reviewed. The researcher employed a cross sectional survey design to examine the theme of study. The descriptive study was conducted among 4,019 spouses by using a questionnaire. Content and construct validity was ascertained by a pilot study of applying 20 questionnaires outside the area of study. Analysis was done using a chi square to understand the level of satisfaction, manual calculation of the means, manual thematic analysis of the qualitative data by mail using mean and percentages.
Research on the innovation has traditionally focused on the determinants promoting innovation and R&D in SMEs. However, an approach to study the barriers and the decision to innovation among entrepreneurs, seems it never been studied before. Our goal is to focus on this approach. Thus, through a qualitative study using focus groups with entrepreneurs, researchers, and government actors, we were able to identify the main barriers faced by entrepreneurs to innovation. A quantitative study was subsequently possible to draw up an inventory of the situation and generate results to conclude that the main obstacles studied vary according to the type of creation and the phase in the creative process. Finally some managerial implications were discussed towards the end.
The integration of management systems (quality, safety, environment, ...) into one comprehensive management system allows the company to optimize its resources, improve efficiency and better meet the needs of all stakeholders . There are very few studies that examine the motivations for companies to integrate their systems of sequential management, some isolated empirical studies in paid developed that address this theme lead us to wonder about the fate of Moroccan companies. The study was conducted via an empirical survey of 50 Moroccan companies double or triple certified (ISO 9001, ISO14001, OHSAS 18001,...). The willingness of senior management, improving business efficiency, the desire to provide overall management of the various management systems, development of competitiveness and customer satisfaction are all factors behind adoption of such a system by Moroccan companies.
Field experiments were conducted in 2010 cropping season at the Research Centre of the College of Agriculture, Mampong Campus of the University of Education, Winneba (latitude 7? and 8? North of Equator and Longitude 1?and 24? West of the Greenwich) in the forest transitional zone of Ghana to evaluate the effect of three levels of grasscutter manure (GM), chicken manure (CM), and NPK on soil chemical properties, growth and yield of carrot. The treatments were, no fertilizer or manure (control), 300kgNPK/ha, 10tCM/ha, 3 levels of grasscutter manure (10t, 15t and 20t/ha), laid out in a randomized complete block design with 3 replications. The 3 levels of grasscutter manure and chicken manure enhanced the soil organic C, total N, available P, exchangeable K, Ca, Mg and CEC better than NPK and the control treatments. Organic matter content and percent base saturation were high in the amended plots than the control. Plant height, number of leaves, leaf chlorophyll content, root length, root diameter and root yield for the 15 and 20t/ha grasscutter manure performed better than the rest of the amendments. The study showed that among the organic manures evaluated, grasscutter manure of 15 and 20t/ha gave the improved levels of the soil chemical properties and yield of carrot.
Ginger, or Zingiber officinale Roscoe in Latin, is a plant with high medicinal and commercial values. Most of high quality gingers are conventionally grown in mountain slopes such as in Janda Baik and Bukit Tinggi, Bentong, Pahang. Second phase planting on the same land can only be done after the land has been left (without any commercial crop) for at least 6 years. Thus, nomadic cultivation is still practised due to the soil-borne diseases such as bacterial wilt and fusarium wilt that attack ginger rhizomes, which results in yield decline. This study was conducted to evaluate the costs and benefits of ginger cultivation using fertigation with conventional methods for the production of mature and young ginger. Data were obtained from pilot project plot under MARDI and Department of Agriculture. Cost-benefit analysis showed that the costs of production for mature and young ginger using fertigation system were RM0.90/kg and RM1.41/kg, respectively, compared to RM1.36/kg and RM1.24/kg using conventional method, respectively. Annual net income for mature (RM174,680/ ha) and young (RM32,500/ ha) ginger production using fertigation system was higher than the conventional method (mature ginger: RM49,200 and young ginger: RM21,100). The higher net income was due to the high yield of ginger, two to threefold per hectare than the conventional method. Partial budget analysis also showed a higher benefit value than implication value in the event of farmers switching from using conventional methods to ginger cultivation using fertigation system. Overall, ginger cultivation using fertigation technology is proven to improve ginger yield and has a high viability. The high cost or initial capital will be offset by high production yield. This technology is also more environmentally friendly than the conventional methods and in accordance with the practice of sustainable agriculture development, besides conforms to present agriculture agenda.
Cowpea storage showed a big problems in post-haverst systems and the synthetics antimicrobials using are dangerous for the population. The object of this study has been to develop effective method of cowpea preservation by essentials oils. In this context, the essays of cowpea preservation with essentials oils extracted from Pimenta racemosa and Syzygium aromaticum were investigated. The biochemical and sensory characteristics of seeds after preservation by the products were then estimated. The results of the microbiological analyses revealed that a significant reduction (p > 5 %) of the fungal flora in the samples of cowpea seeds preserved with essential oil, compared with untreated samples. The nutritional analyses indicated that both varieties of cowpea studied are rich in proteins and in minerals. The seeds of cowpea preserved by essentials oils improve its organoleptic characteristics with an incidence on the taste and the aroma of products.
An entomological survey based on the inventory of the Culicidae fauna in the town of Maroua, identified three genera and five species of mosquitoes in 2010. Of a total of 3915 mosquitoes have reached adulthood by breeding laboratory, the following species were identified: Anopheles gambiae (03.70%), Anopheles funestus (0.66%), Culex quinquefasciatus (53.33%), Culex tigripes (09.45%) and Aedes aegypti (32.84%). The seasonal distribution of larvae collected provides 83.06% to the rainy season and 16.94% in the dry season. Of the ten (10) breeding explored the Pont-Vert neighborhood is the most successful in the quality and quantity of larvae (20.53%). Meanwhile, 4700 adult mosquitoes were captured in 14 neighborhoods in the city of Maroua. However, only three genera and four species of mosquitoes were identified after capture. These are: Anopheles funestus (3.38%), Anopheles gambiae (14.91%), Aedes aegypti (23.08%) and Culex quinquefasciatus (58.6%). Culex quinquefasciatus mosquito species is the largest and most widespread in the city of Maroua. The months of October and September are the most successful in capturing adult mosquitoes.
This work aims at identifying and mapping using Earth Observation (EO) and Geographic Information Systems (GIS), the water-erosion risk areas. The RUSLE (Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation) model, which can be used to estimate the water-erosion risk of soil, was applied to the productive Sangu
B.M.I and I.Q, both, are locally and internationally on the rise. A link between the two is likely but which one is influencing the other still remains a mystery. To solve the mystery of correlation between Intelligence quotient (IQ) and Body Mass Index (BMI) and to ascertain whether I.Q has any significant measurable effect on B.M.I, this study is conducted among the students of Liaquat University of Medical and Health Sciences Jamshoro. A structured questionnaire-based cross-sectional study was conducted on 120 students of Liaquat University of Medical & Health Sciences, of both genders, aged between 18-25 years. IQ was recorded using a questionnaire comprising twenty questions, designed on the principle of internationally taken IQ tests; students were advised to solve the test within 10 minutes. For BMI calculation, height and weight measuring machine (RGZ-160) was used; height was measured in m2 and weight in kg. According to WHO classification of BMI, students were divided into four classes, i.e., class-1 (under weight, BMI <18), class-2 (normal weight, BMI 18-24) and class-3 (over weight BMI ?25), class-4 (obese BMI ?30). Data analysis was done on MS excel by applying students t-test. Students having average I.Q values of 5.09 and 5 belonged to class-1 (under weight), class-2 (normal weight) respectively, whereas students possessing an I.Q of 6.5 and 7 belonged to class-3 (over weight), class-4 (obese) respectively. IQ of class 3 and 4 students was found significantly higher (P = 0.01) than the class 1 and 2. Students having BMI values >25 had greater I.Q level. The findings can be associated to the life styles and habits of these people.
The Phosphorus content is a necessary part of fertilizers used in Pakistan and is readily available in single super phosphate fertilizer. Pakistani rock phosphate being of low grade cannot be used by conventional method to prepare good quality SSP. This rock however, can be used by some unconventional techniques for preparing some better quality fertilizer. For the subject study rock phosphate samples were collected from Hazara, Pakistan and were ground to 150 mesh level containing 24% total phosphate pentoxide (P2O5) content and were treated with different ratios of sulphuric acid (H2SO4) and phosphoric acid (H3PO4). Seven samples with composition comprising of fix weight of rock phosphate i.e. 100 gm were prepared by treating it with H2SO4 (diluted to 65%) and H3PO4 (of 85% purity) in w/w ratios of (13:1, 13:2, 4:1, 11:4, 2:1 and 3:2) were manually prepared and analyzed through spectro-photometric method before and after a curing period of two weeks. The results obtained showed that there was enhancement in P2O5 up to 22.9% total and 19.9% available P2O5 content by addition of H3PO4 and H2SO4 (in weight ratios of 3:2) to the conventional formulation of single super phosphate (SSP) containing the rock phosphate and H2SO4 only. The results lead to conclude that the phosphorus content in SSP made from low quality local rock phosphate can be effectively enhanced and a market grade SSP(with 18% available P2O5) can be prepared using the local rock without any need to import rock phosphate from other countries.
Thermo Catalytic Decomposition of Methane Using Ni/SBA-15 catalyst was tested in a fixed bed reactor to simultaneously produce hydrogen and carbon nanotubes. SBA-15 nano catalysts were successfully been synthesized using p123, tetraethyl ortho silicate and Ni (NO3)2.6H2O as template, silica source and Nickel nano particle precursors respectively under acidic hydrothermal conditions. The BET surface area, pore size distribution and low angle X-ray Diffraction (XRD) studies revealed that the retention of hexagonally ordered behaviour in the catalysts. Wide angle XRD study divulged the crystalline behaviour of Nickel oxide species and these Nickel oxide species are in nano range. The catalytic activity experiments were preceded by blank tests intended to ascertain that the reaction did not take place to an appreciable extent in the absence of the catalyst. With SBA-15 alone and Ni alone reaction has not been taken place. Even with 50Ni-SBA-15 and 70Ni-SBA-15 catalysts reaction was not occurred. Only low loading Ni-SBA-15 catalyst was found to be active towards the conversion of methane into the corresponding hydrogen. Among all other catalysts, 30Ni-SBA-15 we observed to produce high yield of hydrogen produced 20% to 50% of H2 at a moderate temperature of 1123 K (850