In the current scenario, population is increasing day by day therefore the demand of power is also increasing with it, The extensive usage of energy has resulted in reduction of conventional resources of power. Therefore, to overcome this problem we need to implement the technique which will not only overcome the energy crisis but also prevent the environment. Conventional resources like fossil fuels and nuclear energy requires careful handling and spoils the environment too. Hence the focus is now shifting towards the renewable resources of energy. This paper emphasizes on the idea that there is possibility of generating power by specially designed speed breaker. We can convert the energy which is being wasted everyday on the roads by the moving vehicles, into electricity and store it in the batteries. As we know, vehicles on road are increasing gradually with every passing day; this will help us to generate electricity as these vehicles pass through the speed breakers. This paper explains clearly, the working principle of the system, its practical implementation, output power calculation and its advantages. The energy we generate from speed breaker is enough for lighting street lights during night, by using this arrangement we can store a lot of power. The suggested model is an eco-friendly method for generating power i.e.; it does not consume any fuel.
The chemical composition of the essential oils obtained by hydrodistillation from Artemisia campestris L (family Asteraceae) and Juniperus phoenicea L (family Cupressaceae) collected in Djebel Amour (Sahara Atlas, Algeria). Aerial parts were also evaluated by gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The analyses for leaves and fruits of A. campestris resulted in the identification of thirty-one compounds, representing 91.8 % of the total oil and the yields were 0.33% (v/dry weight). The main components were ?-pinene and sabinene (25.6% and 17% respectively) followed by ?-pinene (9.9%), limonene (6.6 %) and p-cymene (4.1%). forty-two compounds were identified in leaves and fruits of J. phoenicea representing 97% of the total oil composition. The yield of essential oil was 0.44 % and the major compound in aerial parts was ?-pinene (75.8%) followed by ?-3- carene (3.4%), linalool (2.7%).
Our knowledge of an ancient architecture of Yemen during a period prior to sixth century AD is still not enough. It needs a lot of research and investigation. This research deals with the house in old Yemen during a period of the ancient Yemen kingdoms since the beginning of first millennium BC even appearance of Kingdom of Himyarite in the first three centuries AD. It aims to identify the design basics and intellectual values of the house. It deals with the house and palace of three kingdoms of old Yemen. They are Saba Kingdom, Qataban Kingdom and Hadramout Kingdom. They were studied and analyzed, and then draw general conclusions on the architecture, and draw a set of design basics and intellectual values of the architecture of old Yemen.[
The use of systems with variable reluctance is nowadays very replied in the industrial fields. Despite this enormous expansion, they present limitations to fill at their controls. It is for this reason that the study of such a system is a of reflection and research that we have considered important to delve deeply into. Our study then summarizes the conception of an approach that aims to facilitate the control of variable reluctance system. The proposed approach is based on an intelligent software sensor, reducing the overall cost of the control system and promoting the simultaneous processing of a large number of information received from the actuator. Apart from this, the integration of an evolutionary intelligent regulator will retrieve the optimal useful output.
In this paper contrast of gray image is enhanced using proposed mask in discrete cosine transform and discrete wavelet transform domain. In this technique the image is converted into DCT and DWT domain and respective coefficients are modified using proposed mask for its domain then the enhanced image is reconstructed using inverse transform. The discrete cosine transform outperforms with better image quality and highest PSNR value. We compare this approach with enhancement based on the discrete wavelet transform.
For healthy environment and sustainable economic growth we need clean and efficient electric power generation systems. The natural sources of renewable energy available to human are: the solar, tidal, wind, bio-gas and biomass etc. This paper introduces a new renewable source of energy; energy from cow urine that can produce electricity by electrolytic conductions. The alkaline nature of fresh cow urine acts as a good electrolyte liquid. The system works like a conventional battery system. However, a discharged battery needs to recharge by electricity in order to reactivate it. On the other hand, cow urine based system needs only to replace old urine by fresh urine to activate the system again. As no electricity is required for charging the system, the daily available fresh urine from a dairy farm could be a possible source of renewable energy. In order to understand the feasibility of the source, we built a car battery size prototype that can hold approximate five liter of fresh urine as electrolyte. We used similar and equal number of electrode that a typical car battery does. We measured the performance of the source with loads and observed its outputs. The details of the system and its performances have been described in this paper.
This study attempts to find out if the Modified Jones (1995) and Yoon et al., (2006) models are effective in detecting earnings management in an emerging economy as Palestine. The study also compares the Modified Jones (1995) model with the Yoon et al., (2006) model. That is to give an overview of the best model in detecting earnings management practiced by listed companies in the PEX. The study results shows that the Yoon et al., (2006) model is better than the Modified Jones (1995) model in detecting earnings management in the Palestinian's context, and the Modified Jones (1995) model is very poor. Additionally, the results proves that the effectiveness of the Yoon et al., (2006) model is also weak compared to other studies done in other countries (Yoon and Miller, 2006; Yoon et al., 2006; Islam et al., 2011). Consequently, developing new models is vital to be used in detecting earnings management in Palestinian's context.
This article reported the results of a study of the creation of ceramic crafts following design trend 2015. Ceramic craft arts have become one of Indonesian main export commodities. It used social, esthetic and design approaches. The creation method consisted in exploration of shapes as inspiration sources, alternative sketches, working drawings, and prototype preparation process. It gave 25 new prototypes as design standards of coming trend of 2015. The theme raised in 2015 would be Re+Habitate based on the prediction of Indonesian forecasting trends through the focus on the themes of Alliance, Biomimetics, Adroit and Veracious. Six designs would be created for each of the selected themes in the form of product samples. It might be one of the strategies in developing and improving ceramic craft arts, especially in the big ceramic craft art centers in Indonesia as an important part of populist economy.
The fascinating mechanical inventions aiming at the welfare of the human kind started from ancient Egyptians and continued development through different eras. In the medieval centuries, the Islamic civilization paid wonderful attention to mechanical engineering. Banu Mosa invented 100 ingenious devices including automatic fountains and automatic feedback level control systems. Al-Jazari invented 50 mechanical devices including automatic fountains, clocks, positive displacement pumps and robotics. Taqi Al-Din invented a 6-cylinder positive displacement pump. Those great inventers used clean-energy prime movers in the form of windmills, overshot water wheels and undershot water wheels (turbines). This paper focuses only on windmills, water wheels and automatic fountains.
Any understanding of historical trauma today needs to attend to the roles that discourses about and representations of trauma play in struggles over identity and the meanings of the past. The approach this essay has undertaken to investigate is one that makes a reference point of 9/11 as a historical trauma and thereby makes a case for the political significance of violence, terror, civilizational barbarism and colonial desire engendred by this "traumatic" event. This essay focuses mainly on the structural traumatic violence of the image that works in conjunction with the sovereign violence and barbarism of the state and capitalism as a desiring machine. It is in the context of colonialism as a desiring capitalist machine and a group fantasy and empathy that this thesis considers the work of Deleuze, Guattari and Walter Benjamin. As far as the structure is concerned, this essay is split into two sections. The first section aims to investigate the connections between traumatic memory and empathy and between traumatic memory and paranoid investment of social energies as represented in World Trade Center (2006) and The Kingdom (2007). This fascistic investment of desire impedes the utopian dimension of traumatic memory that has the impulse to imagine a better future. The second section examines the violent physical and historical material procedures of American neocolonialism and its ideological operations as represented in The Kingdom (2007). It considers the links between capitalism, colonialism and spatiality as articulated by Deleuze and Guattari.
All acts of terrorism are liable to be criticized severely. Terrorism is considered by UNO in its all Millennium Development Goals (MDG) reports as a major stumbling block to the all-round development of humanity. But terrorist activities do not take birth in one day. These activities are the result of a strong ideology which by hook or by crook considers terror activities as legal and just on one hand and promotes them through various Medias particularity through religion on the other hand. Wahhabism is one of such an important ideology in this context. Today many strategic and geopolitical analysts are busy to know how the ideology of Wahhabism is helping in promoting the global terrorism. The ideology of Wahhabism is directly promoted by Saudi Arabia's government as the said country is a place of birth of this ideology as well as the founder of this ideology 'Muhammad Abdul Wahhab'. Wahhabism has promoted a feeling of intolerance for other religions which has led to large scale violence and deaths of countless innocent people of countries of Middle East Asia particularly Syria, Iraq, Lebanon, Chechnya region of Russia, Afghanistan, India, Somalia, Nigeria, Libya etc. In the present paper an attempt has been made to know the role of Wahhabism in the rise of global terrorism. What were the causes behind the rise of this ideology? How this ideology is spreading in different parts of world? What would be the geopolitical effects of spread of this ideology? Lastly, what type of measures are required to be taken as well as presently taken by various countries to counter Wahhabi and its associated Jihadist Ideologies?
This paper presents the project "edugame" whose objective is to provide an educational game which introduces a series of activities such as the construction of words, the recognition of letters or mathematical operations for teaching children. We chose to follow, for this project, a methodological approach which begins with a design phase, using UML, followed by an implementation phase using the Android platform. This allowed us to make available to children of 3 to 7 years an interactive game for independent learning.
Many industrial and control applications are running through conventional PLC technology adequately because PLC provides flexibility, lower cost and security compared to other control techniques, but still a more powerful alternative is needed. In recent years, FPGA's becomes the best replacement of PLC to implement control algorithms in industrial, digital signal processing, video and audio applications and as well to perform control tasks. The basic dilemma of FPGA's is that it requires an expertise in control automation applications. In this paper, an efficient methodology is proposed to implement PLC state diagram on FPGA using Xilinx StateCAD tool. Three level efficient elevator control system is designed which can be used for different elevator control system having different number of floors. Simply changing the state diagram, VERILOG HDL(Hardware Description Language) code is generated and used in XILINX ISE 7.1i to implement control system on FPGA Spartan-3. StateBench simulator is used to simulate results of proposed control system.
Analysis of seismic parameters calculated such as spatial and temporal distribution of epicenters, seismic energy released, maximum magnitude recorded or calculated, in different zones under consideration of the western rift valleys branch classifying in many under zones (south Sudan, lake Albert, lake Edouard, lake Kivu, lake Tanganyika, Upemba rift, north of Zambia, lake Rukwa and lake Malawi) leads up to the establishment of the advanced seismic zoning map of seismic areas. In this study we observed: - The major seismic activity is located faults zones; - The seismic zoning shows that the seismic activity of western rift valleys is focused into three main zones: 1
Played the Arabian Peninsula site an important role in trade, between India sources the commercial products, and her Consumer the world old. Increased of importance of the site, because the Dealers became in southern Arabian Peninsula monopolized that trade for several centuries, they have gained the great wealth of this trade, which helped them build their kingdoms, made famous in the ancient world. The trade was oscillating between the boom and collapse, depending on the political events, which were witnessing areas that experienced by the trade routes, especially north of the Arabian Peninsula, which has seen a lot of competition between the ancient kingdoms and empires (Sassanid, Greek and Roman) for control of the trade, which ends in the cities and ports of the Northern Arabia countries (Gaza, Palmyra, Petra) Has dominated economic nature of these wars. Where hastened those empires and kingdoms to send campaigns land, and sea, order to explore the ancient trade sources. Reached those campaigns to the coast of the Arabian Peninsula, and the coast of the West Indies, the Persians was the pioneers in this domain, followed by campaigns Alexander the Macedonians exploratory, But all these attempts did not bear fruit, only in the era of the Romans, who discovered that India is the source of that wealth, As Thanks in this discovery to the navigator Hippalus which discovered the movement of the monsoon in the Indian Ocean, and the consequent this discovered, positive results for some and negative on some others.
This study investigated teachers' perceptions of the factors that influenced their morale and commitment to work in public secondary schools. The target population consisted of teachers in public secondary schools in Nakuru District. A sample of 172 teachers was randomly selected for the study. The research design adopted in this study was descriptive survey. Teachers' questionnaires and head teachers' interview schedules were used to collect information on the respondents' perceptions on factors that influenced their morale. The instruments were based on a 5 point Likert scale. The reliability coefficient was computed using Cronbach alpha and stood at 0.86. This was deemed adequate for the study. Pearson Moments Correlation was used to establish whether there was a statistically significant relationship between teachers' characteristics and morale and commitment to work. The study established that teachers perceived remuneration, opportunity for further training, responsibility, social status, a sense of belonging and job security as impacting on the level of morale and commitment to their duties. The study found out no statistically significant relationship between teachers' gender, age, and experience and commitment to work. However, there was statistically significant relationship between the professional qualifications and commitment to work. The study also established no statistically significant relationship between teachers' characteristics and perception of the factors that influenced their morale and commitment to work. In all cases alpha coefficient was equal to 0.05.
The purpose of this study was to determine whether undercorrection single vision lenses altered the peripheral refractive error of myopic school children when targets are viewed at 2m. Seventy four children with mean age of 12.28
The present study was devoted to the chemical analysis of three plants (Anchomanes difformis, Parkia biglobosa and Polyalthia longifolia) commonly used by traditional healers in Benin, for their curative properties in the treatment of certain diseases. After characterization of large chemical groups present in the leaves of these plants, total polyphenols, condensed tannins, total flavonoids, anthocyanins and anthocyanidins were quantified by spectrophotometric methods. The scavenging activity was evaluated by the DPPH method and the volatile compounds in the powders of these plants were determined by SPME-GC/MS. The results showed the presence of several secondary metabolites such as saponins, alkaloids, tannin, mucilages, anthraquinones, leucoanthocyanins, anthocyanins and triterpennoids in varying proportions in the three plants. The levels of condensed tannins, total flavonoids and anthocyanins are respectively higher in leaves of P. longifolia (22.5 mg/g, 15.69 mg / g and 0.94 mg/g) than in those of P. biglobosa (16.48 mg/g, 12.03 mg/g and 0.38 mg/g) and that of A. difformis (9.74 mg/g 4.59 mg/g and 0 mg/g). Against by the total polyphenol content P.longifolia leaves (2.89 mg/g) is between those of A. difformis (2.19 mg/g) and P. biglobosa (4.5 mg/g). It is the same for the contents of anthocyanidins. Three plants studied, P. longifolia proved richest in polyphenols (condensed tannins, total flavonoids, anthocyanidins and anthocyanins) and A. difformis the less rich. This content of polyphenolic compounds would explain the test results of radical scavenging activities with an IC50 of 21.66 mg/mL for P. longifolia, 23.99 mg/mL for P. biglobosa and 26.5 mg/mL for A. difformis. The solid phase micro extraction (SPME) coupled with GC/MS allowed the unambiguous identification of volatile components of each of the three plants.
Wireless sensor networks consist of hundreds or thousands of applications such as environmental monitoring, traffic analysis, tactical systems and industrial process monitoring. Most of the packet-scheduling mechanisms of WSN use First Come First Served (FCFS), non-preemptive priority and preemptive priority scheduling algorithms. These algorithms incur a high processing overhead and long end-to-end data transmission delay due to the FCFS concept .These algorithms are not dynamic to the changing requirements of WSN applications since their scheduling policies are predetermined. Developing packet scheduling algorithms in wireless sensor networks can efficiently enhance delivery of packets through wireless links. Packet scheduling can guarantee quality of service and improve transmission rate in wireless sensor networks. Considering this combination we are basically focusing on the nodes of wireless sensor network as the process required shortest coverage area to reach. We apply FCFS algorithm & priority algorithm for calculating delay. We can use it for mixing with coverage area for further process. After priority on the basis of time reduction we have to apply SJF (shortest job first) execution time finding. Finally, we have to compare on the basis of delay and execution time. Improve the performance of task scheduling schemes in terms of end to end delay and deadlock prevention.
Public procurement is crucial to government service delivery. For decades procurement performance has been attracting great attention from practitioners, academicians and researchers due to poor levels of performance. Despite Government efforts for improvement, it is still marred by shoddy works, poor quality goods and services. Stakeholders complain about poor service delivery. Benefits deriving from improved procurement performance at State Law Office (SLO) are dependent on systems and staff. The general objective of the study was to assess factors influencing procurement performance in Kenyan public sector with specific focus on the SLO. It sought to assess the extent to which records management systems, procurement procedures, information communications technology and staff qualifications influence procurement performance. Descriptive design was used in executing the study. Target population was the 600 SLO staff comprising of 7 departments. Sample size of 60 respondents, 10% of target population, was drawn using stratified sampling method. Primary and secondary sources of data were collected using questionnaires, interviews and observation. Both descriptive and inferential data analysis methods including frequencies, percentages, factor analysis and regression were used in STATA. Data was presented using graphs and figures. Based on the analyses of information presented above, the following findings were noted: Demographic indicators show that majority of the study participants are qualified and have attained education levels sufficient to influence favourably their comprehension of antecedents to effective management of the procurement function. Further findings on years of experience indicate that officers participating in the procurement function in the SLO have long work experience. The results indicate that the SLO is performing on the negative in all the five determinants of public procurement performance studied as they all recorded negative mean scores. Overall records management is most significant driver in procurement performance followed by procurement procedures, procurement staff qualifications and ICT in that order. It is recommended that reforms in the Department be accelerated with a view of streaming procurement processes as well as automating activities and back office operations.
The aim of this work is to synthesize a polyelectrolyte polymer (Polyvinyl alcohol (PVA)) through radical means and vinyl acetate as a vinylic monomer followed by hydrolysis. This includes its viscosity-mass which is well controlled. Its aim is also to optimize waste waters treatment of the purification station of the Galvacier Company (K
This project aims at investigate the effects of an educational program- based on Art Education, on developing the vitality (libido) of the Mild Mentally Retarded Children, who are assumed to be studying in Mental Education Center, in Al Ahsaa. To achieve the aim of the project, the researcher has applied an experimental approach by comparing the performance and behavioral manifestations of the experimental and control samples in addition to compare the statistical differences between the performance of the experimental group in pre- posttests and measurements. The researcher used a set of tools and standards to test the validity of all the hypotheses and has reached the following results: 1. In posttests, there was statistically significant differences in development of sensory-motor activities apparent between experimental and control groups, reflected positively among the experimental group. 2. Measurements proved statistical significance for improvement in intelligence among experimental group, which confirms the effectiveness of the program. 3. The Statistical significant in post measurements did not show any improvement in the level of attention among the experimental group, confirming failure of the third hypothesis of this study.
Although many people expect their drinking water to be "flavorless", natural and processed drinking waters have flavors due to minerals and organics in the natural water. Since people can detect the flavor of water, the idea has been proposed that drinking water consumers be considered as sentinels who monitor water quality. This paper explores specific sensory components of drinking water, how humans perceive their drinking water distributed by SEAAL (Soci
The present paper describes about the application of one of the well structured technique called Fuzzy Delphi Method for the selection of factors influencing the selection of best bridge site. Selection of bridge site depends on various factors and it requires expertise knowledge of the domain Experts. Fuzzy Delphi Method which relies on expert opinion is one of the efficient technique to identify the influential factors which are to be considered for the selection of bridge site. Fuzzy Delphi Method involves two stages. The first stage involves set of interviews with the experts and responses are collected using Likert scale which is then reduced to 1-10 point scale for the selection of influential factors. In the second stage some of the non influential factors are eliminated by appropriate threshold value.
The purpose of this study is to apply various techniques and models for catchment delineation, and developing methods to calculate a Curve Number values for the Kalaya river basin located in Northern Morocco, by implementing GIS software (ArcGIS, HEC-GeoHMS), Erdas Imagine and hydrologic modeling (HEC-HMS), in which the estimation of the direct runoff under the scenario with precipitation of 80 mm during the storm event that have occurred between 23 and 24 December 2009. In particular, SCS-CN (Soil Conservation Curve Number) is a model through which the estimation of the direct runoff can be achieved. This method includes several important properties of the watershed such as Hydrological Soil Groups and land use, which will be input for the HEC-HMS model.
The parents of child with Cerebral Palsy through difficult periods in their lives, both in childhood of their son and in his adolescence. Adolescents with physical disabilities become more difficult to treat. This transition period often associated with disorders of behavior is an important factor in parental stress and causes deterioration in the quality of life. There are few studies that seek to assess the impact of cerebral palsy on the quality of life and mental health of parents. A study protocol consisting of questionnaires, scales and grid clinical interview were distributed and completed by 67 relatives (34 mothers and 33 fathers) of children with cerebral palsy, to measure the impact of the weakness of their children on their psychological and social well- being and their quality of life. Most of our results support our hypothesis and confirm data from the literature in this area little studied in Morocco. Indeed it seems that the suffering of parents with cerebral palsied children is more pronounced at the age of adolescence than during the phase of childhood. The impact of this pain on mothers seems more intense than on fathers. In conclusion, more having a social support and a psychological counseling, more the parent's quality of life is better.
Human action recognition remains a challenging problem for researchers. Several action representation approaches have been proposed to improve the action recognition performance. Recently, local space-time features have become a popular representation approach for human actions in video sequences. Many different space-time detectors and descriptors have been proposed. They are evaluated on different datasets using different experimental conditions. In this paper, the performance of Cuboid detector is evaluated with four space-time description methods; namely, Gradient, HOG, HOF and HOG-HOF. All descriptors were tested on two datasets (KTH and Weizmann) using the bag-of-words model and Support Vector Machine.
Introduction: Viral hepatitis is an emerging threat. The economic impact of these infections is immense since liver cancer has a high fatality rate in Africa and usually affects economically productive age groups. However, little is known of the state of healthcare cost and access to care for such infections in the region (and especially in Ethiopia). Objective and Study design: the present study investigated the current status of healthcare access in Ethiopia for patients with hepatitis B (HBV) and C (HCV) through expert surveys using a pre-defined questionnaire. Principal findings: The survey results showed a heavy burden of HBV and HCV in Ethiopia, mostly affecting the economically productive age group in the middle and lower economic classes. Unfortunately, the diagnosis rates for both HBV and HCV cases are very low. Moreover, the treatment rates are also low due lack of access and affordability. There is no well-established health insurance system in Ethiopia. The cost of healthcare is mainly borne out-of-pocket by patients. Conclusions: There is a need to increase hepatitis awareness among the general public and healthcare workers. Subsidies for diagnosis and treatment are also urgently needed. Vaccination needs to be extended to at-risk populations.
The problem of water in the agricultural sector and the country's poverty level of fossil energy sources (import 97%) lead to the most appropriate solution is the coupling of renewable energy in water desalination. In this article an economic approach has been established at the price per kilowatt hour, which aims to explain and demonstrate the feasibility of this solution in the action area.
Antibiotics have a history of more than 70 years, during which they have saved the lives of millions of individuals. However, the golden era of so called miracle bullets is over now-antibiotic resistance to almost every class of antibiotics particularly in Gram negative microbes has rippled the fear that we may enter to pre-antibiotic era. The situation is gruesome as eventually diarrhea would be difficult to treat because it has already developed resistance to treatment of last resort and in enterobacteriaceae, which comprises of diarrheal pathogens-the multi-drug resistance genes are present on plasmids associated with integrons and transposons that aid in dissemination of resistance genes to unrelated species. It is imperative to reverse the resistance mechanism by overwhelming those microbial enzymes that degrade the antibiotics, by increasing the uptake of antibiotics by bacterial cells, by blocking drug efflux, by discovering new natural products having antimicrobial potential and most importantly through development of nano-antibiotics.
The Data Warehouse is the advanced form of the database which is used for decision-making by the executives. There are several front-end tools for data warehouse available to support decision making. These tools come under the categories such as OLAP, Data Mining and Enterprise Information System etc. The common thing in using these tools is to have knowledge about the schema. The users of decision-making systems are top management or executives who are normally non-technical having less knowledge of the data warehouse schema and about writing database technical queries. Therefore, Natural Language (NL) interface can facilitate the executives in their decision-making process. The users prefer to have an easy querying tool that free them from technicalities of back-end processes and let them focus on desired results. This motivated us to develop a natural language retrieval system (Natural Language Interface to Data Warehouse) that supports users especially in the ad-hoc query development. Using this system, non-technical users can easily write any ad-hoc information need in their native language. Users without having the knowledge about back-end query processing and schema can retrieve any information they want that is available in Data Warehouse. As a result, the complexity and time is reduced as well as dependency is removed.
This study is related to a cross reading of the legislation governing the waste processing in the Democratic republic of the Congo (DRC), the Cameroon and in Congo-Brazza. It is important to note that one concise inventory of the legal texts reveal that there is an innovation in the taking into account of the question related to the non biodegradable packing in these countries. Thus, notwithstanding the relevant provisions relating to environmental protection envisaged in the legal and regulatory texts, the African cities in fact the megalopolis of Kinshasa in Congo and that of Yaound
In sub-Saharan Africa, the relationship between modes of weed management by chemical molecules and soil quality, resulting remains little known or poorly farmers. This study highlights the influence of mineral fertilizer and herbicide on increasing grain yield of common bean in Lubumbashi by the maintenance of the weed population to a tolerable level. The experiment was installed on a device in a ferralsol split splot with 3 repetitions. The main plots consisted of three types of fertilizer: NPK1 (10-20-10); NPK2 (17-17-17) and NPK3 (14-18-18) at the rate of 200kg / ha and secondary plots of 3 doses of the herbicide glyphosate D1 (1.5l / ha); D2 (3 l / ha) and D3 (4.5 l / ha). Observations were made on growth parameters, yield and weed infestation rate on the plots. The results obtained showed that the highest yield was observed on plots with an average of NPK1avec 2,1t / ha, no dose of herbicide has influenced performance. However, the herbicide was ineffective with weeds; high levels of infestation plots by weeds were observed in plots receiving NPK3 and NPK2. The combination of mineral fertilizer and herbicide was ineffective and would be a solution to weeding a ferralsol if we added organic matter and providing a second application based on a selective molecule to complement the action of first applied near weeds.
Voting is the main form of political participation in democratic societies and the study of voting behavior is a highly specialized sub-field in political and social science. The study was concerned with the reasons why people vote the way they do. The main objectives of the present study were to find out the factors which affect the voting behavior & to explore the factors that constitute political affiliation in District Layyah. A sample of 160 household respondents was selected systematically from District Layyah through multistage sampling technique. Specifically explored through this study the relationship of voting behavior with education, internal changes in the party, voter's satisfaction and barbarism are those factors that had strong effect on voting decisions. More than fifty percent (55%) of the respondents vote for the candidate not for the party and (53.1%) of the voters change their behavior due to the internal changes in the party. The value of Chi-Square and Gamma showed a significant and strong association between voter satisfaction with particular political party, favor of biradrism and internal change in the party are strongly associated with voter's behavior.
In this study, samples of shrimps were dried in a convective tunnel dryer at 60oC, 70oC and 80oC. Moisture kinetics was investigated and fitted into various models based on Fick's second law of diffusion. Logarithmic model had the best fit for the drying condition and effective moisture diffusivity increased as drying temperature increased. The activation energy was found to be 33.851kJ/mol.
One of the pillars of peace and prosperity for any society is a sound moral education which supposed to be inculcated in children early in life. However, the decadence of varying degree in the society raises a course for alarm to examine the issues of moral education. Children's sense of goodness, fairness, respect for others and the like is fostered through encouragement, motivation, examples and assistance offered by significant adults in their lives. One of such encouragement, motivation or assistance may come through folksongs which parents especially mothers could offer to children. Hence, this study therefore examined Yor
A multiple linear regression method and a neural network method are performed to retrieve the Precipitable Water Vapor, surface temperature and relative humidity using microwave (AMSU-A, MHS) and infrared (HIRS) ATOVS sounders. Each method is performed using microwave, infrared, and mixed data separately to assess the best. Near nadir ATOVS data of Dakar region (Senegal) at 12:00 AM and 12:00 PM are used for the whole year 2013. Learning data are from radiosonde and in situ measurements. By comparing them with retrieved data, ECMWF reanalysis data help to validate the different methods. The multiple linear regression method provides good results for microwave data with an RMS of 4.65 mm, 2.27
The main objective of this work was to catalogue and bring to the fore, the various driving forces or motives that push leaders of Telecom companies to enter into mergers and acquisitions. The aim was to do a comprehensive review of literature on motives for mergers and acquisitions in the Telecommunications industry, to help researchers in this particular area, and also managers of Telecommunications companies, to understand better the dynamics of mergers and acquisitions worldwide. The work was purely a review of literature on motives for mergers and acquisitions. After a comprehensive review, the motives which stood out were Synergy, Growth, Improving market standing, creating wealth for shareholders, and Empire building for managers, in that order.
Bhavani basin is the fourth largest Sub Basin in the Cauvery basin. The entire command area of all three major canals that takes off from the Bhavani river falls within the Erode District i.e. Lower Bhavani Project (LBP), Kodiveri and Kalingarayan canals. The LBP canal is a major source of irrigation in Erode District. Many of these canals are unlined and leakage takes place from them. Thus the seepage from the canal helps in recharging the wells in the area, enabling to get adequate water supply for the crops when water was not released from Bhavanisagar Dam. In this study, the Groundwater recharge is determined by groundwater flow modeling using Visual MODFLOW model. For this purpose, three major natural sources of groundwater recharge are taken into consideration such as rainfall infiltration, canal seepage and return flow of irrigation. The model was run and ZONEBUDGET gives an idea about the amount of recharge from lined/unlined canal to the field. Unlined canal helps to recharge the groundwater about 20% more than the lined canal. The analysis reveals that the annual rainfall also has rapidly changed in this region. In the LBP canal Head reach meets their requirement with available quantity of water from the canal system. Tail end reach does not receive the required quantity of water because of seepage loss and conveyance loss. Hence the lined canal can be provided for full length of the main canal. Branch canals and minor distributaries are suggested to maintain the canals with unlined canal system.
It is common today to hear parents, political leaders and even church leaders complaining that education and training in general are not facilitating the partakers to become reliable and dependable citizens. This is an evaluative statement on the sociological influences of the school curriculum. This paper is a report of a study that was carried out among Bachelor of Education (B.ED) students in a public university in Kenya. The objectives explored were to: Find out the perceptions of students on the sociological influences of the Kenya School curriculum; Find out the perceptions of the students on how the Kenya school curriculum prepared them to cope with emerging issues in the society; How the Kenya school curriculum has facilitated their understanding and appreciation of their culture; The ways through which religious organizations and families influence school curriculum in Kenya and their perceptions on how the Kenya school curriculum has facilitated their self-actualization. The study was driven by the Structural Functionalism theory and the Sociological foundations of curriculum. Stratified and simple random sampling methods were used in selecting the research sample. A total of 198 students participated in the study and out of these 100 were males and 98 females. The study adopted a descriptive survey design. Questionnaires were used in collection of data. Data was analysed through descriptive and inferential statistics. Among the major findings the study revealed that the Kenya school curriculum does not adequately facilitate learners to understand the cultures of other communities in Kenya, to appreciate other peoples' cultures, and to understand the challenges generally affecting the Kenya society. That the teaching methods adopted by teachers and the methods of evaluation used are inadequate in helping the learners to understand and appreciate their culture. This explains why Kenya is lagging behind in economic growth. Our school leavers are ill prepared to cope with the challenges affecting the society. Therefore, teachers should be provided with professional development opportunities on teaching methods that are learner centred especially those that facilitate problem solving, discovery learning and self-directed approaches.
Three experiments based on the text-change paradigm examined the effect of sentential load, semantic relatedness/unrelatedness, and sex on depth of lexical-semantic processing in L1 and L2 reading. Experiment 1 and 2 showed that there is no significant effect of sentential load on depth of lexical-semantic processing in L1 and L2 reading. On the other hand, they confirmed the existence of a significant effect of semantic relatedness/unrelatedness on depth of lexical-semantic processing in L1 and L2 reading. Experiment 3 consolidated the results obtained from experiment 1 and 2 and revealed that load is neither localized at the embedded verb nor at the adverb phrase positions. Finally, sex proved not to have an effect on depth of lexical-semantic processing in L1 and L2 reading. The present study showed that all embedded relative clauses and not just object-extracted relative clauses decrease deep processing.
Exposes the idea of a new universe based on the convertibility, one in another, a couple of fundamental concepts simultaneously, basic components of any function. Exposes a structure of thought unique and authentic made-to-measure of reality. Exposes an integral vision heuristics and dogmatic of the world. Through the theory of the function the reader will find the wealth of a thinkable construction that will allow you to deepen in the immense mystery of the universe seen from the perspective of their different realities, all of them made of the same essence, the same act. The mystery of the coexistence in addition to a couple of forms and as happens on the process of the convertibility of both, one in the other, to the interior of this function, is the core of this theory. By this theory we will try to find a construction is thinkable, unique and sustainable that try to describe and explain in a comprehensive manner the wonderful universe of which we are a part. I have tried to achieve through the intellectual effort, a thinkable solid construction and orderly sufficiently able to cope with in a consistent manner to the reality even to the point of view and confused also conform with the unreal. This theory is closely associated with the progress of human knowledge and seeks only consolidate a comprehensive view of the world in which we exist.
This present paper deals with the parameter determination of solar cell under different values of irradiance and temperature by using an artificial neural network. This latter is trained by an optimization algorithm based on gradient descent. In this work we used two distinguished algorithms from different order of gradient descent: Levenberg-Marquardt and conjugate gradient. The use of these two algorithms is to conduct a comparative study on their performances. The results revealed that the Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm presents the best potential in providing accurate electrical parameters values compared to conjugate gradient algorithm. Moreover, the trends of electrical parameters according to irradiance and temperature show the effect of each of these two meteorological factors on the values of the intrinsic parameters of solar cell.
One of the important applications of polyurethanes is polyurethane foam. Flexible type of polyurethane foam is divided into many types and one of them is visco-elastic foam. Visco-elastic foam is unique foam showing both viscous and elastic behavior at same time. Visco-elastic foam covers major applications of flexible polyurethane foam. Visco-elastic foam samples were synthesized on lab scale by cup foaming. All samples were characterized by finding density of each sample. Cream time, gel time and rise time were also estimated for each sample. The chemical compositions of all polyurethane foam samples were characterized by FTIR analysis.
In this article, we try to identify the link between the capital structure dynamics of banks and the European sovereign debt crisis, looking at the drivers of leverage and how their interactions with leverage changed between the periods before and during the crisis. We review the existing literature on the links between the sovereign debt crisis and banks, as well as literature discussing the changes in bank funding patterns with the view to understanding how leverage dynamics changed during the debt crisis period. We found out that although most of the variables of interest were relevant in explaining leverage over the period under study as a whole, the variables that captured macroeconomic interactions with leverage were more relevant to leverage during the crisis period than variables capturing bank specific information. Meanwhile this study showed a significant reduction of leverage during the crisis period in line with a risky environment and regulation pressures, with much of this reduction being explained by factors other than bank-specific determinants of leverage.
The current study was aimed to analyze the ill effects of chronic cigarette, marijuana and marijuana plus cigarette smoking on the reproductive health of addicted men. The study was carried out in district Dir, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (Pakistan). Four groups were made. These groups were control, cigarette smokers, marijuana smokers and marijuana plus cigarette smokers. Each group included 15 participants. Their age range was 30 to 40 years. A questionnaire was filled and blood samples were analyzed for serum total testosterone level by using Bio-check (USA) kit. A significantly reduced testosterone level was found in cigarette smokers (Mean
Bambara groundnut (Vigna subterranea l.), third food legume in Africa, is the largest in terms of production and consumption after the peanut (Arachis hypogeae) and Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata walp.). The valorisation of this culture is one of the best alternatives to ensure the food security of populations faced with the decline in the production of food crops such as millet, sorghum or wheat. To achieve this goal, a better knowledge of the genetic diversity of this culture is more than necessary. Therefore, followed by exploration of accessions collection was made across the country. All the areas visited were geo referenced and a map has been prepared. In total one hundred and fifteen (115) Bambara groundnut accessions were collected within six (6) regions of Niger with fifty (50) locations visited throughout the different growing areas. Fourteen morphotypes numbered Ne-01 to Ne-14 were identified after the collection. Following carried out discussions, the yellow color Ne-01 morphotype is the most appreciated both by producers and consumers. It is also clear that this culture of Bambara groundnut is practiced on small areas by both women and men. The choice of the seedling period is the same as well among women than among men. The production is destined for self-consumption or for sale depending on the quantity harvested. Chemicals, ash, salt, natron, cans are commonly used for the seeds conservation. Several types of dishes are made based of Bambara groundnut. In addition, Bambara groundnut has therapeutic values in some farmer's areas.
In different agro-climates the greenhouse horticulture are making use of various types of plastic cover where its influence on production in relation to crop, indoor climate and outside climate not considered in selection. In this study, major spectral properties of mainly used greenhouse cover for Ethiopian highland and their effect on yield were investigated. Cover spectral properties such as cover near-infrared (NIR) transmission, photosynthetic active radiation (PAR) transmission and cover longwave emission coefficient were major parameters that are considered in this study to determine their effect on dry matter harvest. To examine the influence of the cover parameters on biomass production, a generic tool or a model constructed in Matlab software was used. The model comprises energy balance equations, mass balance equations and growth model. The measured greenhouse indoor temperature data was considered for validation of the model. Simulations of indoor temperature, canopy temperature and vapor concentration were conducted for the existing greenhouse configuration. The result of the simulation showed that in Ethiopian greenhouse for highland, high and low temperature, night time high humidity and low CO2 during day time are major problems which inhibit the growth and on the other hand create favorable condition for well know disease in the region that is botrytis. According to sensitivity analysis output of the model, 1% increase in PAR transmission resulted 0.009% increase dry matter harvest, whereas a percent increase in cover NIR transmission has caused 0.259% reduction in yield. Moreover, increment of cover long wave emission coefficient by 1 percent positively influences (0.044%) the rose production. The resulted depicted that as compared to low temperature problem during rainy season (2-3 months), high temperature problem during summer season (9-10 months) would become a foremost problem in Ethiopian highland greenhouse horticulture. Thus, plastic cover with lower NIR transmission and higher PAR transmission and long-wave emission coefficient is desirable for Ethiopian highland greenhouses. However, the study revealed that night time low temperature particularly during rainy season should be studied to incorporate in respective growth model.
Phytoremediation study of Cu-contaminated soil using soybean (Glycine Max (L) Merril) with compost addition was conducted. This study was aimed to determine the Cu concentration in soil and soybean plant, to examine the feasibility of soybean plant (Glycine Max (L) Merril) as a hyperaccumulator plant for Cu metals with compost addition. Analysis methods used in this study included voltammetry, translocation factor, and enrichment factor. Study results indicated that Cu concentration in soil and plant was 87.363 mg/g and 68.509 mg/g, respectively. Soybean plant (Glycine Max (L) Merril) was classified as Cu hyperaccumulator with EF value > 1 and total accumulated Cu for control and compost treatment group was 80.444 mg/g and 63.234 mg/g, respectively. The addition of compost was capable of inhibiting the heavy metal Cu rate in the soil.
To contribute to the development of local medicinal plants for their therapeutic properties, we are interested in the study of Citrullus Colocynthis plant known in traditional medicine. The Citrullus Colocynthis is a desert plant encountered on sandy soils in the region of Ghardaia and also very well known for its medicinal virtues. In the present work we have characterized the seed oil of the plant with a yield of 17,854%, for the determination of different chemical indicators such as the acid value (AV), iodine (II), of saponification (IS), peroxide (IP) and physical indicia as the refractive index (RI) and the density. The result shows that this oil is rich in fatty acids such as palmitic acid (C16) and stearic (C18). The defatted seed contain a very large amount of proteins studied by three methods: Biuret, Lowry and Kjeldahl method.
Hospitals could be the cause of pollution that must be considered in an overall assessment of the health and environmental risk approach. This study is part of the characterization of hospital liquid discharges from a region in Morocco, whose objective is to evaluate their physicochemical quality, biological. The physico-chemical analyzes of 72 samples taken during one year showed a large fluctuation of certain parameters such as BOD5, COD, TSS, PH, temperature, and significant bacterial load: Total coliforms, E. coli, fecal streptococci, pathogens such as Salmonella, Staphylococcus, 10% multi-resistant, virulent germs character to emerge as: Pseudomonas aeruginosa, the end of this study, it turned out that the hospital effluents are loaded with pollutants. We hope in the light of the results from this study have led to a real awareness of the competent authorities on strengthening and improving hospital for the treatment of liquid waste as developed countries view the impact of these effluents on human and environmental health is harmful and can extend to the spread of emerging diseases.
This study has been carried out during 12 mounths, successively in three districts: Walungu, Kabare and Uvira in south Kivu Province. Its object was to know exactly which colour between Broun, Black, White and Purple attracts the most ticks. On 204 cows we have got 53.6% Purple, 18,1% Brown, 16.7% Black and 11.4 White. Our study has shown that cows colored Purple are the most vulnerable to ticks.
From March 2012 to March 2013 a study of infestation of natural grasslands by ticks was carried out in groups of Bugorhe and Irhambi-katana in the province of South Kivu, DRC. It identified eight families' plants including: Poaceae, Pteridaceae, Cyperaceae, Malvaceae, Ast
The mangrove forest of Dumai city house many mollusc species within its narrow habitat. This study focused on the bivalves and Gastropods (molluscs) inhabit the mangrove forest along the coastline. Fourteen species of molluscs were recorded in this survey, eleven of which were gastropoda and three species were bivalves. Species richness and abundance were surveyed at three sites and each site was sampled at ten spots made of 30 spots along the coast. Althogh low in number, Polymesoda expansa and Pharella acutidens were widely distributed across the surveyed sites, while Isognomon ephippium was rare. It was evident from this survey that conservation measures, such as collection quotas need to be established to protect the stocks of those, especially the edible molluscs species in this area. The study also identified two gastropods, Thais lacera and Telescopium telescopium that is known useful pollution bioindicators.
Performance of a given particular area of honeybees can be tested based on their temperament, hygienic, inclination to swarm, resource hording and absconding behavior. Local honeybee race Apis mellifera scutellata was evaluated for its performance in Anna Sorra District of Guji Zone using 28 colonies were evaluated for temperament, hygienic behavior, brood area, pollen and nectar stores, absconding and honey yield. The result indicated that these colonies were not generally aggressive and only 7.14 % of them tried to defend their nest at 0.29m away from the entrance while 92.86% were reacted after hitting the lid twice. They removed from 86
This paper deals with relative growth of long carapace width (LCW) and carapace length (CL) with reference to short carapace width (SCW) in two species of edible crabs, namely Portunus pelagicus and P. sanguinolentus. The relationship between SCW and CL was found negatively co-related in both the species. Size-weight relationship showed that males are heavier than similar sized females in both species. Meat yield was found higher in P. pelagicus than P. sanguinolentus. Male P. pelagicus had 40.1 to 51.3% (average 44.5%
If the reports of international private law between Muslim legal systems and the Occident system have revealed due to the underlying conflict of norms the limited reception of Muslim personal status in Occident. We are convinced that neither the adoption of the domicile factor of international Occident private law nor the adoption of the factor of nationality in Muslim international private law can mitigate the problems of international private law raised by the Muslim's immigration in Occident. In other words, the traditional bilateral conflict rule is not able to reconcile the objectives of international private law of internal tendency and those of international tendency. It has also failed to adopt a pluralistic and private vision well adapted to new paradigms that dominate the world in the 21st century (pluralism multiculturalism, globalism and the computer revolution). In another hand, the advantages of the recognition method has resulted not only from its adapting to these new paradigms, but also the analysis in our research indicate that the application of this method on Muslims personal status in the Occident responds to real needs, namely the continuity of treatment of legal situations without breaking the cohesion and coherence of the internal system. The reason why we promote the recognition method.